|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Alphagan, Mirvaso|
|Pregnancy cat.||B (US)|
|Legal status||℞-only (US)|
|Routes||Ocular (eye drops), topical (gel)|
|Half-life||3 hours ocular 12 hours topical|
|ATC code||D11 S01|
|Mol. mass||292.135 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Brimonidine (bri-MOE-ni-deen) is a drug used as eye drops under the brand names Alphagan and Alphagan-P to treat open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, and as a gel, Mirvaso, for rosacea (facial erythema).
It acts via decreasing synthesis of aqueous humor, and increasing the amount that drains from the eye through uveoscleral outflow. In treating erythema, it acts by vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels).
In 2013, the FDA approved topical application of brimonidine 0.33% (Mirvaso) for facial erythema or rosacea.
Mechanism of action
Peripheral alpha 2 agonist activity results in vasoconstriction of blood vessels (as opposed to central alpha 2 agonist activity that decreases sympathetic tone, as can be seen by the medication clonidine). This vasoconstriction may explain the acute reduction in aqueous humor flow. The increased uveoscleral outflow from prolonged use may be explained by increased prostaglandin release due to alpha adrenergic stimulation. This may lead to relaxed ciliary muscle and increased uveoscleral outflow.
- Sena DF, Lindsley K (2013). "Neuroprotection for treatment of glaucoma in adults". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD006539. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006539.pub3. PMID 20166085.
- Toris, C.; Camras, C.; Yablonski, M. (1999). "Acute versus chronic effects of brimonidine on aqueous humor dynamics in ocular hypertensive patients". American journal of ophthalmology 128 (1): 8–14. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(99)00076-8. PMID 10482088.
- Mosby's Drug Guide for Nurses (7th edition; Skidmore) 2007.