Bristol Airport

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This article is about the airport in the United Kingdom. For other uses, see Bristol Airport (disambiguation).
Bristol Airport
Bristol Airport.png
Bristol airport overview.jpg
IATA: BRSICAO: EGGD
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator South West Airports Limited
Serves Bristol
Gloucestershire
Somerset
Location Lulsgate Bottom, North Somerset
Elevation AMSL 622 ft / 190 m
Coordinates 51°22′58″N 002°43′09″W / 51.38278°N 2.71917°W / 51.38278; -2.71917Coordinates: 51°22′58″N 002°43′09″W / 51.38278°N 2.71917°W / 51.38278; -2.71917
Website www.bristolairport.co.uk
Map
EGGD is located in Somerset
EGGD
EGGD
Location in Somerset
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09/27 2,011 6,598 Asphalt
Statistics (2013)
Passengers 6,131,896
Passenger change 12-13 Increase3.6%
Aircraft Movements 65,299
Movements change 12-13 Increase6.7%
Sources: UK AIP at NATS[1]
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority[2]

Bristol Airport (IATA: BRSICAO: EGGD), located at Lulsgate Bottom in North Somerset, is the commercial airport serving the city of Bristol, England, and the surrounding area. It is 7 nautical miles (13 km; 8.1 mi) southwest of Bristol city centre.[1] Built on the site of a former RAF airfield, it opened in 1957 as Bristol (Lulsgate) Airport,[3] replacing Bristol (Whitchurch) Airport as Bristol's municipal airport. From 1997 to 2010 it was known as Bristol International Airport.[4] In 1997 a majority shareholding in the airport was sold to FirstGroup, and then in 2001 the airport was sold to a joint venture of Macquarie Group and others.

In 2008, the airport drew 47.7% of its passengers from the former county of Avon area, 11.7% from Somerset and 8.8% from Devon.[5] In 2013, it was the ninth busiest airport in the United Kingdom, handling over 6.1 million passengers, a 3.6% increase compared with 2012.[2] Airlines with operating bases at the airport include EasyJet, Ryanair and BMI Regional.

The airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence (number P432) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers and for flying instruction.

History[edit]

First airport[edit]

In 1927 a group of local businessmen raised £6,000 through public subscription[3] to start the Bristol and Wessex Aeroplane Club, a flying club initially based at Filton Aerodrome. In 1929, Bristol Corporation took up the club's proposal to develop farmland located at Whitchurch near Bristol into a municipal airport.[6] At its opening by Prince George, Duke of Kent in 1930, Bristol (Whitchurch) Airport became the third civil airport in the United Kingdom. Passenger numbers grew from 935 in 1930 to 4,000 in 1939.[3]

During World War II, Whitchurch was the main civil airport remaining operational. The newly formed British Overseas Airways Corporation was transferred to Whitchurch from Croydon Airport and Heston Airport.[7] BOAC operated routes around the British Empire and to neutral nations, including the Bristol–Lisbon route which was operated by the Dutch airline KLM, under charter to BOAC.[8]

RAF Lulsgate Bottom[edit]

In September 1940 No 10 Elementary Flying Training School at RAF Weston-super-Mare established a Relief Landing Ground on 14 acres (5.7 ha) at Broadfield Down by the hamlet of Lulsgate Bottom, near Redhill. Being high, at 600 ft (180 m), the site had a poor weather record, during warm front conditions when it was often covered in low cloud.[9] However, when this occurred the alternative airfields at Filton and Cardiff were usually clear and operational; and as Lulsgate was clear when the low-lying airfields were obscured by radiation fog in calm weather, it was agreed to open the facility. Few facilities were constructed, however pillboxes, defensive anti-aircraft and later two Blister hangars were added.[9] In late 1940, the Downside Starfish site was also set up,[10] south of the village of Downside and just west of the airfield.[11] Its decoy fires attracted a large quantity of Luftwaffe high explosives and incendiaries on the nights of 16 March, 3 April and 4 April 1941 during the Bristol Blitz.[12]

In 1941 RAF Fighter Command planned to use the airfield for an experimental unit, and after requisitioning land from several adjacent farms, contracted George Wimpey and Company to begin work on 11 June 1941.[9] However, its intended use soon changed into being a satellite airfield for the fighter squadrons based at RAF Colerne. Originally, the new airfield's name was to be RAF Broadfield Down.[13] The runways used the standard triangular pattern. The main, east-west runway was 3,891 ft (1,186 m) long, with a designated alignment of 28/10, and the others were 3,300 ft (1,000 m) aligned 21/03 and 3,294 ft (1,004 m) aligned 34/16.[11] The first aircraft to land was a Luftwaffe Ju 88 at 06.20 on 24 July 1941. Returning from a raid, it was confused by the RAF electronic countermeasures radio beacon at Lympsham, which was re-radiating the signal from a Luftwaffe homing beacon at Brest, France.[9]

By 1942, there was no longer a need for an additional fighter airfield. With its name changed to RAF Lulsgate Bottom,[13] the airfield was declared operational on 15 January 1942. The Miles Masters, Airspeed Oxfords and Hawker Hurricanes of No. 286 (AA Cooperation) Squadron became resident, with the duty of providing realistic exercises for ground anti-aircraft defences. However, as the site lacked some basic facilities, No. 286 moved to RAF Zeals in May.[14] From 1 June 1942, the airfield was under No. 23 Group of Flying Training Command, and initially became a satellite airfield for No. 3 (Pilot) Advanced Flying Unit (3 (P)AFU), based at RAF South Cerney, flying Oxfords.[15] In March 1943, No. 1540 Beam Approach Training Flight (1540 BATF) was formed at Lulsgate, again flying Oxfords.[16] On 27 September 1943, 3 (P)AFU left Lulsgate for RAF Southrop, and was replaced on 1 October 1943 by No. 3 Flying Instructors School (3 FIS), which was previously headquartered at RAF Hullavington.[17] 3 FIS flew mostly Oxfords and some Masters.[18]

In 1944, BOAC started to use the airfield for Dakota and Liberator crew training,[17] and BOAC flights made use of it occasionally as an alternate airfield for Whitchurch,[19] and for topping-up fuel on the Bristol–Lisbon route.[17]

On 6 February 1945, 1540 BATF left for RAF Weston Zoyland. On 18 July 1945, 3 FIS was absorbed into 7 FIS.[20] With the war over, the RAF ceased training at Lulsgate on 15 April 1946, and the next month 7 FIS left the airfield and joined the Central Flying School at RAF Little Rissington. The RAF finally abandoned Lulsgate on 25 October 1946.[21]

Lulsgate Bottom Airfield[edit]

From 1948, the site was the home of the Bristol Gliding Club. In 1948 and 1949, the Bristol Motor Cycle and Light Car Club hosted motor races on a 2 mi (3.2 km) circuit known as Lulsgate Aerodrome, but due to planning and noise issues moved in 1950 to a site that became known as Castle Combe Circuit.[14]

Bristol (Lulsgate) Airport[edit]

Whitchurch airport continued to be used after World War II, but the introduction of heavier post-war airliners made a runway extension highly desirable. However, this was difficult at Whitchurch, because of the nearby housing estates.[22] In June 1955, the Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation agreed to sell the Lulsgate airfield to Bristol Corporation, for the development of a new airport there.[23] Bristol Gliding Club moved out to Nympsfield in Gloucestershire.[14]

In addition to the purchase price of £55,000, the city spent a further £200,000 by 1958 on building the terminal and other development.[24] In mid-April 1957 all air traffic was transferred from Whitchurch to the new airport.[25] With the name of Bristol (Lulsgate) Airport,[3] it was officially opened on 1 May 1957 by Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent.[26] In the airport's first year it was used by 33,000 people.[3] Bristol and Wessex Aeroplane Club also moved to Lulsgate.[14]

In 1962 a new control tower was built,[27] and in 1965 the runway was lengthened and extensions were made to the terminal.[28] In 1968 a new 5,000 sq ft (460 m2) cargo transit shed was constructed.[3] In 1974 the airline Court Line collapsed, causing a fall in passenger numbers.

Aviation Traders Carvair and the tail of an Airspeed Ambassador in 1965

By 1980, although 17 charter airlines were operating from the airport,[3] it was making a loss.[29] Les Wilson took over as managing director in that year, a position which he held until his death in a car crash in November 1995; much of the airport's subsequent strong recovery over that period has been attributed to him.[30] The airport moved back into profit in financial year 1981/82,[31] and by 1983/84 the profit was £0.5 million.[32] In 1984, an international departure lounge was added, with duty-free shops and a 24-hour air-side bar.[3]

The Airports Act 1986 required every municipal airport with a turnover greater than £1 million to be turned into a public limited company.[33] On 1 April 1987,[34] Bristol City Council transferred the operation and net assets of the airport to Bristol Airport plc. The council retained full ownership of the company.[35] However, under the terms of the Act, as long as the local authority retained a majority shareholding there were restrictions on the ability of the company to raise finance for capital projects.[33]

In 1988 the airport opened a new concourse area.[28] In 1994, a planning application for a new terminal was approved.[3] With other projects also planned, the council decided to sell a majority shareholding in the airport, so that the restrictions imposed by the Airports Act on raising the necessary finance could be removed.[36]

Bristol International Airport[edit]

Terminal building check-in area in 2008
Terminal at Bristol International Airport

In mid-1997 the airport's name was changed to Bristol International Airport.[37] In November 1997, the successful bidder for the purchase of a 51% stake in the airport company was revealed to be FirstBus. The remaining 49% was retained by the council. Work on the new terminal building had already started;[36] it opened in March 2000, at a cost of £27 million.[38] In 2000, passenger numbers exceeded two million for the first time.[3] A new control tower was built and the A38 road was diverted to cater for the installation of a Category 3 instrument landing system; these projects were completed in 2001.[14]

In January 2001 the airport was purchased for £198m,[3] by a joint venture of Macquarie Bank and Cintra, part of the Ferrovial group.[39] Ferrovial sold its 50% share to Macquarie in 2006.[40] The Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan made two substantial share purchases, in 2002 and 2009.[41]

In May 2001, the low-cost carrier Go Fly made Bristol Airport its second base after Stansted.[42] Passenger numbers passed through three million in 2002,[3] largely due to Go's arrival. EasyJet purchased Go in 2002,[42] took over the base in 2003 and continued its rapid growth in destinations.[43] In May 2005, Continental Airlines introduced a direct flight from Bristol to Newark with Boeing 757 aircraft,[3] though this ceased in November 2010.[44]

A new asphalt runway surface was laid between November 2006 and March 2007,[45] at a cost of £17 million.[46] Within this period, on 29 December and 3 January there were four incidents of reduced braking action in wet conditions on the temporary surface, including two in which aircraft left the runway.[47] From 5 January ten airlines, led by EasyJet, cancelled or diverted their Bristol flights. The airport closed the runway on 7 January to cut grooves into the surface to improve water runoff, and flights resumed the next day.[46]

Ryanair established a base at the airport in 2007.[48] In 2008, passenger numbers reached six million.[3]

Bristol Airport[edit]

The control tower

In March 2010, the airport was rebranded as Bristol Airport.[49] The airport gained a new logo, said by the airport's owners to represent 'people', 'place' and 'region'; and a new slogan, "Amazing journeys start here".[4]

Bristol Airport does not operate any jetways, so aircraft have to park on the apron and passengers either walk out to their flights or are carried by bus. May 2010 saw the opening of a 450 m (1,480 ft)[50] walkway to the west of the terminal building,[51] connecting it to eight new pre-boarding zones, at a cost of £8 million, to reduce the need for buses.[50]

In 2012 BMI Regional established a base at the airport.[52] In 2013, the airline added routes to German and Italian hub airports, aimed at business travellers.[53]

Expansion[edit]

In response to the UK Governments's 2003 White Paper The Future of Air Transport, the airport published a Master Plan for expansion over the period 2006–2030.[54] In October 2007, the airport announced that it would delay the planning application until the middle of 2008 to give it time to complete research on the airport's effect on the environment.[55] The World Development Movement claimed that flights from the airport generated the same amount of carbon dioxide as the nation of Malawi.[56] A campaign against the plan was led by Stop Bristol Airport Expansion, supported by Bristol Friends of the Earth and Campaign to Protect Rural England.[57]

The application was eventually submitted in 2009.[58] The £150 million plan,[59] designed to facilitate growth in annual passenger numbers to 10 million,[58] was approved by North Somerset Council in 2010 and by the UK Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government later the same year.[59] In October 2011, Stop Bristol Airport Expansion lost its legal challenge to the plan.[60]

The expansion is to occur in stages, spread over 30 construction projects.[61] Plans include a doubling of passenger terminal floorspace, new piers and aircraft parking stands, extensions to the apron, two multi-storey car parks and a public transport interchange.[62] The first project was completed in June 2012, with the opening of three new aircraft stands.[63] In October 2013, construction started on a £6.5 million walkway connected to the centre of the terminal, to provide four more pre-boarding zones.[51] The 3,880 m2 (41,800 sq ft) walkway opened in July 2014. It allows the use of jetways, including for wide-body aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.[64]

A planning application for an on-site 251-room hotel was approved separately in 2010.[65] Among the UK's busiest 16 airports, only Bristol lacks an on-site hotel. In February 2014, a planning application was submitted for a revision to the previously approved design, with a 201-room hotel to be built initially, followed later by a 50-room addition.[66]

Ownership[edit]

As of May 2013, the shareholders comprise:[67]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

ATR 72-500 of Aurigny Air Services lands at Bristol Airport (2014)
Thomas Cook Airlines Airbus A321, in the new Sunny Heart livery, lands at Bristol Airport (2014)
Thomson Airways Boeing 757-200 taxiing at Bristol Airport
Aer Lingus Regional ATR 72-600, franchised to Stobart Air, departing Bristol Airport (2014)

[68]

Airlines Destinations
Aer Lingus Regional
operated by Stobart Air
Cork, Dublin, Shannon
Air Malta Seasonal: Malta
Aurigny Air Services Guernsey
Austrian Airlines
operated by Tyrolean Airways
Seasonal: Innsbruck[69]
BH Air Seasonal: Burgas, Sofia
Blue Islands Jersey
BMI Regional Aberdeen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Milan-Malpensa (ends 24 October 2014), Munich
Seasonal charter: Bastia
Brussels Airlines
operated by BMI Regional
Brussels
easyJet Alicante, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Belfast-International, Berlin-Schönefeld, Copenhagen, Edinburgh, Faro, Funchal, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Glasgow-International, Inverness, Kraków, Lisbon, Madrid, Murcia, Málaga, Marrakech, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Pisa, Prague, Reykjavík-Keflavík, Rome-Fiumicino, Tenerife-South, Toulouse
Seasonal: Bodrum, Bordeaux, Corfu, Dalaman, Grenoble, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, La Rochelle, Lyon, Marseille, Menorca, Naples, Olbia, Salzburg, Split
Flybe Seasonal charter: Lleida[70]
Helvetic Airways Zurich[71]
Jet2.com Seasonal charter: Chambéry
KLM
operated by KLM Cityhopper
Amsterdam
Mistral Air Seasonal: Verona
Ryanair Alicante, Budapest, Dublin, Faro, Gdańsk, Gran Canaria, Kaunas, Lanzarote, Málaga, Malta, Poznań, Tenerife-South, Warsaw-Modlin, Wrocław
Seasonal: Bergamo, Bergerac, Béziers, Bologna, Chania, Girona, Ibiza, Knock, Limoges, Palma de Mallorca, Reus, Rzeszów, Treviso, Valencia
Scandinavian Airlines Seasonal: Stockholm-Arlanda[72]
Thomas Cook Airlines Enfidha, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Tenerife-South
Seasonal: Antalya, Bodrum, Bourgas, Corfu, Dalaman, Heraklion, Ibiza, Kos, Larnaca, Menorca, Palma de Mallorca, Rhodes, Skiathos, Zakynthos
Thomson Airways Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Málaga, Sharm el-Sheikh, Tenerife-South
Seasonal: Alicante, Antalya, Bodrum, Burgas, Cephalonia, Chambéry, Corfu, Dalaman, Enfidha, Fuerteventura,[73] Geneva, Heraklion, Ibiza, Kos,[74] Larnaca, Marrakech (begins 4 May 2015), Menorca, Naples, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Reus, Rhodes,[75] Santorini (begins 26 May 2015), Salzburg, Sofia, Toulouse, Turin, Zakynthos

Statistics[edit]

Number of
passengers[note 1]
Number of
movements[note 2]
Bristol Airport passenger totals
1997–2013 (millions)
1997 1,614,837 59,547
1998 1,838,219 61,582
1999 1,993,331 62,072
2000 2,141,525 63,252
2001 2,694,464 69,854
2002 3,445,945 72,152
2003 3,915,072 74,635
2004 4,647,266 77,956
2005 5,253,752 84,289
2006 5,757,963 84,583
2007 5,926,774 76,428
2008 6,267,114 76,517
2009 5,642,921 70,245
2010 5,747,604 69,134
2011 5,780,746 66,179
2012 5,921,530 61,206
2013 6,131,896 65,299
Source: UK Civil Aviation Authority[2]

Busiest routes[edit]

Busiest routes by country (2013)
Rank
Country
Passengers
handled
% change
2012-13
1  Spain 1,684,196 Decrease00.7
2  United Kingdom 1,087,708 Increase04.2
3  France 505,071 Increase03.1
4  Ireland 359,388 Decrease07.7
5  Netherlands 320,944 Decrease03.5
6  Poland 320,600 Decrease020.3
7  Portugal 300,229 Decrease08.4
8  Italy 271,751 Increase00.6
9   Switzerland 194,856 Decrease05.6
10  Turkey 169,328 Increase05.4
11  Greece 154,252 Decrease05.4
12  Germany 77,918 Steady00.0
13  Cyprus 74,504 Increase014.6
14  Czech Republic 73,523 Increase02.7
15  Malta 55,376 Increase00.4
Source: UK Civil Aviation Authority[2]
20 busiest routes to and from Bristol Airport (2013)
Rank Airport Passengers handled  % Change
2012 / 13
1  Netherlands - Amsterdam 320,944 Increase3
2  United Kingdom - Edinburgh 305,235 Increase3
3  Ireland - Dublin 290,683 Decrease4
4  Spain - Málaga 274,784 Increase1
5  United Kingdom - Glasgow International 257,445 Increase7
6  Spain - Alicante 254,543 Increase4
7  Spain - Palma de Mallorca 243,514 Decrease5
8  Portugal - Faro 236,474 Increase8
9  United Kingdom - Belfast International 226,006 Increase4
10   Switzerland - Geneva 181,413 Increase4
11  United Kingdom - Newcastle 175,587 Increase2
12  Spain - Tenerife 157,752 Increase3
13  France - Paris Charles de Gaulle 146,055 Decrease16
14  Spain - Barcelona 136,984 Increase1
15  France - Toulouse 114,407 Increase25
16  Italy - Rome-Fiumicino 98,125 Steady0
17  Spain - Lanzarote 97,009 Increase2
18  Turkey - Dalaman 96,111 Increase4
19  Spain - Girona 84,104 Increase7
20  United Kingdom - Inverness 81,231 Increase4
Source: UK Civil Aviation Authority[2]

Runway[edit]

Bristol Airport has one runway designated 09/27 which is a well suited runway direction for the UK as the prevailing wind is from the south west. Because of this, runway 27 (the westerly direction) is used the most often, about 70% of the time. The airport has one of the shortest international airport runways in the country at just 2,011 m (6,598 ft) in length and runway 27 only having an available landing distance of 1,876 m (6,155 ft). Therefore large aircraft are rarely used due to weight restrictions, which prevents most long-distance flights.[35]

Transport connections[edit]

The Bristol Airport Flyer picking up at Bristol Temple Meads railway station

Bristol Airport is located on the A38, 8 mi (13 km) southwest of Bristol city centre. The airport is signposted from the M5, from junction 22 when approaching from the south and junction 18 when approaching from the north. Neither gives quick access to the airport, a fact which was recognised by the Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study.[76] In November 2013, Bristol and North Somerset councils approved a planning application for the South Bristol Link road.[77] This proposes a link from the A38 northwards to the A370 at Long Ashton giving the airport an improved connection to the M5, and a link from the A38 southwards to Hengrove Park connecting to the Bristol Ring Road.[78]

The Bristol Airport Flyer bus service links the airport to Bristol Temple Meads railway station and Bristol Bus Station. It runs 24 hours a day, every 8 minutes during peak times,[79] and takes 25 minutes from Temple Meads. It is possible to book combined tickets in conjunction with train, coach or bus journeys. The service, numbered A1, is operated by FirstGroup on behalf of Bristol Airport.[80]

The A4 service operated by Bath Bus Company runs to Bath.

A bus service to and from Weston-super-Mare operates every two hours, numbered 121. This service is operated by FirstGroup on behalf of North Somerset Council. It also goes to Bristol, much more slowly than the Flyer.

One National Express service a day operates to and from London/Penzance.

In January 2013, Greyhound UK announced a direct hourly service to Newport, Cardiff and Swansea.[81]

Route No. From To Via Frequency (up to) Company
A1[82] Bristol Bus Station Airport Bristol Temple Meads Every 10 mins First Bristol
A2[83] Airport Airport Backwell, Yatton, Congresbury Every 60 mins First Bristol
A4[84] Bath Airport Saltford, Keynsham, Brislington Every 60 mins Bath Bus Company
100[85] Swansea Airport Bridgend, Cardiff, Newport Every 60 mins Greyhound UK
121[83] Weston-super-Mare Bristol Bus Station Airport Every 120 mins First Bristol
404[86] Penzance London Airport Once daily National Express

General aviation[edit]

Centreline Air Charter Cessna Citation CJ2 on the takeoff run at Bristol Airport.

Bristol Airport is a general aviation (GA) centre. In 2006 the GA terminal was relocated from the north side next to the control tower to a purpose-built facility on the south east corner of the field. Handling for visiting executive GA aircraft is managed by Bristol Flying Centre, which also provides engineering services and operates a fleet of business jets trading as Centreline Air Charter. Handling for light GA aircraft is managed by Bristol & Wessex Aeroplane Club, which also provides pilot training on both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, while Bristol Flying offers fixed-wing training and also has a number of aircraft available, including a Tiger Moth, for self-fly hire.

In 2012 Bristol Flying Centre doubled the size of its terminal,[87] to 6,500 sq ft (600 m2), with self-contained security facilities and two new passenger lounges.[88] In July 2013 the Department for Transport gave approval for Bristol Flying Centre to handle all charter flights directly, without needing to clear through the main airport terminal.[89]

Following the closure of Bristol Filton Airport at the end of 2012, Bristol Flying Centre gained fixed-base operator traffic such as the corporate shuttle for Airbus, flying to Toulouse, and the shuttle for BAE Systems.[89]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On 19 January 1970, Vickers Viscount G-AMOA of Cambrian Airways was damaged beyond economic repair in a heavy landing.[90]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Number of passengers including domestic, international and transit.
  2. ^ Number of movements represents total takeoffs and landings during that year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bristol - EGGD
  2. ^ a b c d e CAA: UK Annual Airport Statistics
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  4. ^ a b "New vision unveiled ten years on from terminal opening". Bristol Airport. 12 March 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "CAA Passenger Survey Report 2008". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  6. ^ Wakefield, Kenneth (1997). "Somewhere in the West Country": The History of Bristol (Whitchurch) Airport, 1930–1957. Wilmslow: Crécy. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-947554-65-3. 
  7. ^ Wakefield (1997), pp. 82–83.
  8. ^ Wakefield (1997), pp. 91–93.
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  16. ^ James (1989), p. 28.
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  18. ^ James (1989), p. 34.
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External links[edit]

Media related to Bristol International Airport at Wikimedia Commons