Commonwealth Games

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from British Empire Games)
Jump to: navigation, search
For the next event, see 2018 Commonwealth Games.
Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games Federation seal.svg
Seal of the Commonwealth Games Federation


Commonwealth Games Federation Logo.svg

Commonwealth Games Federation Flag
Abbreviation CG
Motto Humanity—Equality—Destiny
First event 1930
Headquarters London, United Kingdom
President HRH Prince Tunku Imran
Website www.thecgf.com

The Commonwealth Games (known as the British Empire Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974)[1] is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946, which were cancelled due to World War II, has taken place every four years since then.

The games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. A host city is selected for each edition. 18 cities in seven countries have hosted the event. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games also include some sports that are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries, such as lawn bowls and netball.[2]

Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flag. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, and Canada for one.

History of the Games[edit]

A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by the John Astley Cooper in 1891, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire". The John Astley Cooper Committees worldwide (e.g. Australia) helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground fast.[3] In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of King George V. As part of the festival, an Inter-Empire Championships was held in which teams from Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United Kingdom competed in events such as boxing, wrestling, swimming, and athletics.

In 1928, Melville Marks Robinson of Canada was asked to organise the first British Empire Games; these were held in 1930, in Hamilton, Ontario,[1] and women competed in the swimming events only.[4] From 1934, women also competed in some athletics events.

The first Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held alongside the Commonwealth Games from 1962 to 1974.[5] Athletes with a disability were then first included in exhibition events at the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Victoria, British Columbia,[6] and, at the 2002 Commonwealth Games, they were included as full members of their national teams, making them the first fully inclusive international multi-sport games. This meant that results were included in the medal count.[7]

The Empire Games flag was donated in 1931 by the British Empire Games Association of Canada. The year and location of subsequent games were added until the 1950 games. The name of the event was changed to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games and the flag was retired as a result.

Editions of the Games[edit]

Locations of the games, and participating countries
      Countries that have hosted, or plan to host, the event
      Other countries that enter the games
      Countries that have entered the games but no longer do so
00 Host cities and year of games

The first edition of the event was the 1930 British Empire Games in which 11 nations participated. The quadrennial schedule of the games was interrupted by the Second World War and the 1942 Games (set to be held in Montreal) and the 1946 Games were abandoned.[8] The games were revived in 1950 and underwent a name change four years later with the first British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954.[1] Over 1000 athletes participated in the 1958 Games as over thirty teams took part for the first time.[9]

The Edmonton event marked a new high as almost 1500 athletes from 46 countries took part.[9]

Nigeria was the first country to boycott the Commonwealth Games in 1978 in protest over New Zealand's sporting contacts with South Africa. Participation at the 1986 Games was affected by a boycott by 32 African and Caribbean nations in protest to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's refusal to condemn sporting contacts of Apartheid era South Africa in 1985, but the Games rebounded and continued to grow thereafter. The 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia saw the sporting programme grow from 10 to 15 sports as team sports were allowed for the first time.[1] Participation also reached new levels as over 3500 athletes represented 70 teams at the event. At the Games in Melbourne in 2006, over 4000 athletes took part in sporting competitions.[9]

The three nations to have hosted the games the most times are Australia (5), Canada (4) and New Zealand (3). Furthermore, six editions have taken place, or will take place, in the countries within the United Kingdom (Scotland 3, England 2 and Wales 1), twice in Asia (Malaysia 1 and India 1) and once in the Caribbean (Jamaica 1). Two cities have held the games on multiple occasions: Auckland (1950 and 1990), and Edinburgh (1970,1986 and some events in 2014).

Edition Year Host City Host Nation Start Date End Date Sports Events Nations Competitors Top Placed Team
Inter-Empire Championships
Inter-Empire Championships 1911 United Kingdom London England 12 May 00 June 4 9 4 Unknown Canada
Edition Year Host City Host Nation Start Date End Date Sports Events Nations Competitors Top Placed Team
British Empire Games
I Games 1930 Canada Hamilton Canada 16 August 23 August 6 59 11 400 England
II Games 1934 England London England 4 August 11 August 6 68 16 500 England
III Games 1938 Australia Sydney Australia 5 February 12 February 7 71 15 464 Australia
IV Games 1950 New Zealand Auckland New Zealand 4 February 11 February 9 88 12 590 Australia
British Empire and Commonwealth Games
V Games 1954 Canada Vancouver Canada 30 July 7 August 9 91 24 662 England
VI Games 1958 Wales Cardiff Wales 18 July 26 July 9 94 36 1122 England
VII Games 1962 Australia Perth Australia 22 November 1 December 9 104 35 863 Australia
VIII Games 1966 Jamaica Kingston Jamaica 4 August 13 August 9 110 34 1050 England
British Commonwealth Games
IX Games 1970 Scotland Edinburgh Scotland 16 July 25 July 9 121 42 1383 Australia
X Games 1974 New Zealand Christchurch New Zealand 24 January 2 February 9 121 38 1276 Australia
Commonwealth Games
XI Games 1978 Canada Edmonton Canada 3 August 12 August 10 128 46 1474 Canada
XII Games 1982 Australia Brisbane Australia 30 September 9 October 10 142 46 1583 Australia
XIII Games 1986 Scotland Edinburgh Scotland 24 July 2 August 10 163 26 1662 England
XIV Games 1990 New Zealand Auckland New Zealand 24 January 3 February 10 204 55 2073 Australia
XV Games 1994 Canada Victoria Canada 18 August 28 August 10 217 63 2557 Australia
XVI Games 1998 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 11 September 21 September 15 213 70 3633 Australia
XVII Games 2002 England Manchester England 25 July 4 August 171 281 72 3679 Australia
XVIII Games 2006 Australia Melbourne Australia 15 March 26 March 162 245 71 4049 Australia
XIX Games 2010 India Delhi India 3 October 14 October 171 272 71 6081 Australia
XX Games 2014 Scotland Glasgow Scotland 23 July 3 August 171 261 71 4947 England
XXI Games 2018 Australia Gold Coast Australia 4 April 15 April
XXII Games 2022 Canada Edmonton or South Africa Durban Canada or South Africa To Be Announced To Be Announced
Notes

1Includes 3 team sports 2Includes 4 team sports

Total Commonwealth Games by country[edit]

Place Country Continent No. of times Years hosted
1  Australia Oceania 5 1938, 1962, 1982, 2006, 2018
2  Canada Americas 4 1930, 1954, 1978, 1994
3  New Zealand Oceania 3 1950, 1974, 1990
 Scotland** Europe 3 1970, 1986, 2014
5  England** Europe 2 (1911*), 1934, 2002
6  India Asia 1 2010
 Malaysia Asia 1 1998
 Jamaica Americas 1 1966
 Wales** Europe 1 1958
Notes

* The 1911 Inter-Empire Championships held in London is seen as a precursor to the modern Commonwealth Games, but is not normally considered an official edition of the Games themselves.[10]

**The United Kingdom competes as its separate Home Nations, Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies and has held the games 6 times, 7 including the precursor 1911 Inter-Empire Championships in London.

Approved sports[edit]

There are a total of 22 sports (with two multi-disciplinary sports) and a further seven para-sports which are approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation. They are categorised into three types. Core sports must be included on each programme. A number of optional sports may be picked by the host nation, which may include some team sports such as basketball. Recognised sports are sports which have been approved by the CGF but which are deemed to need expansion; host nations may not pick these sports for their programme until the CGF's requirements are fulfilled.[11]

Sport Type Years
Archery Optional 1982, 2010
Athletics Core 1911–present
Badminton Core 1966–present
Basketball Optional 2006, 2018
Billiards Recognised Never
Boxing Core 1911–present
Canoeing Recognised Never[12]
Cricket Recognised 1998
Cycling Optional 1934–present
Diving Optional 1930–present
Fencing Recognised 1950–1970
Football Recognised Never
Golf Recognised Never
Gymnastics (Artistic) Optional 1978, 1990–present
Gymnastics (Rhythmic) Optional 1978, 1990–present
Handball Recognised 1930
Hockey Core 1998–present
Judo Optional 1990, 2002, 2014
Lawn bowls Core 1930–present (except 1966)
Life saving Recognised Never
Netball Core 1998–present
Rowing Optional 1930, 1938–1962, 1986
Rugby league Recognised Never
Rugby sevens Core 1998–present
Sailing Recognised Never
Shooting Optional 1966, 1974–present
Softball Recognised Never
Squash Core 1998–present
Swimming Core 1911–present
Synchronized swimming Optional 1986-2006
Table tennis Optional 2002–present
Taekwondo Optional Never
Tennis Optional 2010
Ten-Pin Bowling Recognised 1998
Triathlon Optional 2002, 2006, 2014
Volleyball Recognised Never
Water Polo Recognised 1950
Weightlifting Core 1950–present
Wrestling Optional 1911–1986, 1994, 2002, 2010-present

Participation[edit]

Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland and Wales. Australia has been the highest scoring team for twelve games, England for seven and Canada for one.

Notes:

  1. ^ Aden later joined South Arabia in 1963 and departed the Commonwealth in 1968.
  2. ^ Anguilla was completely separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla in 1980 and remaining Saint Kitts and Nevis became independent from the United Kingdom in 1983.
  3. ^ British Guiana was renamed Guyana in 1966.
  4. ^ British Honduras was renamed Belize in 1973.
  5. ^ Ceylon was renamed Sri Lanka in 1972.
  6. ^ Fiji was re-suspended from the Commonwealth and Games in 2009.[13] The suspension from the Commonwealth on Fiji was lifted in time for the 2014 Games following Democratic Elections in March, 2014.
  7. ^ Gambia withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2013
  8. ^ Gold Coast (British colony) was renamed Ghana in 1957.
  9. ^ Including neighbouring Islands.
  10. ^ Hong Kong was never a Commonwealth member but was a territory of a Commonwealth country; it ceased to be in the Commonwealth when the territory was handed over to China in 1997.
  11. ^ Ireland was represented as a team from the whole of the island in 1930, and from both parts, the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland in 1934. The Irish Free State was renamed Ireland in 1937 (but also known by its name in Irish Éire), did not participate in the 1938 Games, and was formally excluded[citation needed] from the Commonwealth when it declared that it was a Republic on 18 April 1949.
  12. ^ Contemporary illustrations show Green Flag used for the Irish team.
  13. ^ Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe competed in 1962 as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
  14. ^ Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore federated as Malaysia in 1963. Singapore left the federation in 1965.
  15. ^ Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949.
  16. ^ The Ulster Banner was the flag of the former Government of Northern Ireland only between 1953 and 1972, but the flag has been regarded as flag of Northern Ireland since 1924 among unionists and loyalists. In the Commonwealth Games, it is used also as flag of Northern Ireland.
  17. ^ Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia federated with Nyasaland in 1953 as Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which dissolved at the end of 1963.
  18. ^ Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia competed separately in 1954 and 1958.
  19. ^ Under the name of "Saint Helena" in the Commonwealth Games.[14] Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha were dependencies of Saint Helena, so the territory was officially called "Saint Helena and Dependencies" until 2009. Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha became equal parts of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in 2009.
  20. ^ Western Samoa was renamed Samoa in 1997.
  21. ^ Zanzibar and Tanganyika federated to form Tanzania in 1964.
  22. ^ Zimbabwe withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2003.

Commonwealth nations/dependencies/disputed territories yet to send teams[edit]

Very few Commonwealth dependencies and nations have yet to take part:

Notable competitors[edit]

Lawn bowler Willie Wood from Scotland was the first competitor to have competed in seven Commonwealth Games, from 1974 to 2002, a record equalled in 2014 by Isle of Man cyclist Andrew Roche.[16] Also, Greg Yelavich, a sports shooter from New Zealand, has won 12 medals in seven games from 1986 to 2010.

Nauruan weightlifter Marcus Stephen won twelve medals at the Games between 1990 and 2002, of which seven gold, and was elected President of Nauru in 2007. His performance has helped place Nauru (the smallest independent state in the Commonwealth, at 21 km2 and with a population of fewer than 9,400 in 2011) in nineteenth place on the all-time Commonwealth Games medal table.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "The story of the Commonwealth Games". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 
  2. ^ Harold, Perkin (September 1989). "Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British Empire and Commonwealth". International Journal of the History of Sport 6 (2): pp. 145–155. doi:10.1080/09523368908713685. 
  3. ^ Arnd Krüger (1986): War John Astley Cooper der Erfinder der modernen Olympischen Spiele? In: LOUIS BURGENER u.a. (Hrsg.): Sport und Kultur, Bd. 6. Bern: Lang, 72 - 81.
  4. ^ "1930 British Empire Games – Introduction". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 29 October 2009. 
  5. ^ DePauw, Karen P; Gavron, Susan J (2005). Disability sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-0-7360-4638-1. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  6. ^ Van Ooyen and Justin Anjema, Mark; Anjema, Justin (25 March 2004). "A Review and Interpretation of the Events of the 1994 Commonwealth Games" (PDF). Redeemer University College. Retrieved 25 February 2012. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Para-sports for elite athletes with a disability". Commonwealth Games Federation website. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  8. ^ High Achievers[dead link]. Australian Commonwealth Games Association. Retrieved on 2010-04-05.
  9. ^ a b c Growth of the Commonwealth Games. Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved on 2010-04-05.
  10. ^ "The Story of the Commonwealth Games". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  11. ^ Sports Programme. Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved on 26 June 2009.
  12. ^ 5 hours ago (11 June 2010). "Canoeing closer to being a full-medal event". Commonwealthdelhi2010.blogspot.com. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Fiji suspended from Commonwealth". The New Zealand Herald. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  14. ^ "Commonwealth Games Federation - Commonwealth Countries". Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  15. ^ "Campaign Kernow". Campaign Kernow. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "Glasgow 2014: Mark Cavendish relishes idea of racing with mates". BBC Sport. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 

External links[edit]