The town of Brighton, East Sussex
Brighton shown within East Sussex
|OS grid reference|
|Unitary authority||Brighton and Hove|
|Ceremonial county||East Sussex|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||BN1, BN2, BN50, BN88|
|Ambulance||South East Coast|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
|UK Parliament||Brighton Kemptown|
Brighton i// is a town on the south coast of Great Britain. It makes up most of the city and unitary authority of Brighton and Hove (formed from the previous towns of Brighton, Hove, Portslade and several other villages) . Formerly part of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex, it remains part of the ceremonial county of East Sussex, within the historic county of Sussex.
The ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" dates from before Domesday Book (1086), but it emerged as a health resort featuring sea bathing during the 18th century, was used as a seaside getaway by the Prince Regent, and became a destination for day-trippers from London after the arrival of the railway in 1841. Brighton experienced rapid population growth, reaching a peak of over 160,000 by 1961. Modern Brighton forms part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation stretching along the coast, with a population of around 480,000 inhabitants.
- 1 History
- 2 Landmarks
- 3 Culture
- 4 Economy
- 5 Education
- 6 Politics
- 7 Sport
- 8 Climate
- 9 Transport
- 10 See also
- 11 References and notes
- 12 External links
The spelling Bryghthelmeston is seen in 1418. 
In June 1514 Brighthelmstone was burnt to the ground by French raiders during a war between England and France. Only part of the St Nicholas Church and the street pattern of the area now known as "The Lanes" survived. A 1545 drawing of Brighthelmstone is believed to depict the 1514 raid. During the 1740s and 1750s, Dr Richard Russell of Lewes began prescribing the use of seawater for drinking and bathing at Brighton.
From 1780, development of the Georgian terraces had started and the fishing village became the fashionable resort of Brighton. Growth of the town was further encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent (later King George IV) after his first visit in 1783. He spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion during the early part of his Regency. In this period the modern form of the name Brighton came into common use.
The arrival of the London and Brighton Railway in 1841 brought Brighton within the reach of day-trippers from London. The population grew from around 7,000 in 1801 to over 120,000 by 1901. Many of the major attractions were built during the Victorian era such as the Grand Hotel (1864), the West Pier (1866) and the Palace Pier (1899). Prior to either of these structures the famous Chain Pier was built, to the designs of Captain Samuel Brown. It lasted from 1823 to 1896, and featured in paintings by both Turner and Constable.
Because of boundary changes, the land area of Brighton expanded from 1,640 acres (7 km2) in 1854 to 14,347 acres (58 km2) in 1952. New housing estates were established in the acquired areas including Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, Coldean and Whitehawk. The major expansion of 1928 also incorporated the villages of Patcham, Ovingdean and Rottingdean, and much council housing was built in parts of Woodingdean after the Second World War.
The Royal Pavilion is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash, and is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club.
The West Pier was built in 1866 and is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom. It has been closed since 1975. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned. Plans for a new landmark in its place – the i360, a 183 m (600 ft) observation tower designed by London Eye architects Marks Barfield – were announced in June 2006. Plans were approved by the council on 11 October 2006. As of early 2009[update], construction had yet to begin, but the area has been cordoned off.
Brighton clocktower, built in 1888 for Queen Victoria's jubilee, stands at the intersection of Brighton's busiest thoroughfares.
The Brighton Wheel opened with some controversy, directly north east of the Brighton Marine Palace and Pier in October 2011 after a previous attempt to locate it in a more central location near the Metropole Hotel, at which time it was to have been the "Brighton O" – a special spokeless design rather than the traditional spoked wheel eventually purchased from its previous home in South Africa.
Churches and places of worship
The 11th century St Nicholas Church is the oldest building in Brighton, commonly known as "The Mother Church". Other notable churches include the large brick-built St Bartholomew's, St Peter's and St. Martin's, noted for its decorated interior. Brighton's Quakers run the Friends' Meeting House in the Lanes. There is an active Unitarian community based in a Grade 2 listed building in New Road, and a Spiritualist church in Norfolk Square. There are also a number of New Age outlets and groups.
Brighton has three synagogues, the Middle Street Synagogue, a Grade II listed building built in 1874–75. It is presently in the process of being gradually restored by English Heritage. Brighton and Hove reform Synagogue, Palmeira Avenue, Hove and the progressive Synagogue, Lansdowne Road, Hove. There are also several mosques and Buddhist centres.
Nevertheless, Brighton has become known as one of the least religious places in the UK, based upon analysis of the 2011 census which revealed that 42 per cent of the population profess no religion, which is far higher than the national average of 25%. As part of the Jedi census phenomenon, 2.6 per cent claimed their religion was Jedi Knight, the largest percentage in the country.
The seafront has bars, restaurants, nightclubs, sports facilities and amusement arcades, principally between the piers. Being less than an hour from London by train has made the city a popular destination. Brighton beach has a nudist area (by Kemptown near the easterly edge of the promenade). Brighton's beach is a shingle beach at high tide with a flat sandy foreshore at low water, and has been awarded a blue flag. The Monarch's Way long-distance footpath heads west along the seafront above the beach.
Since the 1978 demolition of the Black Rock open-air lido at the eastern end of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall, and further development is planned including a high-rise hotel which has aroused debate, mirroring proposals for the King Alfred leisure centre in Hove, which were shelved in 2008. Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of the city centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complex and opened to the public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as beach volleyball and ultimate Frisbee among others.
Brighton featured in a number of popular movies including Quadrophenia (1979), The End of the Affair (1999), MirrorMask (2005), Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging (2008), The Young Victoria (2009), Brighton Rock (2010 and 1947) and The Boat that Rocked (2009).
The Duke of York's Picturehouse, dating from 1910, is the country's oldest purpose-built cinema, which still operates as an arthouse cinema. The Duke of Yorks Picturehouse has expanded the cinema range in Brighton to include two more screens at the Komedia Theatre situated in Gardner Street central Brighton. There are also two multiplex cinemas.
Festivals and rallies
Each May the city hosts the Brighton Festival, the second largest arts festival in the UK (after Edinburgh). This includes processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists' Open Houses, are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe.
Brighton Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be the second largest fringe festival in the world. Together with the street performers from Brighton Festival's "Streets of Brighton" events, and the Royal Mile-esque outdoor performances that make up "Fringe City", outdoor spectacles and events more than double during May.
Other festivals include The Great Escape, featuring three nights of live music in venues across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Paddle Round the Pier; Brighton Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; Burning the Clocks, a winter solstice celebration; and Brighton Pride (see lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, below). For a number of years, Andrew Logan's Alternative Miss World extravaganza was held in the city.
The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day". Local resident Fatboy Slim puts on a "Big Beach Boutique" show most years. An inaugural White Nights (Nuit Blanche) all-night arts festival took place in October 2008. 2009 saw the first Brighton Zine Fest celebrating zine and D.I.Y. culture within the city.
On 1 September 2007, competitors from the United Kingdom, United States, Germany and other countries convened for the World Beard and Moustache Championship. Hosted by The Handlebar Club, categories include Dali moustache, goatee and full beard freestyle.
Brighton is the terminus of a number of London-to-Brighton rides,and runs, such as the veteran car run and bike ride. Transport rallies are also hosted on the seafront. Groups of mods and Rockers still bring their scooters and motorbikes to the town, but their gatherings are now much more sedate than the violent 1960s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia.
Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival. There is also a twice-yearly general food festival. The main Sussex beer festival is held in nearby Hove, and there is a smaller beer festival in the Hanover area. Foodies Festival also counts Brighton as one of its seven national venues, with the event taking place between 25–27 May at Hove Lawns and including top chefs such as Loyd Grossman.
Brighton is the home of the UK's first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many rich and famous people associated with the city.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community
Brighton has a substantial LGBT community served by shops, bars, night-clubs, and support organisations. It is often referred to as "the gay capital of Britain". The Gay Pride carnival every August attracts thousands. It consists of a carnival parade and a party and funfair in Preston Park.
Brighton museums include Josie fully greens socks [Brighton Museum & Art Gallery]], Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton Toy and Model Museum, and Brighton Fishing Museum the long established social epicentre of the seafront, which includes artefacts from the West Pier. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency.
Night-life and popular music
Brighton has many night-life hotspots and is associated with popular musicians including Fatboy Slim, Kirk Brandon, Tim Booth, Nick Cave, Robert Smith and Jimmy Somerville. Live music venues include the Concorde2, Brighton Centre and the Brighton Dome, where ABBA received a substantial boost to their career when they won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974. Many events and performance companies operate in the city.
Popular alternative rock band The Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster, alternative rock duo Blood Red Shoes, indie rock band The Kooks, metalcore band Architects and hip-hop duo Rizzle Kicks originated in Brighton.
- Zach Keeley, prolific graffiti artist hailing from Brighton.
- Sam Razavi, champion professional poker player resides in Brighton
Brighton has about 400 restaurants, more per head than anywhere else outside London. A wide range of cuisines is available.
Theatres include the Brighton Dome and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia (primarily a comedy and music venue but also a theatre), The Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in 2010, and the Theatre Royal which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2007. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre and Nightingale Theatre, both above pubs, which attract mostly local productions, and the Brighton Little Theatre.
American Express has built a new headquarters building on John Street, behind its former European headquarters in Edward Street. It employs around 3,000, making it the largest private employer in the city.
"The Lanes" form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, characterised by narrow alleyways following the street pattern of the original fishing village. The Lanes contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields". The North Laine contains a mix of businesses dominated by cafés, independent and avant-garde shops, bars and theatres.
Churchill Square is a shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (43,663 m2) and over 80 shops, several restaurants and 1,600 car-parking spaces. It was built in the 1960s as an open-air, multi-level pedestrianised shopping centre, but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1998 and is no longer open-air. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road.
Several specialised construction companies are located in Brighton and Hove.
Brighton & Hove City Council is responsible for 80 schools, of which 54 are in Brighton.
The University of Sussex established in 1961 is a campus university between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. Served by frequent trains (to Falmer railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of 12,500 of which 70% are undergraduates. The University is currently ranked 21st in the UK and 110th in the world by The World University Rankings.
The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates. The University is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne and Hastings.
In 2003, the universities of Sussex and Brighton formed a medical school, known as Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of qualified NHS doctors. The school is also based in Falmer and works closely with the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust
A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, City College Brighton and Hove. More academic subjects can be studied for 16–18-year-olds at Brighton Hove & Sussex Sixth Form College (BHASVIC) in the Seven Dials area. Varndean College in North Brighton occupies a commanding position. The 1920s building is celebrated for its façade and internal quads. The college offers academic A levels, The International Baccalaureate and vocational courses.
There are state schools and some faith schools. Notable state schools include Longhill High School, Varndean School, Patcham High School, Dorothy Stringer High School, Blatchington Mill School and Sixth Form College, and Brighton Aldridge Community Academy.
There are also a number of private schools, including Brighton College, Roedean School, Steiner School, BHHS and a Montessori School. As with the state schools, some independents are faith-based; Torah Academy, the last Jewish primary school, became a Pre-K/Nursery School at the end of the 2007. The Brighton Institute of Modern Music, a fully accredited music college, opened in 2001 and has since expanded to five locations throughout the U.K.
In spring and summer, thousands of students from all over Europe gather to attend language courses at the many language schools.
- For the local council, see Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove is part of three constituencies in the British Parliament: Brighton Kemptown, Brighton Pavilion, and Hove. These three seats are all marginal constituencies. They were held by Labour from 1997 to 2010. At the 2010 British election, Brighton Kemptown and Hove both elected Conservative MPs, Simon Kirby and Mike Weatherley respectively, while Brighton Pavilion elected Caroline Lucas, the first Green MP ever elected to Westminster. Lucas won 16,238 votes (31.3%), compared with Labour's 14,986 votes (28.9%) and the Conservative's 12,275 votes (23.7%). In European elections, Brighton is part of the European Parliament constituency of South-East England.
The political campaigning group Justice? and its SchNEWS newspaper are based in Brighton, at the Cowley Club libertarian social centre; also operating from the town is the Brighton and Hove Palestine Solidarity Campaign. The presence of a British subsidiary of the United States arms company EDO Corporation in Moulsecoomb, Brighton, has been the cause of protests since 2004.
Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club is the city's professional football team. After playing at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, they were forced to sell it in 1997 to pay off debts. The club spent two years ground-sharing at Gillingham before returning to the town as tenants of the Withdean Athletics Stadium. However, in 2011 the club moved to a permanent home at Falmer at the start of the 2011/12 season, with the first match happening in July 2011. The new stadium, the Falmer Stadium, was built by The Buckingham Group, who also built the MK Dons stadium. The club's notable achievements including winning promotion to the Football League First Division for the first time in 1979, staying there for four seasons, during the last of which they reached the FA Cup final and took Manchester United to a replay before losing 4–0. Notable former managers of the club include Brian Clough, Peter Taylor (born 1928), Peter Taylor (born 1953), Jimmy Melia, Liam Brady, Jimmy Case, Steve Gritt, Brian Horton, Steve Coppell and Mark McGhee. Notable former players include Gareth Barry, Dave Beasant, Justin Fashanu, Dennis Mortimer, Gordon Smith, Frank Stapleton, Howard Wilkinson and Bobby Zamora.
Brighton and Hove is home to the Sussex County Cricket Club based on Eaton Road in Hove.
Brighton Football Club (RFU) is one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England.
Throughout the year many events take place on Madeira Drive (a piece of roadway on Brighton's seafront), which was constructed to host what is commonly held to be the world's oldest motor race, the Brighton Speed Trials, which has been running since 1905. The event is organised by the Brighton and Hove Motor Club and normally takes place on the second Saturday in September each year.
There is also an from time to time a beach soccer competition in a temporary stadium on imported sand on the beach. The inaugural contest in June 2002 featured football stars such as Eric Cantona and Matt Le Tissier.
Brighton has a horse-racing course, Brighton Racecourse, with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races.
The Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club runs an annual triples, doubles and singles competition, informal KOs, winter and summer league, plus Open competitions with other clubs. The club is affiliated to Sussex Pétanque, the local region of the English Pétanque Association, so they can also play at a Regional and National level. The Peace Statue terrain is the official pétanque terrain situated on the seafront near the West Pier.
There are yachting clubs and other boating activities run from Brighton Marina.
Brighton has an oceanic climate like the rest of Britain, but during the summer months is affected by sea breezes; temperatures by the sea can be 5 or so degrees lower than those 2+ miles inland.
Summers are generally pleasant, although rains do occur. Generally the temperatures in July get to around 20–21 degrees during the day. During heatwaves however, daytime highs often get much higher, sometimes into the low 30s.
Winters are usually mild like most of southern Britain; however, during easterly outbreaks, snow is common. The South Downs usually shield the city from some weather, but during snow events the city is sometimes badly affected. Recent winters of 2008/9 and 2009/10 saw large snow amounts falling. December 2010 was the deepest with about 30 centimetres (12 inches) falling. Brighton sometimes is in the convergence area of snow bands.
|Climate data for Brighton|
|Average high °C (°F)||8
|Average low °C (°F)||3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||88
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||70||95||135||195||232||235||255||230||175||125||85||65||1,897|
|Source: Met Office|
There are several railway stations, bus services, taxis, and coach services. A Rapid Transport System has been under consideration for some years. In the past it has had trolleybuses, ferries, trams and hydrofoil services.
Frequent trains operate from Brighton Station. Many Brighton residents commute to work in London and destinations include London Victoria, London Bridge, and Gatwick Airport, with trains continuing to Bedford. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes. Lines from Brighton serve stations to Worthing, Portsmouth and Southampton in the west and via Lewes to Newhaven, Eastbourne, Hastings and Ashford, Kent in the east. A wider range of long-distance destinations was served until 2007–08 when rationalisation caused the ending of services via Kensington Olympia and Reading and beyond to Milton Keynes, Birmingham and Manchester. Twice-daily service continues on the line west to Bristol.
Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company operates 300 buses. There is also a limited night service. Brighton buses are often named after famous local figures. Brighton also has buses that run on recycled bio-fuel, obtained from locally-sourced used cooking oil; The Big Lemon runs from the University of Sussex into the centre of Brighton regularly. Countryliner operate regular services to the surrounding areas such as Burgess Hill. Brighton seafront is the home of Volk's Electric Railway, the world's oldest electric railway.
- Royal Alexandra Hospital, Brighton – a children's hospital
- The Argus (Brighton) – newspaper
- Brighton in fiction
References and notes
- "Neighbourhood Statistics". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. S.127 East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-86147-315-9
- "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- "National Archives: Domesday Book: Brighton". Retrieved 13 December 2009.
- Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40/629; 4th entry, defendant Richard Hone or Hove is a fish-seller there
- Carder (1990), s.17
- Russell, Richard (1755). The Oeconomy of Nature in Acute and Chronical Diseases of the Glands (8th ed.). John and James Rivington, London; and James Fletcher, Oxford. Retrieved 7 December 2009. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
- Russell, Richard (1760). "A Dissertation on the Use of Sea Water in the Diseases of the Glands. Particularly The Scurvy, Jaundice, King's-Evil, Leprosy, and the Glandular Consumption". To which is added a Translation of Dr. Speed's Commentary on SEA WATER. As also An Account of the Nature, Properties, and Uses of all the remarkable Mineral Waters in Great Britain (4th ed.). London: W. Owen. Retrieved 7 December 2009. First published 1750 as De Tabe Glandulari. Full text at Google Books.
- Gray, Fred (2006). Designing the Seaside: Architecture, Society and Nature. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 46–47. ISBN 1-86189-274-8. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- Carder (1990), s.71
- Mawer, A. and F.M. Stenton, The Place-Names of Sussex, Part II, Cambridge 1930, p. 291.
- Carder (1990), s.127
- Carder (1990), s.13
- Darwin Porter, Frommer's England 2011
- William Davenport Adams, Songs of society, from Anne to Victoria, 1880
- John Lane, Talk of the Town
- "I will never return to the pier". Theargus.co.uk. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Pricey on the Pier". Theargus.co.uk. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Pressure the pier". Theargus.co.uk. 14 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Pier Threatens To Unplug Rival". Worldwidewet.net. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "England – Southern Counties – Tall tower rises from pier ashes". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Home page of Volks Electric Railway Group". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Blog post from The Virgin Backpacker". Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- "OK or O no". Jasonkitcat.com. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "St. Nicholas Church – Out & About – Regency Square Area Society". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- "Brighton and Hove Spiritualist Church". Brighton and Hove Spiritualist Church. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Al-Quds Mosque". Brightonmosque.com. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Al-Medinah Mosque Timetable Download (PDF, 641KB). "Al Medina mosque". Bhmf.org.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Welcome to the Brighton Buddhist Centre. "Brighton Buddhist Centre". Brighton Buddhist Centre. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Brighton and Hove is country's most Godless city". Theargus.co.uk. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Haines, Lester (28 January 2004). "Brighton Tops Jedi League". The Register. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- DoStagDo. "Brighton Stag Do". Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- "Developments in Brighton and Hove". Brighton-hove.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Films made in the Brighton & Hove area". 30 June 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "Brighton Fringe Festival 2006 – Cities – VisitBritain". Retrieved 20 August 2007.[dead link]
- "Brighton Fringe Festival 2007. 5–28 May 2007.". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Brighton Zine Fest homepage".
- "Bearded wonders go head to head". BBC News. 1 September 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Fiery Foods Chilli festival, Brighton, 2012". Fieryfoodsuk.co.uk. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Brighton Food Festival". Brighton Food Festival. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Foodiesfestivals.com". Foodiesfestivals.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- Brighton Walk of Fame
- "England – Southern Counties – Couples tie knot in 'gay capital'". BBC News. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Life at Sussex university[dead link]
- "Concorde 2". Concorde 2. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Places | Pubs". My Brighton and Hove. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Sussex University: ''Why Sussex''". Sussex.ac.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "''Brighton's Silicon beach Tech Custer Finally Breaks Shore''". Techcrunch.com. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "3000+ jobs safeguarded with American Express decision". Brighton Business. 6 September 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
- "Our History". The Body Shop. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Churchill Square Shopping Centre: Churchill Square Food". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Brighton Business List on the Brighton & Hove Council website. Retrieved 16 August 2012
- "Brighton & Hove City Council – school contact information". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Communications Division Facts and Figures 2003–04". Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "University of Sussex/". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Top European Universities 2012-2013/". The World University Rankings/. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Facts and figures – University of Brighton". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "South-east England, maps and directions – University of Brighton". Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- "Brighton State Schools/". Brighton Scene. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "BBC News Election 2010 Constituency Brighton Pavilion". Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "smashEDO". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- "Brighton Rugby Club – Sussex, south of England". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- "B&H Hockey Club". Brightonandhovehockeyclub.net. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Brighton Ultimate frisbee team website".
- "Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club".
- "Brighton Swimming Club".
- "Brighton Dolphin Swimming Club".
- "Transport Project Will Cut Journey Times". Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- "Brighton and Hove City Council – Major Scheme Business Case – Rapid Transport System" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- "Bedside the seaside – Independent Online Edition > UK". The Independent (London). 2 April 2005. Retrieved 11 April 2007.
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|Database entry Q131491 on Wikidata|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Brighton (England).|
- Brighton at the Open Directory Project
- "Brighton & Hove City Council". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Brighton from Space – Satellite image of Brighton courtesy of Google Maps". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "History of Brighton and the Royal Pavilion palace". Retrieved 20 August 2007.