Bridgeport, Connecticut

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Bridgeport, Connecticut
City
City of Bridgeport
Clockwise from top: Downtown Bridgeport, the Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry, the United Congregational Church, St. Patrick's Church, and the P.T. Barnum Museum
Clockwise from top: Downtown Bridgeport, the Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry, the United Congregational Church, St. Patrick's Church, and the P.T. Barnum Museum
Flag of Bridgeport, Connecticut
Flag
Official seal of Bridgeport, Connecticut
Seal
Nickname(s): The Park City, The Port, B-Port, BPT, "Philly & Boston's Midpoint"
Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut
Coordinates: 41°11′11″N 73°11′44″W / 41.18639°N 73.19556°W / 41.18639; -73.19556Coordinates: 41°11′11″N 73°11′44″W / 41.18639°N 73.19556°W / 41.18639; -73.19556
Country United States
State Connecticut
County Fairfield
NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford
Region Greater Bridgeport
Incorporated (town) 1821
Incorporated (city) 1836
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Mayor Bill Finch
Area
 • City 19.4 sq mi (50.2 km2)
 • Land 16.0 sq mi (41.4 km2)
 • Water 3.4 sq mi (8.8 km2)
 • Urban 9,014.3 sq mi (3,843.8 km2)
Elevation 3 ft (1 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City 144,229
 • Estimate (2013)[2] 147,216
 • Rank US: 172nd
 • Density 8,720.9/sq mi (3,354/km2)
 • Urban 923,311 (US: 48th)
 • Metro 939,904 (US: 57th)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 06601, 06602, 06604, 06605, 06606, 06607, 06608, 06610, 06650, 06673, 06699[3]
Area code(s) 203/475
FIPS code 09-08000
GNIS feature ID 0205720
Website City of Bridgeport

Bridgeport is the most populous city in the state of Connecticut. Located in Fairfield County on the Pequonnock River and Long Island Sound, the city had a population of 144,229 in the 2010 United States Census[4] and is the core of the Greater Bridgeport area.

The city is part of the Greater New York City Combined Statistical Area. It is the fifth-largest city in New England (behind Boston, Worcester, Providence and Springfield). Bridgeport is the center of the 48th-largest urban area in the United States, just behind Hartford (47th). Much of Bridgeport was originally a part of the township of Stratford.

English colonists began settling the city in the 1640s, obtaining land from the Paugussett Indian tribe. The settlement became a center of trade, shipbuilding, and whaling. In the 19th century, the city rapidly industrialized, attracting immigrants to the growing number of factory jobs. Manufacturing was the mainstay of the local economy until the 1970s. Industrial restructuring and suburbanization caused the loss of many jobs and affluent residents, leaving Bridgeport struggling with problems of poverty. In the 21st century, conversion of office and factory buildings to residential use and other redevelopment is attracting new residents.

The circus-promoter and former mayor, P.T. Barnum, was a famous resident of the city. Barnum built three houses there, and housed his circus in town during winters. The first Subway restaurant opened in the North End section of the city in 1965.[5] The Frisbie Pie Company was located here, and Bridgeport is credited as the birthplace of the Frisbee.[6]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The first documented English settlement within the city limits took place in 1644, centered at Black Rock Harbor and along North Avenue between Park and Briarwood Avenues. The place was called Pequonnock ('Cleared Land' in the Quripi language), after the name of the Native American people, a band of the Paugussett, who had historically occupied this area. One of their sacred sites was Golden Hill, site of powerful springs and planting fields, now blasted through for an expressway.[7][8] The Golden Hill Indians were granted a reservation here by the Colony of Connecticut in 1639 that survived until 1802 (it exists today in adjoining Trumbull). A village called Newfield began to coalesce around the corner of State and Water Streets in the 1760s.[9]

Iranistan, the residence of P.T. Barnum, in 1848

The area officially became known as Stratfield in 1701 due to its location between the already existing towns of Stratford and Fairfield.[10] During the American Revolution, Bridgeport and its harbor were a center of privateering.[8] In 1800, Newfield village was incorporated as the Borough of Bridgeport (the first such incorporation in the state), and in 1821 the township of Bridgeport became independent of Stratford. Bridgeport was chartered as Connecticut's fifth city in 1836.[11]

Sterling Block-Bishop Arcade, a Victorian-era shopping arcade

Bridgeport's early years were marked by residents' reliance on fishing and farming, not altogether different from the economy of the Native American Paugussett. They had cultivated corn, beans and squash, and fished and gathered shellfish from both the river and sound. The city's location on the sheltered Newfield Harbor fostered a boom in shipbuilding and whaling in the early-19th century, especially prior to the opening of a railroad from the city up the Housatonic Valley in 1840.[12][13] A railroad connection to New York City and New Haven was added in 1848. The city rapidly industrialized in the mid-19th century, when it became a major center. It produced such goods as the famous Bridgeport milling machine, brass fittings, carriages, sewing machines, brassieres, saddles, and ammunition.[14] Bridgeport annexed the West End and the village of Black Rock and its busy harbor in 1870.[15]

1912 postcard showing Main Street in Bridgeport

Industrialization was underway by the mid-19th century. Famous factories included Wheeler & Wilson, which produced sewing machines and exported them throughout the world, and the Locomobile Company of America, builder of one of the premier automobiles in the early years of the century.[16] In the summer of 1915, amid increased labor demand as men were drafted for World War I, workers in Bridgeport called a series of strikes demanding the eight-hour day. They were so successful that the strikes and the eight-hour day spread throughout the Northeast.[17] By 1930, Bridgeport was a thriving industrial center with more than 500 factories. Since the late 19th century, its industrial jobs had attracted the most recent immigrants: Irish, Italians and Eastern Europeans. The build-up to World War II further helped its industries.[18] Additionally, Columbia Records' primary pressing plant was located in Bridgeport. It manufactured the Columbia OKeh (after 1926), as well as their dime-store labels (Harmony, Velvet Tone, Diva and Clarion).

Modern history[edit]

Restructuring of heavy industry starting after the mid-20th century caused the loss of thousands of jobs and residents. Like other urban centers in Connecticut, Bridgeport suffered during the deindustrialization of the United States in the 1970s and 1980s.[19] Continued development of new suburban housing attracted middle and upper-class residents, leaving the city with a higher proportion of poor. The city suffered from overall mismanagement, for which several city officials were convicted, contributing to the economic and social decline.[20]

Modern office buildings in downtown Bridgeport

In September 1978, Bridgeport teachers went on a 19-day strike due to deadlocked contract negotiations. A court order, as well as a state law that made strikes by public workers illegal in Connecticut, resulted in 274 teachers being arrested and jailed.[21]

A street scene in Bridgeport

Like other northeastern cities suffering from the effects of post-World War II industrial decline, Bridgeport made numerous efforts at revitalization. In one proposal Las Vegas developer Steve Wynn was to build a large casino, but that project failed to be implemented. In 1991, the city filed for bankruptcy protection but was declared solvent by a federal court.[22] However, in the early 21st century, Bridgeport has taken steps toward redevelopment of its downtown and other neighborhoods. In 2004, artists' lofts were developed in the former Read's Department Store on Broad Street. Several other rental conversions have been completed, including the 117-unit Citytrust bank building on Main Street. The recession has halted, at least temporarily, two major mixed-use projects including a $1 billion waterfront development at Steel Point, but other redevelopment projects have proceeded, such as the condominium conversion project in Bijou Square.[23] In 2009, the City Council approved a new master plan for development, designed both to promote redevelopment in selected areas and to protect existing residential neighborhoods.[24] In 2010, the Bridgeport Housing Authority and a local health center announced plans to build a $20 million medical and housing complex at Albion Street, making use of federal stimulus funds and designed to replace some of the housing lost with the demolition of Father Panik Village.[25]

Notable speeches[edit]

On March 10, 1860, Abraham Lincoln spoke in the city's Washington Hall, an auditorium at the old Bridgeport City Hall (now McLevy Hall), at the corner of State and Broad streets. The largest room in the city was packed, and a crowd formed outside as well. Lincoln received a standing ovation before taking the 9:07 p.m. train that night back to Manhattan.[26][27] A plaque marks the site where Lincoln spoke; later that year, he was elected president.

The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke three times at the Klein Auditorium during the 1960s. Additionally, President George W. Bush spoke before a small group of Connecticut business people and officials at the Playhouse on the Green in 2006.[28] President Barack Obama also spoke at the Harbor Yard arena in 2010 to gain support for the campaign of Democratic Governor Dan Malloy.[29]

Geography[edit]

Bridgeport is located along Long Island Sound at the mouth of the Pequonnock River, named for the Native American tribe who historically lived along it.

Parks[edit]

Bridgeport is renowned for its public park system, which has led its official nickname as "The Park City". The city's first public park was the westerly portion of McLevy Green, first set aside as a public square 1806,[30] although the Clinton Park Militia Grounds (1666) and Old Mill Green (1717) were set aside earlier as public commons by the towns of Fairfield and Stratford, respectively. As the city rapidly grew in population, residents recognized the need for more public parks and by 1864, Barnum and other residents had donated approximately 44 acres (180,000 m2) to create Seaside Park, now increased by acquisition and landfill to 375 acres (1.52 km2).[31] In 1878, over 100 acres (400,000 m2) of land bordering the Pequonnock River was added as Beardsley Park.[32] Frederick Law Olmsted, famous for creating New York City's Central Park, designed both Seaside and Beardsley Parks.[33] Over time, more parks were added including 35-acre (140,000 m2) Beechwood Park and Pleasure Beach, home to a popular amusement park for many years.

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Bridgeport straddles between a humid subtropical (Cfa) and a humid continental (Dfa) climate, with some maritime influence; it is part of USDA hardiness zone 7a.[34] The normal average monthly temperature ranges from 30.1 °F (−1.1 °C) in January to 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) in July; on average, there are 20 days where the temperature remains at or below freezing and 7.6 days with a high at or above 90 °F (32 °C) annually; the last year to not reach the latter mark was 2004.[35] Temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are rare, and were last seen respectively on February 24, 2015 and July 22, 2011.[35] The record low is −7 °F (−22 °C), set on January 22, 1984, while the record high is 103 °F (39 °C), set on July 22 in 1957 and 2011.[35]

Precipitation averages 42.7 inches (1,080 mm) annually, and is somewhat evenly distributed throughout the year, though March and April are the wettest months in terms of total precipitation. Snowfall averages 27.6 inches (70 cm) per winter, falling almost entirely from December to March. As is typical of coastal Connecticut, snow cover does not usually remain for long, with an average of 29 days per winter with snow cover of at least 1 inch (2.5 cm).

Climate data for Bridgeport, Connecticut (Sikorsky Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1948–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
67
(19)
84
(29)
91
(33)
97
(36)
97
(36)
103
(39)
100
(38)
99
(37)
89
(32)
78
(26)
76
(24)
103
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 37.1
(2.8)
39.7
(4.3)
47.2
(8.4)
57.7
(14.3)
67.6
(19.8)
77.0
(25)
82.2
(27.9)
80.9
(27.2)
74.0
(23.3)
63.3
(17.4)
53.1
(11.7)
42.3
(5.7)
60.2
(15.7)
Average low °F (°C) 23.0
(−5)
25.2
(−3.8)
31.4
(−0.3)
41.0
(5)
50.6
(10.3)
60.4
(15.8)
66.4
(19.1)
65.8
(18.8)
58.3
(14.6)
46.5
(8.1)
38.0
(3.3)
28.4
(−2)
44.6
(7)
Record low °F (°C) −7
(−22)
−5
(−21)
4
(−16)
18
(−8)
31
(−1)
41
(5)
49
(9)
44
(7)
36
(2)
26
(−3)
16
(−9)
−4
(−20)
−7
(−22)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.10
(78.7)
2.79
(70.9)
4.05
(102.9)
4.13
(104.9)
3.80
(96.5)
3.61
(91.7)
3.46
(87.9)
3.96
(100.6)
3.48
(88.4)
3.64
(92.5)
3.39
(86.1)
3.33
(84.6)
42.74
(1,085.7)
Snowfall inches (cm) 7.7
(19.6)
8.1
(20.6)
5.1
(13)
0.9
(2.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.7
(1.8)
5.1
(13)
27.6
(70.3)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 10.9 9.7 11.3 11.0 11.8 11.1 8.9 8.9 8.2 8.8 10.0 11.1 121.7
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 inch) 4.8 3.5 2.4 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 3.1 14.6
Source: NOAA[35][36]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1810 1,089
1820 1,500 37.7%
1830 2,800 86.7%
1840 3,294 17.6%
1850 6,080 84.6%
1860 12,106 99.1%
1870 18,969 56.7%
1880 27,643 45.7%
1890 48,866 76.8%
1900 70,996 45.3%
1910 102,054 43.7%
1920 143,555 40.7%
1930 146,716 2.2%
1940 147,121 0.3%
1950 158,709 7.9%
1960 156,748 −1.2%
1970 156,542 −0.1%
1980 142,546 −8.9%
1990 141,686 −0.6%
2000 139,529 −1.5%
2010 144,229 3.4%
Est. 2013 147,216 2.1%
Population 1840–1970[37]
U.S. Decennial Census[38]
2013 Estimate[2]

As of the census of 2000, there were 139,529 people, 50,307 households, and 32,749 families residing in the city. The population density was 8,720.9 people per square mile (3,367.0/km²). There were 54,367 housing units at an average density of 3,398.1 per square mile (1,312.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 45.0% White, 30.8% African American, 0.5% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 14.8% from other races, and 5.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.8% of the population. Other ancestry groups include: Italian (8.6%), Irish (5.1%), Portuguese (2.9%), Polish (2.8%), and German (2.4%).[39]

As of the 2010 census, there were 144,229 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city residents was 39.6% White; 34.6% Black or African American; 3.4% Asian; and 4.3% from two or more races. A total of 38.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[40] Non-Hispanic Whites were 22.7% of the population in 2010,[40] compared to 74.6% in 1970.[41]

There were 50,307 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.0% were married couples living together, 24.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.9% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.34.

In the city the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,658, and the median income for a family was $39,571. Males had a median income of $32,430 versus $26,966 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,306. About 16.2% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. Since 1849, FSWINC, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization has provided care for individuals living in difficult socioeconomic situations in both Bridgeport and Fairfield.[42][43]

According to 2010 census data, the Bridgeport MSA, containing all of Fairfield County, is the most unequal region in America.[44][45]

Economy[edit]

Since the decline of Bridgeport's industrial sector beginning in the middle of the 20th century, Bridgeport has gradually adjusted to a service-based economy. Though a level of industrial activity continues, healthcare, finance and education have evolved into the centerpieces of Bridgeport's economy.

The two largest employers within the city are Bridgeport's primary hospitals, Bridgeport Hospital and St. Vincent's Medical Center. The former Park City Hospital closed in 1993 and was reopened in 2010 as elderly and homeless housing units.[46] Emergency medical services are provided by American Medical Response at the paramedic level.

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[47] the top employers in the city are:

A portion of the harbor in Bridgeport. Facilities shown are part of the United Illuminating coal-fired power plant
Employer # of Employees
St. Vincent's Medical Center 3,000
Bridgeport Hospital 2,622
People's United Bank 1,179
University of Bridgeport 875
Bridgeport Health Care Center 500
Housatonic Community College 482
Prime Line 310
Derecktor Shipyards 300
Lacey Manufacturing 275
Watermark Retirement Communities 165

Education[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Bridgeport is home to Housatonic Community College, St. Vincent's College, University of Bridgeport and the Yeshiva Gedola of Bridgeport. The Yeshiva Gedola is currently the home of the Bridgeport Community Kollel, a rabbinic fellowship program.[48]

Public education[edit]

The city's public school system has 30 elementary schools, three comprehensive high schools, two alternative programs and an interdistrict vocational aquaculture school. The system has about 20,800 students, making the Bridgeport Public Schools the second largest school system in Connecticut after Hartford. It is ranked #158 out of the 164 Connecticut school districts.[49] The school system employs a professional staff of more than 1,700.

The city has started a large school renovation and construction program, with plans for new schools and modernization of existing buildings.

Public high schools

Public magnet schools

  • Fairchild Wheeler Interdistrict Multi-Magnet High School

Private education[edit]

Bridgeport is also home to private schools, including Bridgeport Hope School (K-8), Bridgeport International Academy (grades 9-12), Catholic Academies of Bridgeport (St. Augustine School (PK-8) and St. Raphael School (PK-8)), Kolbe Cathedral High School (9-12), St. Andrew School (PK-8), St. Ann Academy (PK-8), and Zion Lutheran School (PK-8).

Government and politics[edit]

Bridgeport City Hall

The city is governed by the mayor council system. There are twenty members of the city council elected from districts. Each district elects two members. The mayor is elected by the entire city.

Bridgeport is notable for having had a Socialist mayor for 24 years; Jasper McLevy served as mayor from 1933 to 1957. A more recent mayor, Joseph Ganim, was involved in a corruption scandal, as has been the case with some other mayors in Connecticut.[50] In June 2006, Mayor John M. Fabrizi admitted that he had used cocaine while in office.[51]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 25, 2005[52]
Party Active voters Inactive voters Total voters Percentage
  Republican 5,069 468 5,537
  Democratic 33,374 2,855 36,229
  Unaffiliated 18,538 1,887 20,425
  Minor parties 27 3 30
Total 57,008 5,213 62,221 100%

Taxes[edit]

In 2005, the mill rate for Bridgeport was 42.28[53] and is reportedly 41.855 for fiscal year 2013-2014.[54]

Culture[edit]

Performing art[edit]

Theater and music[edit]

Bridgeport has a number of venues for live theater and music events, ranging from intimate performing spaces to a stadium hosting rock concerts.[55]

Music festivals and concert series[edit]

Bridgeport has been the annual home to Gathering of the Vibes, a weekend long arts, music and camping festival featuring some of the best names in festival talent. In 1999, 2000, and 2007 through 2010, thousands of people have come from all over the world to camp in Seaside Park and enjoy such talent as Buddy Guy, Bob Weir and Ratdog, Deep Banana Blackout, Les Claypool, Assembly of Dust, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Los Lobos and Bridgeport's own The Alternate Routes.

Since 1945, the Greater Bridgeport Symphony has been a cultural and musical gem for the City of Bridgeport and its surrounding towns, performing at the 1,400 seat Klein Memorial Auditorium. The orchestra has a rich and vibrant history. Under the direction of Gustav Meier for the past 41 years, the prestigious orchestra has welcomed international soloists Beverly Sills, Midori, Benny Goodman, Itzhak Perlman with other links to legends like Leonard Bernstein, Jose Iturbi. Through its annual Carlson-Horn Competition for Young Instrumentalist created many new bright professional soloists including Andrew Armstrong, Alexander Markov, Anita Chen, to name just a few.

Bridgeport is also the home of the Black Rock Art Center, a multi-cultural center that presents performing artists from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the Americas both at the Art Center and also in a Summer Sounds of the World concert series. The series has featured such artists as blues musician James Cotton, Grammy-award winner Eddie Palmieri, the Cambodian Angkor Dance Company, salsa master Larry Harlow, and folk artists Richie Havens and Odetta. The Art Center features a world music series, a cabaret series, the Black Rock Blues Festival, in addition to cinema, gallery, and educational programs.

Museums, zoos and parks[edit]

Theater and music[edit]

Bridgeport has a number of museums, ranging from the science-oriented to fine arts and historical, as well as the state's largest zoo.[55]

In popular culture[edit]

Movies[edit]

A list of films shot or partially filmed in the city:[56]

Television[edit]

  • Kitchen Nightmares (Season 4, Episode 7, "Tavolini Restaurant", 2011)
  • Family Guy: Road to the North Pole (2010). After mistaking a tall gloomy factory for Santa's workshop, Stewie said, "This can't be it... This can't be Santa's workshop, This looks like Bridgeport, Connecticut!" To which Brian replied, "Oh boy, here come the letters." The screen then portrays an enraged fan from the city with a thick New England Accent, writing a hate letter out loud as follows. "Dear 'Family Guy' Bastards, Who the hell do you think you are? I'll have you know that Bridgeport is among the world leaders in abandoned buildings, shattered glass, boarded up windows, wild dogs and gas stations without pumps..."[57][58] The series' creator Seth MacFarlane is a Connecticut native from Kent.
  • Brian Boitano Skating Spectacular (2010) (TV)
  • Ghost Adventures:"Remington Arms Factory" (Episode 21, November 2009)
  • WWE Raw (Nov. 18, 2002; Mar. 8, 2004; Dec. 26, 2005; August 21, 2006; April 9, 2007; April 27, 2009; June 21, 2010, April 11, 2011 and Sep 17, 2012)
  • WWE Smackdown, ECW, and WWE NXT (May 7, 2002; March 4, 2003; August 2, 2005; Dec. 9, 2008; Nov. 24, 2009; Nov. 2, 2010; and Nov. 15, 2011)
  • Oprah Winfrey Presents: Mitch Albom's For One More Day (2007)
  • WWE Raw's 15th Anniversary Special (2007)
  • Flip This House: "Burning Down the House" (2005)
  • Extreme Makeover: Home Edition (2003 & 2007)
  • Made in America (2003)
  • U.S. Bounty Hunter (2003)
  • Muggsy (1976)
  • The character Robert E. Hogan in Bernard Fein's television show Hogan's Heroes (1965–71) was from Bridgeport.
  • The Twentieth Century (1957, The Class of '58 episode)
  • Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye (TV Movie, 1977), bar scene of JFK campaigning with local workers filmed in the Ideal Bar on Barnum Avenue across from the former Singer Building
  • Bringing Up Baby (1938), alluded to.

Others[edit]

Novels

Plays

Songs

Other allusions

  • The city and P.T. Barnum formed the portmanteau name of the ursine character, P.T. Bridgeport, from Walt Kelly's comic strip Pogo.
  • Comedian Fred Allen once said, "Everywhere outside New York City is Bridgeport, Connecticut."[63]
  • Bridgeport is an address listed on a piece of evidence in the 2011 detective video game L.A. Noire.
  • Bridgeport is a city in the Sims 3 Late Night expansion pack.

Sports[edit]

Club League Venue Established Championships
Bridgeport Bluefish ALPB, Baseball The Ballpark at Harbor Yard 1998 1
Bridgeport Sound Tigers AHL, Ice hockey Arena at Harbor Yard 2001 0

The recently built Arena at Harbor Yard serves as the city's sports and hospitality center. Seating 10,000, the Arena serves as the home rink of the Bridgeport Sound Tigers AHL hockey team, as well as the home court of the Fairfield University's basketball team.

The Ballpark at Harbor Yard serves as a minor-league baseball stadium, and was built in 1998 to serve as the homefield of the Bridgeport Bluefish. It is located downtown on a former brownfield site. It is visually prominent to commuters on I-95 or on passing trains.

Kennedy Stadium serves as a community sports facility. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, it was the home of an Atlantic Coast Football League minor league football team, the Bridgeport Jets, a New York Jets farm team also known locally as the Hi-Ho Jets due to their sponsorship by the (Hi-Ho) D'Addario construction company.

Fairfield University is located in the neighboring town of Fairfield, and many of the athletic teams play on campus. Only the men's and women's basketball teams play in Bridgeport.

Nutmeg Curling Club, one of two curling clubs in Connecticut, is located in Bridgeport. It is the home club of the 2013 USA Mixed National Champions,[64] led by club members Derek Surka and Charissa Lin. The club is a member of the Grand National Curling Club Region.

Media[edit]

Radio[edit]

  • WCUM AM 1450; 1,000 watts (formerly WJBX-AM, and before that, WNAB-AM) Spanish Format station better known as Radio Cumbre.
  • WDJZ AM 1530; 5,000 watts (daytime only) Gospel Radio that serves the African American and Caribbean communities in the Bridgeport Metro area.
  • WICC-AM 600; 1,000 watts (daytime), 500 watts (nighttime) – WICC began broadcasting on November 21, 1926, when a previous radio station, WCWS, was given a new name, WICC. The last three letters standing for Industrial Capitol of Connecticut. The Bridgeport Broadcasting Company Inc. was the new station's owner. Back then, the station was powered at 500 watts. From 1951 to 1956 one of the station's radio hosts was Bob Crane, who later went on to play Col. Robert Hogan on the Hogan's Heroes television comedy series.[65] WICC's transmitter is located on Pleasure Beach, an island located between downtown Bridgeport and Long Island Sound.
  • WEBE-FM 107.9; 50,000 watts. WEBE108 is "Connecticut's Best Music Variety!" owned and operated by Cumulus Media. Licensed to Westport, CT, with studios and transmitter in Bridgeport.
  • WEZN-FM 99.9; 27,500 watts (formerly WJZZ-FM). Star 99.9 is "Today's Best Mix!" The station owned by Connoisseur Media. Lincensed to Bridgeport, CT, with studios in Milford and transmitter in Trumbull.
  • WPKN-FM 89.5; 10,000 watts; From the station's website: 89.5 FM WPKN is somewhat inscrutable. We break all of the rules, and we observe few, if any, of the conventions. We have no format whatsoever, we permit our programmers to do whatever they will, and we don't accept funding from the sources which might restrict our freedoms. We are totally accountable to our listeners in that we publish our budget to everyone on our mailing list, and we also invite you to our monthly staff meetings and, in particular, the June meeting at which we discuss the budget. (...) WPKN's programming can be heard on two frequencies: 89.5 FM from our transmitter at Trumbull, CT and 88.7 FM (formally known as WPKM) at Montauk on Long Island. If you're driving eastward and you start to lose the 89.5 signal, you can tune over to 88.7 and continue to hear us until about Exit 6 on I-95 in Rhode Island."[66]

Due to Bridgeport's close proximity to Long Island Sound, many radio stations from New York are received clearly day and night in the market. These include WMCA, WFAN, WOR, WABC, WNYC, WCBS, WEPN, and WQEW.[67]

Newspapers[edit]

  • Elsolnews.com, a community Spanish Language Weekly Newspaper covering news and events.
  • Connecticut Post - Formerly the Bridgeport Post and Bridgeport Telegram. The areas main newspaper covering Bridgeport and the surrounding area. <http://www.ctpost.com>The newspaper is printed daily by The Post Publishing Company 2 blocks west of the Main Office at 410 State Street Bridgeport.

Television[edit]

Bridgeport was NBC's pioneer UHF TV test site from December 29, 1949 to August 23, 1952;[68] the equipment from the "Operation Bridgeport" tests was later deployed commercially at KPTV in Portland, Oregon (1952-1957). While Bridgeport is primarily served by New York City stations, some local UHF broadcasters operate today:

  • WEDW channel 49; one of the Connecticut Public Television stations, broadcasts from Bridgeport and can be seen in Hartford.
  • In 2011, WTNH-TV opened a satellite studio in the offices of the Connecticut Post downtown on State Street.
  • WZME channel 43 now mostly broadcasts older classic TV shows. Licensed to Bridgeport with transmitter in Trumbull.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Nearby Sikorsky Memorial Airport once provided regional flights to major hub cities such as Logan International Airport in Boston and Baltimore-Washington International Airport; however, service to the airport declined in the 1990s, and US Airways Express became the last airline to suspend operations at the airport in November 1999. Tweed New Haven Regional Airport is another nearby facility that provides scheduled air service. The closest international airports are Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, LaGuardia and John F. Kennedy in New York City and Newark in Newark, New Jersey.

The four International Airports mentioned above (Kennedy, LaGuardia, Bradley and Newark) are within a 60-70 minute drive from Downtown Bridgeport. These international air connections are enhanced by Amtrak and Metro-North rail travel and Interstate Bus travel to NYC, Boston and Providence that make Bridgeport conveniently and quickly accessible to New York City, Hartford, CT, Stamford, CT, New Haven, CT, Providence R.I. and some of the wealthiest communities in the United States. Bridgeport is a merely a 5 1/2 hour drive to Washington D.C (to the South) and Montreal Canada (to the North) through some of the most scenic country side in the world.

Roads[edit]

Surface thoroughfares[edit]

The main portion of the city is divided by major north/south roads that approximately parallel each other:

  • Main Street, the city's principal artery, extending from the Trumbull town line down through the North End, under Routes 8/25, and into downtown, with its southern terminus at Seaside Park. The portion North of State Street was laid out as the "Newtown Turnpike" in 1795. Porter Street, Beechmont Avenue, and Kaechele Place are former curves in this highway that were lopped of as the road was straightened in the 19th century.
  • Park Avenue is a main highway that is on the borderline with the town of Fairfield (North of its intersection with Brooklawn Avenue) and extends from the Trumbull, Connecticut border in the North End to the South End at Seaside Park. It was known as "Division Street" until 1867. It is the easternmost of the "11 o'clock" roadways laid out in 17th-century Fairfield (their north-northwesterly direction points them like a clock's hands at that hour, exactly perpendicular to the shoreline of Long Island Sound, that facilitated land distribution).
  • Clinton/Brooklawn Avenues are a central artery through the West End, extending North from Railroad Avenue to the Fairfield line at the Rooster River. The portion to the North of Fairfield Avenue was laid out in the 17th century at the center of the agricultural village of Stratfield. It was known as "Stratfield Road" prior to 1870.
  • Brewster Street extends from Black Rock Harbor North to the Fairfield line at Ash Creek, and is the major north-south artery through the Black Rock neighborhood. This was the southernmost portion of the "Black Rock Turnpike," a toll road of the late-18th century that extended North as far as Danbury.
  • Madison Avenue is situated between Main Street and Park Avenue, that extends from the Trumbull town line in the North End and continues through the West Side. It was formerly known as "Chestnut Hill Road," and follows the route of an Indian path.
  • Reservoir Avenue was part of a turnpike that was laid out in 1817 in an almost arrow-straight line from Bridgeport north to the Monroe Green (it followed Daniels Farm Road in Trumbull and Moose Hill Road in Monroe). The "Reservoir" was a stone structure at the intersection of Sylvan Avenue, to which water was pumped from nearby Bunnell's Pond, and from which water was supplied to the entire city by gravity. Prior to construction of the Route 25-8 Expressway, this street extended South to North Avenue.
  • Noble Avenue extends from the corner of Congress Street just South of Washington Park to the intersection of East Main Street and Huntington Turnpike. The portion below Boston Avenue was laid out in 1850 as "Noble Street;" the part to the north was added to connect with the entrance to the new Beardsley Park in 1878.
  • East Main Street is the major North/South road through East Bridgeport, extending from the Trumbull/Stratford line though the East Side, ending at Bridgeport Harbor. The portion South of Boston Avenue/Old Mill Green was laid out in 1800.
  • Huntington Road/Huntington Turnpike is the major roadway through the Upper East Side, extending Northeasterly from the Berkshire Bridge to the Trumbull town line (a small portion today becomes part of East Main Street). It was one of a number of turnpikes laid out in the immediate post-Revolutionary period to funnel rural commerce to the fledgling city's seaport, and formerly extended to the city center by way of North Washington Avenue.
  • Seaview Avenue runs the length of the East End neighborhood on the East shore of Pembroke Lake, Yellow Mill Pond, and Bridgeport Harbor. It extends Northwesterly from Central to Stratford Avenues, then due North from Stratford to Boston Avenues. It was laid out at the time of the Civil War in three sections that were later connected: "Sea View Avenue" South of Stratford Avenue: "West Avenue" at Deacon's Point, from Sixth Street North to the railroad tracks; and "Lake Avenue," from Barnum Avenue North to Boston Avenue.
  • Central/Palisade Avenues were laid out as farm highways through the westerly portions of what was the town of Stratford in the early 19th century. They form a North-South axis through the center of today's East End. The portion of Central Avenue to the north of Barnum Avenue was known as "Prospect Street" from the 1860s through 1889 due to the vistas from its hillside location.

The major East/West roads in the city include Barnum Avenue, Boston Avenue, Fairfield Avenue/Stratford Avenue, North Avenue, Capitol Avenue, State Street, and Railroad Avenue:

  • Barnum Avenue extends from the Stratford line, below Old Mill Hill, and ends at the Pequonnock River. The portion through the East Side was laid out as "Barnum Street" in 1850. From Pembroke Lake to Mill Hill Avenue was added in 1863. The road from Mill Hill Avenue to the Washington Bridge between Stratford and Milford was laid out as the "Air Line Highway" in 1870.
  • Boston Avenue breaks off from Barnum Avenue near the Bridgeport line in Stratford and travels east-west over Old Mill Hill to the Upper East Side toward the North End. It follows the route of an Indian path, crossing Old Mill Brook and the Pequonnock River and the southernmost points where they were fordable, that became the Post Road in the 1670s.
  • Stratford Avenue starts in the South End of the town of Stratford and travels Southwest through the East End. It then travels East through East Bridgeport directly into the center of Downtown Bridgeport, where it turns into Fairfield Avenue at Water Street. It was laid out in 1795 as a more direct route for the "Post Road," and the bridge built that year over the Pequonnock was the origin of the name "Bridgeport." Connecticut Avenue, which parallels it one block to the North through the East End, is a one-way street heading West, while Stratford Avenue is one-way heading East.
  • Fairfield Avenue extends West and then Southwest through the West End and into Black Rock, where it turns into the Boston Post Road, or simply, the Post Road, at the Fairfield, Connecticut line. Its route through the West End parallels what had been the northerly edge of an extensive salt marsh, and had been in existence in the 18th century. The portion through Black Rock was added in the 1870s.
  • North Avenue begins at Boston Avenue where the East Side abuts the Island Brook neighborhood at the Pequonnock River and extends Southwest diagonally through the city as US 1. It then turns into Kings Highway in Fairfield. As with Boston Avenue, it was follows an Indian trail, and was formalized as a part of the New York-to-Boston Post Road in the 1670s.
  • Capitol Avenue begins by breaking off from North Avenue at Island Brook Avenue Extension. It travels West across the Old North End and Brooklawn neighborhoods and ends at the Fairfield line.
  • State Street begins in Downtown and cuts across the West End, where it terminates (as 'State Street Extension') at the Fairfield line. The portion from Park Avenue to Bridgeport Harbor was in existence by the 1760s; the part to the West of Park Avenue was extended across what was then marshy terrain in 1867.
  • Atlantic Street bisects the South End neighborhood, historically separating the well-to-do residential district that adjoined the old portion of Seaside Park from the working-class blocks to the north. Today it forms the north border of the University of Bridgeport campus.
  • Railroad Avenue extends from Broad Street just below Downtown Bridgeport and runs parallel with the Metro North/New Haven Railroad lines. The Westbound side is to the north of the tracks, and the Eastbound side to the south of them. It terminates at Fairfield Avenue in the West End.

Highways[edit]

Bridgeport has several major roadways. Interstate 95 and the Route 8/Route 25 Connector meet in downtown Bridgeport. I-95 runs east-west near the coast heading towards New York City to the southwest and Providence to the northeast. Routes 8 and 25 run north-south across the city, with the two routes splitting just north of the city. Route 8 continues towards Waterbury and Torrington and Route 25 continues towards the Danbury area. Both Routes 8 and 25 connect to the Merritt Parkway in the adjacent town of Trumbull.

Other major surface arteries are U.S. 1 (the Boston Post Road), which runs east-west north of downtown, and Main Street, which runs north-south towards Trumbull center. The city also has several secondary state highways, namely, Route 127 (East Main Street), Route 130 (Connecticut Ave, Stratford Ave, Fairfield Ave and Water Street), and the Huntington Turnpike.

Railroad and ferries[edit]

A New Haven Line train approaches Bridgeport Station, part of an intermodal transit hub

The Bridgeport Traction Company provided streetcar service in the region until 1937. The Housatonic Railroad carried passengers North through the Pequonnock and Housatonic Valleys prior to 1933.

The city is connected to nearby New York City by both Amtrak and Metro-North commuter trains, which serve Bridgeport's Metro-North station. Many residents commute to New York jobs on these trains, and the city to some extent is developing as an outpost of New York–based workers seeking cheaper rents and larger living spaces. Connecting service is also available to Waterbury via Metro-North, and New Haven via Amtrak and Metro-North. Shoreline East service links Old Saybrook and New London with New Haven, which extends to Bridgeport and Stamford during weekday rush hours only.

The Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry service runs from Bridgeport across Long Island Sound to Port Jefferson, New York; the three vessels "Grand Republic", "P.T. Barnum" and "Park City" transport both automobiles and passengers.

Buses[edit]

The Greater Bridgeport Transit Authority (GBTA) provides bus service to Bridgeport and its immediate suburbs. Route 2 the Coastal Link goes west to Norwalk and east to Westfield's Connecticut Post Mall in Milford, from where Connecticut Transit can bring passengers to the New Haven Green. Greyhound and Peter Pan Bus Lines both offer intercity bus service to points throughout the Northeast and points beyond.

Historic sites[edit]

Historic districts[edit]

Bridgeport has five local historic districts, where exterior changes to structures are under the control of two Historic District Commissions:

  • Black Rock Harbor Historic District, 88 buildings along Ellsworth, Brewster, and Beacon Streets, includes the village center of a historic seaport, with buildings that date back to the 17th century
  • Pembroke City Historic District, 266 buildings in a general two-block radius of Washington Park, a planned residential development constructed 1850-1900 that contains the city's most important concentration of Victorian architecture
  • Stratfield Historic District, 300 buildings along Clinton, Brooklawn, and Laurel Avenues that made up an elite residential district of the Edwardian era
  • Barnum-Palliser Development Historic District, 33 buildings on Austin, Gregory, and Atlantic Streets and Myrtle Avenue that was a planned working-class development of the 1880s designed by the architectural firm of Palliser, Palliser, and Company
  • Marina Park Historic District, 14 buildings along South Park Avenue and Marina Park, contains some of the city's most opulent late 19th-early 20th century mansions overlooking Seaside Park

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Bridgeport city, Connecticut". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  5. ^ Emily Ross, Angus Holland (2005). One hundred great businesses and the minds behind them. Sourcebooks, Inc. p. 388. ISBN 978-1-4022-0631-3. 
  6. ^ "History Of Frisbies". Retrieved November 28, 2007. 
  7. ^ Waldo, v1 1917, pp. 14—16.
  8. ^ a b "Bridgeport, Conn.". The Encyclopedia Americana: a library of universal knowledge 4. New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1918. p. 527. Retrieved July 29, 2010. 
  9. ^ Orcutt, v1 1886, p. 609.
  10. ^ Orcutt, v1 1886, pp. 470—474.
  11. ^ Waldo, v1 1917, pp. 37—38.
  12. ^ Orcutt, v1 1886, pp. 608—609.
  13. ^ Waldo, v1 1917, pp. 222—225.
  14. ^ Strother, French (January 1916). "America, A New World Arsenal". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXXI: 321–333. Retrieved August 4, 2009. 
  15. ^ "National Historic Places Nomination" (PDF). Black Rock. 1978. p. 11. Retrieved July 28, 2010. 
  16. ^ Kimes, Beverly Rae (editor) and Clark, Henry Austin, jr., The Standard Catalogue of American Cars 1805–1942, 2nd edition, Krause Publications (1989), ISBN 0-87341-111-0
  17. ^ Philip Sheldon Foner (1982). History of the Labor Movement in the United States: 1915–1916, on the Eve of America's Entrance into World War I, Vol. 6. International Publishers Company, Incorporated. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-7178-0595-2. [A] ten-hour center like Bridgeport was converted overnight into an eight-hour community, a result that ten years of agitation under normal conditions might not have accomplished. 
  18. ^ "Bridgeport Working: Voices from the 20th Century". Bridgeport Public Library. Retrieved July 28, 2010. 
  19. ^ Matthew L. Wald (September 5, 1982). "THE Workplace in Transition". New York Times (US). Retrieved July 28, 2010. 
  20. ^ Andi Rierden (February 25, 1990). "Bridgeport is Fighting Its 'Dump City' Image". New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 
  21. ^ Musante, Fred (February 1, 1998). "Teachers' Strike Stirs Bitter Memories". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  22. ^ George Judson (August 2, 1991). "U.S. Judge Blocks Bridgeport From Bankruptcy Court". New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2010. The case attracted national attention as Bridgeport portrayed itself as a city abandoned by industry, left to bear alone the poverty and social problems of Fairfield County that its suburbs turned their backs on. 
  23. ^ Lisa Prevost (April 10, 2009). "Revival in Progress; Stay Tuned". New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  24. ^ Bill Cummings (August 31, 2009). "Bridgeport council approves development plan". News Times (Danbury). Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  25. ^ Keila Torres (February 14, 2010). "Agencies partner for housing/medical complex in Bridgeport". News Times (Danbury). Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  26. ^ Burr, Raymond F., Abraham Lincoln: Western Star Over Connecticut, Lithographics Inc., Canton, Connecticut (no year given), pages 1 and 15; book contents reprinted by permission of the Lincoln Herald, (Harrogate, Tennessee) Summer, Fall and Winter, 1983 and Spring and Summer, 1984
  27. ^ Holzer, Harold, Lincoln at Cooper Union, (Simon & Schuster: New York), 2004 Chapter 8: "Unable to Escape This Toil," p. 201 ISBN 0-7432-2466-3
  28. ^ Fred Lucas (April 6, 2006). "Bush visits Bridgeport". News Times (Danbury). Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Martin Luther King in Bridgeport?". Bridgeport Public Library. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  30. ^ Waldo, v1 1917, p. 277.
  31. ^ Jeff Holtz (August 18, 2002). "The View From/Bridgeport; Historic Seaside Park Recaptures Its Appeal". New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 
  32. ^ Waldo, v1 1917, p. 280.
  33. ^ F.L. & J.C. Olmsted (1884). Beardsley Park: Landscape Architects' Preliminary Report. Privately Printed (Boston). pp. 4–7. 
  34. ^ United States Department of Agriculture. United States National Arboretum. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map [Retrieved 2015-02-26].
  35. ^ a b c d "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  36. ^ "Station Name: CT BRIDGEPORT SIKORSKY MEM AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-02-26. 
  37. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed January 23, 2008.
  38. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  39. ^ Bridgeport, Connecticut (CT) profile: population, maps, real estate, averages, homes, statistics, relocation, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, moving, houses, news. City-data.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  40. ^ a b "Bridgeport (city), Connecticut". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  41. ^ "Connecticut - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  42. ^ http://www.fswinc.org/history.php
  43. ^ http://www.fswinc.org/2011pdf/annual_repoprt/Annual_report_2010.pdf
  44. ^ The 25 Most Unequal Cities In America. Business Insider (2010-10-11). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  45. ^ Zumbrun, Joshua (November 30, 2009). "America's Most Unequal Cities". Forbes. 
  46. ^ Former Bridgeport hospital converted to elderly, low income housing - Connecticut Post. Ctpost.com (2010-09-13). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  47. ^ City of Bridgeport CAFR
  48. ^ http://www.bridgeportkollel.com
  49. ^ Connecticut State Districts - CT School District Rankings. Schooldigger.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  50. ^ Everton Bailey Jr. (June 18, 2010). "Hartford Mayor Eddie Perez convicted of corruption". Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved August 15, 2010. Corruption investigations have brought down several prominent Connecticut politicians within the past decade.... Bridgeport Mayor Joseph Ganim was convicted of corruption in 2003, sentenced to nine years in prison and released to a halfway house in Hartford in January. Former Waterbury Mayor Philip Giordano is serving a 37-year prison sentence for sexually abusing two girls, crimes that came to light during a federal corruption investigation. 
  51. ^ Michael J. Daly (June 15, 2008). "Fabrizi's story still intrigues". Connecticut Post. Retrieved August 15, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 25, 2005" (PDF). Connecticut Secretary of State. Archived from the original on 2006-09-23. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  53. ^ Connecticut Mill Rates. Courant.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
  54. ^ How your taxes are determined - City of Bridgeport, CT. Bridgeportct.gov. Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
  55. ^ a b Patricia Harris and David Lyon (February 6, 2008). "On a comeback: After some down times, city find itself on the verge of a renaissance". Boston Globe. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  56. ^ http://www.imdb.com/List?endings=on&&locations=Bridgeport,%20Connecticut,%20USA&&heading=18;with+locations+including;Bridgeport,%20Connecticut,%20USA
  57. ^ Mayor Bill Finch laughs off Family Guy's shot at Bridgeport - Connecticut Post. Ctpost.com (2010-12-13). Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  58. ^ Catlin, Roger. (2010-12-13) 'Family Guy' vs. Bridgeport - Roger Catlin | TV Eye. Blogs.courant.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  59. ^ . JSTOR 2711156.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  60. ^ Stephen King (1978). Night shift. Doubleday. pp. 255–256. ISBN 978-0-385-12991-6. 'P.S. 119, Bridgeport, Connecticut' .... 'Ed Hamner, Sr., was a compulsive gambler. He worked for a top-line advertising agency in New York and then moved to Bridgeport sort of on the run.' 
  61. ^ A. J. Sobczak, Janet Alice Long, and Frank Northen Magill (1998). Cyclopedia of Literary Characters, Volume 1. Salem Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-89356-438-4. Joseph Wykowski. a recruit of Polish background from Bridgeport, Connecticut... 
  62. ^ REO SPEEDWAGON - 157 RIVERSIDE AVENUE LYRICS. Songlyrics.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  63. ^ Fred Allen quotes. Thinkexist.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  64. ^ http://pressbox.teamusa.org/Pages/CURLING--Connecticut-wins-2013-USA-Curling-Mixed-National-Championship-title.aspx
  65. ^ "History" section of the WICC web site accessed June 29, 2006
  66. ^ WPKN web site "About" page accessed June 29, 2006
  67. ^ Radio Stations in Bridgeport, Connecticut. : Radio-Locator
  68. ^ Amanda Cuda (December 31, 2007). "1908 world ended at your town's border". Connecticut Post (ctpost.com, Bridgeport, CT). 

References[edit]

External links[edit]