Bridgetown

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Bridgetown
City
Chamberlain Bridge spanning the Careenage, Bridgetown
Chamberlain Bridge spanning the Careenage, Bridgetown
Official seal of Bridgetown
Seal
Location of Bridgetown (red star)
Location of Bridgetown (red star)
Bridgetown is located in Barbados
Bridgetown
Bridgetown
Location on a map of Barbados parishes
Coordinates: 13°06′21″N 59°36′47″W / 13.10583°N 59.61306°W / 13.10583; -59.61306Coordinates: 13°06′21″N 59°36′47″W / 13.10583°N 59.61306°W / 13.10583; -59.61306[1]
Country Barbados
Parish Saint Michael
Established 1628
Area
 • Total 15 sq mi (40 km2)
Elevation [2] 3 ft (1 m)
Population (2014)
 • Total 110,000
 • Density 7,300/sq mi (2,800/km2)
Time zone Eastern Caribbean Time Zone (UTC-4)
Area code(s) +1 246
Official name: Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison
Type: Cultural
Criteria: ii, iii, vi
Designated: 2011
Reference No. 1376
State Party: Barbados
Region: Americas

Bridgetown (metropolitan pop 110,000 (2014)) is the capital and largest city of the nation of Barbados. Formerly, the Town of Saint Michael, the Greater Bridgetown area is located within the parish of Saint Michael. Bridgetown is sometimes locally referred to as "The City", but the most common reference is simply "Town".

The Bridgetown port, found along Carlisle Bay (at 13°06′22″N 59°37′55″W / 13.106°N 59.632°W / 13.106; -59.632 (Bridgetown port)) lies on the southwestern coast of the island. Parts of the Greater Bridgetown area (as roughly defined by the Ring Road Bypass or more commonly known as the ABC Highway),[3] sit close to the borders of the neighbouring parishes Christ Church and St. James. The Grantley Adams International Airport for Barbados, is located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) southeast of Bridgetown city centre, and has daily flights to major cities in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and the Caribbean. While there is no longer local municipal government, it is governed as a political constituency within the national Parliament. During the short lived 1950s-1960s Federation of the British West Indian Territories, Bridgetown was one of three capital cities[4] within the region being considered to be the Federal capital of region.[5][6]

The present day location of the city was established by English settlers in 1628 following a prior settlement under the authority of Sir William Courten at St. James Town. Bridgetown is a major West Indies tourist destination, and the city acts as an important financial, informatics, convention centre, and cruise ship port of call in the Caribbean region. On 25 June 2011, Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison were added as a World Heritage Site of UNESCO.[7][8][9]

History[edit]

Although the island was totally abandoned or uninhabited when the British landed there, one of the few traces of indigenous pre-existence on the island was a primitive bridge constructed over the Careenage area's swamp at the centre of Bridgetown. It was suspected that this bridge was created by a people indigenous to the Caribbean known as the Arawaks. Upon finding the structure the British settlers began to call what is now the Bridgetown area Indian Bridge. It is widely believed that the Arawaks were driven from Barbados to the neighbouring island of Saint Lucia, during an invasion by another people indigenous to the region known as the Kalinagos. Eventually after 1654 when a new bridge was constructed over the Careenage by the British, the area became known as The Town of Saint Michael and later as Bridgetown, and the final name stuck.

Bridgetown is the only city outside the present United States that George Washington visited. (George Washington House, the actual house where he stayed, is now part of the Garrison Historic Area.)Two of Washington's ancestors, Jonathon and Gerrard Hawtaine were early planters on the island. Their grandmother was Mary Washington of Sulgrave, Northamptonshire, England. In 2011, historic buildings in Bridgetown were made a protected area of UNESCO.[10]

Early settlement[edit]

English settlement of Bridgetown began on 5 July 1628[11] under Charles Wolverstone, who brought with him 64 settlers to these lands formally claimed by James Hay, the Earl of Carlisle. Wolverstone, had been dispatched by a group of London Merchants, headed by Sir Marmaduke Rawdon. The group had been granted a lease[12] to 10,000 acres (40 km2) of land area by the Earl of Carlisle in settlement of debts. Each of the settlers with Wolverstone were granted by him 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land, lying on the northern side of the Careenage waterway for the purpose of general settlement.[11] The southern shore on Needham's Point, were claimed by Carlisle's agents that coming October, and in 1631, many acres of land directly facing Carlisle Bay were passed to Henry Hawley, the new Governor. Reports of dishonest behaviour about this Governor led to his arrest and rendition to England in 1639. After investigation by Commission in 1640, it was found that much of Hawley's land transactions were legitimate and properly showed these lands (including the town site), as being attributed to the Earl of Carlisle. Bridgetown was built upon a street layout resembling early English Medieval or market towns with its narrow serpentine street and alley configuration.

Boundaries[edit]

The earliest boundaries of Bridgetown are contained by way of an Act passed on 4 April 1660 called, "to prevent the danger which may happen by fire, in or about any of the seaport towns of the Island".[11] The southern limit was declared to be the River (Careenage), whilst the western limit was declared to be the western boundary of St. Michael's (now St. Mary's) Churchyard, and extending in a direct line to the seaside. The town's other limits consisted of properties of certain citizens' names in this statute, the location of which cannot now be determined with certainty.[11] The boundaries were not redefined until 1822.

From town to city[edit]

In 1824, Barbados became the seat of the Anglican 'Diocese of Barbados and the Leeward Islands'. Due to this the Saint Michael's Parish Church became raised to the status of Cathedral, in so doing the elevation meant that thereafter Bridgetown would be conferred with city status. In 1842, Royal Letters Patent under which Barbados, Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada, Saint Vincent, and Saint Lucia were split into separate diocese decreed that henceforth the Town of Bridgetown should be called the City of Bridgetown.[13]

From 1800 until 1885, Bridgetown served as the main seat of Government for the former British colonies of the Windward Islands. During this period, the resident Governor of Barbados also served as the Colonial head of the Windward Islands. After the Government of Barbados officially exited from the Windward Island union in 1885, the seat was moved from Bridgetown to St. George's on the neighbouring island of Grenada.

The Coat of Arms of Bridgetown

In December 1925, a committee sought to petition the King for a Royal Charter of Incorporation to devise local government in the city. The plan stated the desire for Bridgetown to be run by a mayor, 8 aldermen, 12 common councillors, a town clerk, a head-borough or chief constable, and such other officers as would be deemed necessary. It was proposed that the island's House of Assembly should seek to Incorporate the city instead of utilising Royal Charter.

It was not until 1958 when the Local Government Act was passed in Barbados. Within the act, called for separate administration for the city. The act called for a mayor, 6 city aldermen, and 12 city councillors — of which four serve each of the three wards in the city.

On 20 September 1960, a grant of arms was conferred upon the city by the Royal College of Arms in London. The armorial bearings for the City of Bridgetown were designed by the late Neville Connell, the then director of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society along with H.W. Ince the Honorary Secretary of the Society.

Local government in Barbados was established but not for long. In April 1967, the system of Local Government Councils was dissolved and replaced by an Interim Commissioner for Local Government. The Corporation of Bridgetown thus ceased to exist, and its records and paraphernalia were deposited in both the Government Department of Archives and Barbados Museum and Historical Society.[14] Today, Bridgetown and surrounding constituencies are administered by members of Barbadian parliament.

Geography and climate[edit]

Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Bridgetown

The city of Bridgetown, and the wider Greater Bridgetown area occupy most of the parish of Saint Michael, an area which covers around 39 km² (15 sq. mi). Bridgetown's centre was originally composed of a swamp, which was quickly drained and filled-in to make way for the city's early development.

At the heart of Bridgetown is the Careenage and Constitution River. This body of water provides the city with direct access from medium sized yachts or small craft boats. Although moderately shallow, the Careenage slices Bridgetown into two parts. During the rainy season the Constitution River flows into the Careenage area and acts as an outflow for water from the islands interior storm drainage network. Flowing into the Carlisle Bay on the southwest coast of the island, the Careenage can be observed as a marina for boaters entering or exiting the inner basin located directly in front of the Parliament buildings of Barbados.

Climate[edit]

Bridgetown features a tropical wet and dry climate, with relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. While fairly hot, Bridgetown is cooled somewhat by the trade winds that affect weather in Barbados in general. Bridgetown’s record high of 35 °C (95.0 °F) and record low of 16 °C (60.8 °F). Bridgetown features distinct wet and dry seasons, with a relatively lengthy wet season and a shorter dry season. Its wet season is from June through January, while the dry season covers the remaining months.

Climate data for Bridgetown (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
35
(95)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
31
(88)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
29.0
(84.2)
29.5
(85.1)
30.0
(86)
30.5
(86.9)
30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.4
(86.7)
30.0
(86)
29.3
(84.7)
30.0
(86)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.8
(78.4)
25.7
(78.3)
26.2
(79.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.6
(81.7)
27.8
(82)
27.7
(81.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73)
23.2
(73.8)
24.1
(75.4)
24.9
(76.8)
25.1
(77.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24.7
(76.5)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.2
(75.6)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
Record low °C (°F) 16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(63)
18
(64)
19
(66)
19
(66)
20
(68)
21
(70)
19
(66)
19
(66)
19
(66)
19
(66)
16
(61)
Rainfall mm (inches) 70.1
(2.76)
41.3
(1.626)
37.4
(1.472)
60.8
(2.394)
79.0
(3.11)
103.0
(4.055)
132.9
(5.232)
141.9
(5.587)
157.6
(6.205)
185.1
(7.287)
171.6
(6.756)
89.6
(3.528)
1,270.3
(50.012)
Avg. rainy days 11 8 8 8 8 11 15 15 14 16 14 12 140
 % humidity 77 77 75 77 78 80 81 81 81 82 83 79 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 258.85 249.45 272.80 259.80 262.88 225.00 251.41 263.19 230.40 233.74 228.00 257.92 2,993.44
Source #1: Barbados Meteorological Services[15]
Source #2: BBC Weather (record highs and lows)[16]

The city[edit]

Bridgetown Downtown
View from National Heroes Square, Bridgetown, Barbados, April 2007.jpg

In the centre lies the main street of Bridgetown which is Broad Street which runs directly through the centre of the city. Broad Street passes the Parliament Buildings and serves as the centre of city's shopping area.

Another major traffic artery into the city is Bay Street (which turns into Highway 7) and leads toward the South Coast of Barbados and the Parish of Christ Church. There are also other notable streets in Bridgetown, including:

  • Swan Street – which is parallel to Broad Street, to the north.
  • Roebuck Street – which leads towards Queens Park to the North, and East of Swan Street.

-and-

  • Tudor Street – which comes from the north, intersects Swan Street and runs perpendicular to Broad Street.
  • The Spring Garden Highway, which lies to the west of the city, plays host to over 85,000 bystanders and participants in the annual Grand Kadooment Carnival Parade.
A panorama of downtown Bridgetown, showing Chamberlain Bridge and Parliament Building

Neighbourhoods[edit]

Landmarks/points of interest[edit]

Parliament Building
Nelson Statue

Harbour[edit]

Main article: Port of Bridgetown

The Bridgetown Port (or "Deep Water Harbour" as its also known) is the major port of entry for cruise and cargo ships docking in Barbados. The Deep Water Harbour lies a short distance across Carlisle Bay northwest of the Careenage Canal. Found along the Princess Alice Highway, and west of the city's centre around Fontabelle.

The Harbour port acts as one of the major shipping and transhipment hubs from international locations for the entire Eastern Caribbean. Recently, the Bridgetown Port was dredged to allow safe access and berthing for the new league of "super cruise ships". The dredging project was completed in 2002 and the city can now host many of the largest cruise ships in the world.

The port of Bridgetown also handles goods for the domestic needs of the island. The island's main exports of mainly agricultural products also make use of the harbour facilities.

Bridgetown also has a smaller canal in the centre of the city, named the Careenage, a.k.a. "Constitution River". The Constitution River should not be confused with the Deep Water Harbour. The smaller Constitution River feeding into the west coast lies about a half kilometre south of the large harbour. The Careenage is just large enough for pleasure craft or fishing boats and has two main bridges near the city center which span the shallow Careenage.

Society and culture[edit]

Colourful Bridgetown street

Bridgetown serves as a principal centre of commercial activity in Barbados, as well as a central hub for the island's public transport system. Many of the ministries and departments of the island's government are located within the Greater Bridgetown area. The Public Buildings or parliament, which stand at the heart of the city directly north of Heroes Square, house the third oldest continuous parliament in the British Commonwealth. Indeed, at one point in the city's early history, Bridgetown was the most important city of all British possessions in the New World due to the city's easterly location in the Caribbean region.

The iconic Barbados Mutual Life Assurance Society building from Broad Street.

For a city of its size, the Greater Bridgetown area is home to several prestigious educational institutions. The city serves as the seat of one of the three campuses of the University of the West Indies in the northern suburb of Cave Hill. The campus sits on a bluff offering a spectacular view of Bridgetown and its port. The Barbados Community College is located three miles (5 km) east of the Central Business District in a suburb known as "The Ivy", while the sprawling campus of the Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic is located just beyond the eastern limits of the city in a suburb known as "The Pine". In addition, the city houses such distinguished secondary schools as Harrison College, Combermere and The St. Michael School.

The City of Bridgetown also played host to the 1994 United Nations Global Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Islands States. Bridgetown has branches of some of the largest banks in the world and English-speaking Caribbean and is internationally recognised as an emerging financial domicile. The city underwent considerable redevelopment in preparation for the 2007 World Cricket Cup Finals held at the historic Kensington Oval . The stadium was renovated to a state-of-the-art sports facility accommodating 30,000 spectators. Live viewership for the 2007 event was estimated to be over 100 million people worldwide.[18]

Utilities and local services[edit]

Today, Bridgetown is a fully modern and thriving city, with access to many modern services including a piped water supply (said to be naturally among the purest in the world), electricity, natural gas supply, cutting-edge telecommunications, wireless services, internet cafes, and a good overall infrastructure. The city is also served by an impressive conference facility known as the Sherbourne Conference Centre.

Economy[edit]

Barbados' main exports are sugar, rum, and molasses. The island is also involved in other industries namely tourism and the offshore sector.

The airline REDjet has its head office at Grantley Adams International Airport in Christ Church,[19] near Bridgetown.[20]

Stock exchange[edit]

The city of Bridgetown also has a well regulated stock exchange with securities of Barbadian and regional Caribbean companies.

Business/specifics[edit]

Business: Banks are open 8 am–3pm, Hours: Monday to Thursday, and 8 am–5pm on Fridays.

The main banks are:

Automatic Teller Machines are available.

Shops are open:

  • 8am–6pm weekdays and
  • 8am–noon Saturdays.

Payment cards are widely accepted.

Electricity: 115 volts AC, 50 cycles. Most hotels have 220 AC.

Telecommunications: the international dialling code for Barbados is 1–246 followed by seven digits. On the island, use the seven digits alone. When on the island, to call anywhere in the United States or Canada simply dial 1+ (area code) + seven digit phone number.

Emergency Numbers: Police: 211 (emergency only) Fire: 311 Ambulance: 511 Coast Guard and Defense Force: (246) 427-8819

Time: GMT-4

Transportation[edit]

The city has access to daily flights via the island's Airport the Sir Grantley Adams International Airport (GAIA) located on the ABC Highway/Highway 7 in Seawell, Christ Church. The city of Bridgetown and New York City in the United States, were the only cities in the western hemisphere to be served by regularly scheduled British Airways Concorde flights. Additionally, the GAIA has been chosen as one of only four global display sites for the retired supersonic aircraft. The Airport is currently in the final stages of an expansion project, which will also include the construction of an aviation museum to house the retired Concorde aircraft.

All seven of Barbados's primary Highways begin close to the City of Bridgetown, in the Parish of Saint Michael. They all fan out to the north, south and east to other parts of the island. Driving is done of the left-hand side of the road with a speed limit of 60 km/h (37 mph) in built-up areas. The speed limit on the ABC Highway is generally 80 km/h (50 mph) except in built-up areas. Water transport is regulated by the Barbados Port Authority.

Public buses[edit]

Public buses that head northward to destinations such as Holetown and Speightstown, and to some locations in St. Michael including the University of the West Indies – (Cave Hill Campus), leave from the Princess Alice Bus Terminal which lies to the west of the city centre. Buses for points east and south leave from the Fairchild Street Bus Terminal, which is on the eastern edge of the city centre, near to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH).

Route taxis[edit]

Route taxis are privately owned minivans which operate as taxicabs for hire.

Diplomatic missions in Barbados[edit]

Twin and Sister cities[edit]

Bridgetown is twinned or is a sister city with the following cities:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bridgetown, Barbados". Google Maps. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  2. ^ "Population of Bridgetown, Barbados". Population.mongabay.com. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 
  3. ^ "Restore priority of B’town Redevelopment Plan". The Barbados Advocate. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Nantambu, Dr. Kwame (12 December 2005). "W.I. Federation: Failure From the Start". Trinicenter.com. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  5. ^ Kasperson, Roger E.; Minghi, Julian V. (2011). "Decision Making". The Structure of Political Geography. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. pp. Pgs. 350–365. ISBN 978-1-4128-1854-4. LCCN 2011003509. 
  6. ^ Lewis, Gordon K. The Growth of the Modern West Indies. pp. Pgs. 350–365. ISBN 976-637-171-7. 
  7. ^ "Barbados enters World Heritage List with Bridgetown and its Garrison; Hiraizumi (Japan) and Germany’s Beech Forests also inscribed". UNESCOPRESS. UNESCO. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011. "The World Heritage Committee has inscribed three new sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage List so far today: the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany as an extension to the World Heritage site of Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine), Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison, the first heritage site of Barbados to enter the World Heritage List; and Hiraizumi – Temples, Gardens and Archaeological Sites" 
  8. ^ Ramsay, Allison (26 June 2011). "Barbados makes the list!". The Barbados Advocate. Retrieved 26 June 10``. "Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison site was considered for nomination after Barbados became signatory to the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage Convention in 2002. Barbados submitted the nomination dossier to UNESCO World Heritage Centre on February 1, 2009, and that was among 45 proposals which were examined by the World Heritage Committee in June 2010. A total of 35 nominations including natural, cultural and mixed properties are being reviewed by the Committee. The session will end on 29 June." 
  9. ^ "Historic Bridgetown now a World Heritage Site". Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). 26 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011. "The World Heritage Committee, meeting in Paris, said Bridgetown and its garrison deserved a place on the List, which is comprised of more than 900 cultural or natural sites around the world regarded as having outstanding universal value." 
  10. ^ Staff writer (29 June 2011). "Guard our heritage". The Barbados Advocate. Retrieved 3 July 2011. "The World Heritage Committee (WHC) determined that historic Bridgetown and its Garrison fulfil the following roles: 1) “exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design; 2) bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilisation which is living or which has disappeared; 3) be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history.”" 
  11. ^ a b c d Alleyne, Warren (1978). "I "The Beginning"". Historic Bridgetown. The Barbados National Trust. pp. 7, 8. 
  12. ^ Carrington, Sean; Fraser, Henry (2003). "Settlement of Barbados". A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean,. pp. 185–186. ISBN 0-333-92068-6. 
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 20146. p. 2631. 30 September 1842. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  14. ^ Alleyne, Warren (1978). Historic Bridgetown. Barbados: The Barbados National Trust. 
  15. ^ "Barbados Weather Climate Data". Barbados Meteorological Services. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  16. ^ "Average Conditions Bridgetown, Barbados". BBC Weather. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  17. ^ Trafalgar Square
  18. ^ Mukherjee, Sharmistha. ICC Cricket World Cup draws record viewership. Business Standard. sify finance. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  19. ^ "About Us – Company Information on REDjet." REDjet. Retrieved on 13 April 2011. "Its corporate offices are situated in Grantley International Airport in Barbados[...]"
  20. ^ "REDjet Terms & Conditions." REDjet. Retrieved on 13 April 2011. "Means REDjet Limited of Corporate Head Office Bridgetown, Barbados."

External links[edit]