British Bencoolen was a British possession in Sumatra based in the area of what is now Bengkulu City.
Originally a Presidency within British India, in 1785 it was downgraded to Bencoolen Residency and placed under the Bengal Presidency.
On 15 October 1817, Stamford Raffles was appointed Governor-General of Bencoolen. During his time as Governor-General, Raffles enacted major reforms, including the abolishment of slavery, as well as creating Singapore to provide a new trading port in the region.
In 1823 Singapore was removed from the control of Bencoolen. It was ceded to the Netherlands in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.