The document was first published in February 1951 as The British Road to Socialism and was the programme of the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), the precursor to the CPB. Since then it has gone through revisions in 1952, 1958, 1968, 1977 and 1989. In 2000 it was renamed to Britain's Road to Socialism as the programme of the CPB and the latest edition was published in 2011. The CPGB's programme before the adoption of the BRS was entitled For Soviet Britain.
The first edition of the document received the personal approval of Joseph Stalin prior to publication.Britain's Road to Socialism proposes that socialism can be achieved in Britain by the working class leading the other classes in a popular democratic anti-monopoly alliance against monopoly capital, and implementing a left-wing programme of socialist construction. Part of this strategy involves winning the labour movement for a left position, through struggle in the existing democratic bodies of the working class, such as Trades Unions, Trades Union Councils and tenant's associations. When the CPGB's leadership abandoned Britain's Road to Socialism in 1985, elements in the party that remained loyal to the programme, including the editorial board of The Morning Star split to form the CPB in 1988.