Brilliant Blue FCF
|Brilliant Blue FCF|
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Brilliant Blue FCF (Blue 1), also known under commercial names, is a colorant for foods and other substances to induce a color change. It is denoted by E number E133 and has a color index of 42090. It has the appearance of a reddish-blue powder. It is soluble in water, and the solution has a maximum absorption at about 628 nanometer.
It is usually a disodium salt. The diammonium salt has CAS number [lake. The chemical formation is C37H34N2Na2O9S3. The dye is poorly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and 95% of the ingested dye can be found in the feces. It also reacts with certain bile pigments to form green feces.]. Calcium and potassium salts are also permitted. It can also appear as an aluminium
As a blue color, Brilliant Blue FCF is often found in ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blue raspberry flavored products, dairy products, sweets and drinks, especially the liqueur blue curacao. It is also used in soaps, shampoos, mouthwash and other hygiene and cosmetics applications. In soil science, Brilliant Blue is applied in tracing studies to visualize infiltration and water distribution in the soil.
Health and safety 
Brilliant Blue FCF has previously been banned in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland among others but has been certified as a safe food additive in the EU and is today legal in most of the countries. It has the capacity for inducing an allergic reaction in individuals with pre-existing moderate asthma.
Biomedical research 
Scientists who were investigating the use of compounds to lessen the severity of inflammation following spinal cord injury had previously tested a compound called OxATP to block a key ATP receptor in spinal neurons. However, OxATP has toxic side effects and must be injected directly into the spinal cord; in searching for alternatives they noted that Brilliant Blue FCF has a similar structure. This led them to test a related dye, Brilliant Blue G (also known as Coomassie Brilliant Blue) in rats, which improved recovery from spinal cord injury.
- El Ali, Bassam M.; Bassam El Ali; Ali, Mohammad Farahat (2005). Handbook of industrial chemistry: organic chemicals. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-141037-6.
- Nestle Aero packet ingredients listing barcode: 7613031579334
- "LISTERINE Antiseptic Mouthwash, SMART RINSE, WHITENING, ADVANCED, Fluoride Rinse, and Tartar Protection Products". Listerine.com. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- Official Journal of the European Union L 295 (ISSN 1977-0677). The European Commission. 12 November 2011.
- J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.; VOL 64 ISS Jul 1979, P32-37, (REF 25)
- Peng, Weiguo; Maria L. Cotrinaa, Xiaoning Hana, Hongmei Yua, Lane Bekara, Livnat Bluma, Takahiro Takanoa, Guo-Feng Tiana, Steven A. Goldmanb, and Maiken Nedergaard (July 28, 2009). "Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord injury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (30): 12489–12493. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902531106. PMC 2718350. PMID 19666625. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- W. H. Hansen; O. G. Fitzhugh, A. A. Nelson, K. J. Davis (1966). "Chronic toxicity of two food colors, Brilliant Blue FCF and Indigotine". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 8 (1): 29–36. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(66)90097-4. PMID 5950860.
- J. F. Borzelleca; K. Depukat, J. B. Hallagan (1990). "Lifetime toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of FD & C blue No. 1 (Brilliant blue FCF) in rats and mice". Food and Chemical Toxicology 28 (4): 221–235. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(90)90034-K.
- J. P. Brown; A. Dorsky, F. E. Enderlin, R. L. Hale, V. A. Wright, T. M. Parkinson (1980). "Synthesis of 14C-labelled FD & C blue no. 1 (brilliant blue FCF) and its intestinal absorption and metabolic fate in rats". Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 18 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/0015-6264(80)90002-4.