British Rail Class 50

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British Rail Class 50
Class 50 diesel-electric locomotive number 50015 Valiant.jpg
50015 Valiant, as preserved at the East Lancashire Railway in 2008.
Specifications
Power type Diesel-electric
Builder English Electric at Vulcan Foundry
Build date 1967–1968
Total produced 50
Configuration Co-Co
UIC classification Co'Co'
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Wheel diameter 3 ft 7 in (1.092 m)
Wheelbase 56 ft 2 in (17.12 m)
Length 68 ft 6 in (20.88 m)
Width 8 ft 10 in (2.69 m)
Height 12 ft 9 in (3.89 m)
Axle load 19 long tons 10 hundredweight (19.8 t; 21.8 short tons)
Locomotive weight 115 long tons (117 t; 129 short tons)
Prime mover English Electric 16 CSVT
Engine type 16 cyl, 246 litres (15,000 cu in) Diesel engine
Traction motors 6 English Electric type 538/5A axle-hung nose-suspended 400 hp (300 kW) traction motors
Multiple working Orange Square
Top speed 100 mph (160 km/h)
Power output Engine: 2,700 bhp (2,010 kW)
Tractive effort Maximum: 48,500 lbf (216 kN)
Continuous: 33,000 lbf (147,000 N)@ 23.5 mph (37.8 km/h)[1]
Train heating Electric Train Heat
Train brakes Dual (Air and Vacuum)
Career
Railroad(s) British Rail
Number D400–D449; later 50001–50050
Nicknames Hoovers
Axle load class Route availability 6

Fifty British Rail (BR) Class 50 diesel locomotives were built by English Electric at their Vulcan Foundry Works plant in Newton-le-Willows between 1967 and 1968. These locomotives were supplied to haul express passenger trains on the, then non-electrified, section of the West Coast Main Line between Crewe and Scotland. They were originally hired from English Electric Leasing, and were eventually purchased outright by BR around 1973. Before gaining their 50xxx TOPS numbers these locomotives were known as English Electric Type 4s and numbered in the D4xx series. The class were nicknamed "Hoovers"[note 1] (sometimes shortened to "Vacs") by rail enthusiasts because of the distinctive sound made by the inertial air-filters originally fitted. These proved unreliable, and were removed during mid-life refurbishment, but the "Hoover" nickname stuck. Once the electrification from Crewe to Glasgow was completed the locomotives were moved to services in the south west of England, and eventually retired from service in 1994. The fleet was been replaced by the InterCity 125 on most of the routes it operated, except the West of England Main Line, on which it was replaced by the Class 159 "South Western Turbo", and on the West Coast Main Line, which was electrified.

Description[edit]

Introduction[edit]

The Class 50 fleet design was developed following trials with a prototype which used a body similar to a Deltic but modified to house the single diesel engine and cooler group. It was developed as a private venture by English Electric and was trialled under a contract with British Rail largely on routes out of Kings Cross. BR gave the locomotive the reporting reference DP2.

Unusually BR did not initially purchase the production batch of locomotives, but agreed to lease them from English Electric. EE manufactured all fifty locomotives at its Newton-le-Willows plant, delivering them in the new corporate BR Blue livery with yellow cab fronts. From 1973 onwards, the locomotives were renumbered into the range 50001-50050, to conform with the TOPS system. With the exception of the first-built locomotive, which was renumbered to 50050, the rest of the fleet retained the last two digits of their number.

Service[edit]

The class were built for working passenger services on the West Coast Main Line (WCML) north of Crewe, to Preston, Lancaster, Carlisle and Glasgow Central. Services south of Crewe would generally be worked by an electric locomotive, with the Class 50s taking over for the journeys that continued north. Initially trains were hauled by a single locomotive, but once the electric service was introduced as far as Preston trains were often double-headed to help match the performance of the electric locomotives and to deal with the steep gradients on the route, such as Shap and Beattock. The ability to operate using multiple working had been part of the locomotive's initial design brief, but only two of the class had the facility from new, but with the introduction of the regular double headed duties, this facility was fitted to the whole class.

By 1974 the northern WCML was electrified, and the Class 50 fleet was displaced by new Class 87 electrics. The fleet was transferred to the Western Region, working mainline passenger services from London Paddington along the Great Western Main Line to destinations such as Oxford, Bristol Temple Meads, Plymouth and Penzance. It was not unusual for locomotives to work services on other routes, such as the Birmingham New Street to Bristol Temple Meads corridor. The introduction of the Class 50s on these routes enabled the last remaining, non-standard, diesel hydraulic "Westerns" to be withdrawn.

In the late-1970s, following a period where the policy of locomotive naming had been abandoned, BR were persuaded to name the class 50s after Royal Navy Vessels with notable records in the First and Second World Wars. As a result, the first locomotive naming occurred in January 1978, when 50035 was named Ark Royal by the captain and crew of then current aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal. The rest of the fleet was named during the course of the next few years.

From 1977, British Rail introduced the Class 253 High Speed Trains onto the Great Western Main Line which began the displacement of the Class 50 fleet onto other routes, such as services to Birmingham New Street from London Paddington and Bristol Temple Meads. The class also found work on the West of England Main Line from London Waterloo to Salisbury, Exeter and Plymouth. However, due in part to the over-complexity of the design, the class was plagued with reliability problems. As a result, the decision was taken in the late 1970s to refurbish the entire fleet.

Refurbishment[edit]

To deal with increasing reliability problems, the Class 50 fleet was refurbished at Doncaster Works between 1979 and 1984. Doncaster had taken responsibility for the fleet after BR completed the purchase of the locomotives from English Electric. The work involved simplifying the complex electronics and removing redundant features such as slow speed control and rheostatic braking. In addition, the air intake fan arrangement was modified, because the original setup often prevented fresh air from entering the engine room and stale, oil mist-filled air from escaping, leading to many main generator failures. This was in part due to the moisture in the air in the UK: dust and other particles would lodge in the filter system and become 'gummed up' with moisture, preventing circulation which in turn also hampered the intended engine compartment pressure levels which then meant 'filtered' air could not be evacuated by the intended means. The filtration system was fundamentally sound and widely used in other countries; the problems arose because relative humidity had not been taken into account at the design stage.[citation needed] This modification eliminated the characteristic "sucking" noise which had earned the "Hoover" nickname.

Externally, the locomotives all received high-intensity headlights, which changed the appearance of the front end. Starting with 50006, the first six locomotives were outshopped in the standard BR Blue livery. However, in 1980, 50023 Howe became the first to be outshopped in a revised livery with wrap around yellow cabs, large bodyside numerals and BR logo, in a livery that became known as BR Blue Large Logo. The final loco to be refurbished was 50014 which was released to traffic in the latter half of 1983.

Following refurbishment, the fleet was concentrated at two depots; Laira in Plymouth, and Old Oak Common in west London. The class were again used for Western Region services on the GWML out of Paddington, and on the West of England Main Line from Waterloo to Salisbury and Exeter.

British Rail Class 50 pulling the morning express across the Penadlake viaduct on 29 August 1987

In 1984, 50007 Hercules was repainted into lined Brunswick green livery and renamed Sir Edward Elgar, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Great Western Railway (GWR). Four Class 47 locomotives were similarly treated, and a Class 117 diesel multiple unit (DMU) was repainted in chocolate and cream livery. As a result, 50007 quickly became a favourite with rail enthusiasts. Another locomotive repainted in a special livery was 50019 Ramillies, which was repainted in a variation of BR Blue by staff at Plymouth Laira depot.

In 1986 the West of England Main Line came under the control of the Network SouthEast (NSE) sector, which saw the introduction of their bright blue, red and white livery. The first locomotive in this livery was again 50023 Howe. The NSE livery had two versions; the original had upswept red and white stripes and the ends, with a white cab surround; the revised livery introduced in 1988 had the red and white stripes continue to the body ends, with a blue cab surround. In the revised livery the blue became a darker shade.

Towards the end of the 1980s, the fleet could be found mostly on the West of England route, as well as fast services from Paddington to Oxford. Some locomotives were also transferred to the civil engineers department to work maintenance and engineering trains. Around this time, the first locomotives were withdrawn, starting with 50011 Centurion in early 1987. This locomotive's nameplates were later transferred to 50040, which was previously named Leviathan. A further two locomotives, 50006 Neptune and 50014 Warspite were withdrawn in 1987, followed by a further five locomotives (50010/13/22/38/47) in 1988.

In 1987, consideration was given to using the class on freight trains. To this end, 50049 "Defiance" was renumbered to 50149, equipped with modified Class 37, lower-geared bogies and outshopped in the new trainload grey livery with Railfreight decals. It was based at Plymouth Laira depot, and tested on local china clay trains in Cornwall as well as heavy stone trains to London from Devon quarries. The project was, however, not an outstanding success, and by 1989, the locomotive had returned to its original identity. Ironically, the electronic anti-wheelslip equipment (with which, the entire class had originally been built) which would have been key to the success of this experiment had been removed during the refurbishment process.

At the start of the 1990s, the reliability of the fleet became a problem again. By this time, the class was solely used on the West of England route, having been replaced on the Oxford route by Class 47/7 locomotives. Arguably, the Class 50s were not suitable for the stop-start service pattern of Waterloo-Exeter services, nor to the extended single-line sections of this route, where a single locomotive failure could cause chaos. Therefore the decision was taken to retire the fleet, temporarily replacing them with Class 47 locomotives, which were in turn replaced by new Diesel Multiple Units. From 1992, the Oxford route was worked by Class 165 and Class 166 units, whilst Class 159 units were introduced onto the West of England route in 1993.

By 1992, just eight locomotives remained in service, these being 50007/008/015/029/030/033/046/050. Several of these locomotives were specially repainted to commemorate the run-down of the fleet. The first-built locomotive, 50050 Fearless was renumbered D400 and painted in its original BR Blue livery. Two other locomotives, 50008 Thunderer and 50015 Valiant were also repainted, the former in a variation of BR Blue (the same as 50019 had previously carried), and the latter in "Dutch" civil-engineers grey/yellow livery. Of the final eight locomotives, three were retained until 1994 for use on special railtours, these being 50007 Sir Edward Elgar, 50033 Glorious and 50050 Fearless. 50007 was returned to working order using parts from 50046, which surrendered its recently overhauled power unit and bogies. By this time, 50050 had been repainted into Large Logo livery and 50007 also received a repaint into GWR green as the 1985 paint was wearing very thin. The final railtours operated in March 1994, during one of which 50033 was delivered for preservation at the National Railway Museum. The final railtour operated with 50007 and 50050 from London Waterloo to Penzance and returning to London Paddington. Both locomotives were later preserved.

Class list[edit]

Number Name[2] Date named Notes
Pre-TOPS TOPS
 D400  50050   Fearless  23.08.78  Carried nameplate 04.08.78 - 07.08.78. Preserved by the D400 Fund [3]
 D401  50001  Dreadnought   10.04.78
 D402  50002  Superb  21.03.78  Preserved by the Devon Diesel It also In the Middle Of being Restored At The South Devon Railway In Buckfastleigh[4]
 D403  50003  Temeraire  09.05.78
 D404  50004  St Vincent  09.05.78
 D405  50005  Collingwood  05.04.78
 D406  50006  Neptune  --.09.79
 D407  50007  Hercules  06.04.78  Renamed Sir Edward Elgar on 25.02.84. Now owned by Boden Rail Engineering Ltd. Original name Hercules reapplied.
 D408  50008  Thunderer  01.09.78  Preserved
 D409  50009  Conqueror  08.05.78
 D410  50010  Monarch  16.03.78
 D411  50011  Centurion  --.08.79  First to be withdrawn.
 D412  50012  Benbow  03.04.78
 D413  50013  Agincourt  19.04.78
 D414  50014  Warspite  30.05.78
 D415  50015  Valiant  21.04.78  Preserved: owned by the Bury Valiant Group
 D416  50016  Barham  03.04.78
 D417  50017  Royal Oak  24.04.78  Preserved at the Plym Valley Railway
 D418  50018  Resolution  06.04.78
 D419  50019  Ramillies  18.04.78  Preserved at the Mid Norfolk Railway
 D420  50020  Revenge  07.07.78
 D421  50021  Rodney  31.07.78  Preserved
 D422  50022  Anson  20.04.78
 D423  50023  Howe  17.05.78 Scrapped in 2003 at Barrow Hill
 D424  50024  Vanguard  15.05.78
 D425  50025  Invincible  06.06.78  Scrapped at Old Oak Common in October 1989, after derailment at West Ealing in August 1989, as a result of vandals placing an object onto the track, causing the loco to overturn.
 D426  50026  Indomitable  29.03.78  Privately Preserved[5]
 D427  50027  Lion  17.04.78  Preserved at the Mid Hants Railway. Moved from the North Yorkshire Moors Railway on 13 June 2012.
 D428  50028  Tiger  10.05.78
 D429  50029  Renown  26.10.78  Preserved: owned by the Renown Repulse restoration Group[6]
 D430  50030  Repulse  10.04.78  Preserved: owned by the Renown Repulse restoration Group[6]
 D431  50031  Hood  28.06.78  Preserved: operated by the Class 50 Alliance[7]
 D432  50032  Courageous  07.07.78
 D433  50033  Glorious  26.06.78  Preserved
 D434  50034  Furious  06.04.78
 D435  50035  Ark Royal  17.01.78  First to be named and preserved: owned by the Class 50 Alliance[8]
 D436  50036  Victorious  16.05.78
 D437  50037  Illustrious  08.06.78
 D438  50038  Formidable  05.05.78
 D439  50039  Implacable  20.06.78
 D440  50040  Leviathan  15.09.78  Scrapped at Sims Metals, June/July 2008.
 D441  50041  Bulwark  08.05.78
 D442  50042  Triumph  04.10.78  Preserved at the Bodmin and Wenford Railway
 D443  50043  Eagle  28.06.78  Scrapped for spares in 2002 at Blaenavon
 D444  50044  Exeter  26.04.78  Preserved: owned by the Class 50 Alliance[8]
 D445  50045  Achilles  12.04.78
 D446  50046  Ajax  11.10.78
 D447  50047  Swiftsure  26.05.78
 D448  50048  Dauntless  16.03.78
 D449  50049
 50149
 Defiance  02.05.78  50149 carried during experimental Railfreight period (see text).
 Preserved: owned by the Class 50 Alliance[8]

Portuguese locomotives[edit]

En route from Barriero to Vila Real de Santo António on 27 November 1990, 1805 pauses at Ermidas Sado where it was booked to cross over with a northbound train.
See also: CP Class 1800

The Portuguese Railways, CP, bought ten locomotives similar to the BR Class 50. These locomotives, designated by CP as "Série 1800" (numbered 1801–1810), entered service in 1968.

Like the British Class 50s, they were equipped with an English Electric 16 CSVT engine and produced 2700 hp (2020 HP at the wheels). Unlike the BR locomotives upon which electronic control is extensively used, the Portuguese locomotives employ conventional control gear (the only exceptions being stepless control of tractive effort by a solid-state load regulator and the use of a very effective out-of-balance wheel-slip detector). The main generator and the traction motors are identical to those used on the BR Type 3 and Deltic locomotives. Contrary to BR Class 50, the Portuguese Série 1800 locomotives were built to be as much compatible with the smaller Série 1400 (themselves similar to BR Class 20) as possible and also to use as many common components as possible.

They were the only diesel locomotives in Portugal authorised to run at 140 km/h. The CP Série 1800s were all withdrawn in 2001 and (as of 2012) several have been cut up, and the future of the rest is unclear.

Locomotive 1805 has been preserved in operational condition by the Portuguese National Railway Museum at Entroncamento. It was repainted at the CP workshop at Contumil near Porto. Since the 1980s it had been painted in CP's corporate orange livery; it has been repainted in its original distinctive blue livery. It is fully functional, and while still an integral part of the National Railway Museum, is set to return to service pulling tourist trains in the Douro River Line.

Preservation[edit]

Class 50 locomotives proved popular with rail enthusiasts, with eighteen locomotives saved for preservation and several subsequently registered for use on the mainline.

An ambitious project involving preserved Class 50s was "Operation Collingwood", an engineering charity established in the early 1990s. The aim had been to train young engineering apprentices by getting them to rebuild railway locomotives and Class 50s were chosen both for the fact that they were a British design throughout and that all were named (so the apprentices would derive some pride from rededication ceremonies at the completion of their work). To this end, Operation Collingwood purchased and stored 50001, 50023, 50029, 50030, 50040 and 50045. All except 50029 and 50030 were heavily stripped examples sold to scrapyards for final cutting up. The intention was to restore them by using industrial sponsorship money to build an engineering centre and overhaul the components, making brand new ones where necessary to overcome lack of availability of some parts unique to the original design. These ambitions failed when sponsorship did not reach the required level and the project lost various key people. The charity was wound up in 2002; 50001/023/040 and 045 were sold back to scrapyards and their state as little more than bodyshells deterred most further preservation attempts. 50045 was scrapped to provide spares for preserved 50026, and 50001 met a similar fate. A private individual made an attempt to restore 50023 using some parts from 50001 but this was abandoned and the shell was cut up a few years after the initial purchase. 50040 could have been suitable for cosmetic restoration, but after many years untouched and in a derelict state at the Coventry Railway Centre, it finally had all remaining parts stripped for spares and was transported to Sims Metals of Halesowen and scrapping. The cutting of the derelict hulk was completed by Wednesday 2 July 2008. 50029 and 50030 were in far better mechanical condition, and were sold to a preservation group for full restoration.

50043 Eagle was purchased in almost working order (the main generator had failed, a very common Class 50 problem) but it was never intended for restoration. Instead the power unit was gutted to provide parts for preserved Class 40 no. 40118 as the two share a very similar design of diesel engine. Eagle was then subjected to a further bout of stripping when electrical and other parts were sold to various Class 50 preservationists. Although cosmetically very smart, the loco was by this stage unrestorable and although an ambitious private individual did try, this effort soon came to naught and it was scrapped to provide parts for 50026 Indomitable.

Once preserved, 50002 became the first class 50 to operate a train for a private excursion on the South Devon Railway (April 1992), while 50031 was the first to operate a train for fare paying passengers (Severn Valley Railway May 1992). 50031 was also the first to operate on the mainline, hauling the Past Time Railtours Pilgrim Hoover train from Birmingham International to Plymouth on 1 November 1997. Since then several other members of the class have also been passed for use on Network Rail (was Railtrack) lines (including 50044, 50049 and 50050). However with changes in the UK's Rail Access regulations (requiring fitment of additional equipment: TPWS/OTMR/GSMR) some of these locos are no longer of a standard to continue mainline operation. Only 50044 & 50049, along with the repainted 50007 are presently passed for mainline running. The owners of 50008 & 50026 aim to restore the two to mainline use in the near future.

One locomotive, 50017, was hired to Venice Simplon Orient Express (VSOE) to work the Northern Belle service from Bath to Manchester Victoria. As part of the contract it was painted in LMS-style maroon livery. Following this, the loco spent many years dumped at Tyseley locomotive works before being sold to a private individual. The loco has now been restored to working order at the Plym Valley Railway.

In 2003 the National Railway Museum decided to dispose of 50033, subject to a suitable owner being found due to an inability to commit to maintenance and storage costs. After spending a period on loan to the North Yorkshire Moors Railway in 2004 the locomotive was moved to the Swindon Steam Railway Museum. However, soon after it was sent on to the Tyseley Locomotive Works as part of a proposed move to the RailSchool project and Royal Docks Heritage Railway in North Woolwich, London. However, this scheme soon fell by the wayside, and 50033 languished at Tysley for several years before finally being sold on to Vintage Trains in 2013.

In 2005, 50031 and 50049 were on long term hire to Arriva Trains Wales (ATW), for use on special services in connection with events at the Millennium Stadium, and over the summer period saw regular use on the Monday to Saturday "Fishguard Flyer" from Cardiff to Fishguard and return, in connection with the ferry sailing to Ireland. One of the two locomotives was used for the service each day, along with 4 Mark 2 coaches, the short formation and high power leading to very good performance. This arrangement lasted for one year. At the end of this period 50031 failed whilst working an ECS (Empty Coaching Stock) train, again for ATW.

During the summer of 2008 50044 "Exeter" was fitted with OTMR, and the TPWS fitted previously was commissioned. In October 2008 '44 was re-registered for mainline use, and operated its first revenue mainline train on 18 October 2008, when it worked, in multiple with 50049 "Defiance" on a railtour from Manchester Piccadilly to Minehead.

Several owning groups have ceremonially re-dedicated their locomotives to the warships whose names they carry. The HMS Hood Association rededicated 50031 Hood at the Mid Hants Railway, unveiling new crests. The crew of HMS Exeter re-dedicated D444 Exeter at the Severn Valley Railway a year before the vessel was decommissioned, unveiling a crest and early-BR-style nameplates. The captain of HMS Ark Royal performed the re-dedication ceremony for 50135 Ark Royal at the Eastleigh 100 Open Days.

List of preserved locomotives[edit]

Numbers (current in bold) Name Livery Location Notes
D400 50050 - Fearless BR Blue Yeovil Railway Centre First-built locomotive and currently under restoration
D402 50002 - Superb BR Blue South Devon Railway Being cosmetically restored to unrefurbished condition
D407 50007 - Hercules BR Blue Washwood Heath TMD Mainline registered.
Owned by Boden Rail Engineering Ltd. The GWR 150 name Sir Edward Elgar and GWR Green livery have both been replaced and the original name, Hercules, has been reapplied

Operational

D408 50008 - Thunderer BR "Laira Blue" Washwood Heath (Hanson) Re-entered preservation in 2006. Repainted by ELR 2009-2010

Awaiting main gen attention

D415 50015 - Valiant BR Blue Large Logo East Lancashire Railway Only Class 50 to carry "Dutch" civil-engineers livery in BR ownership. Preserved by Bury Valiant Group

Oprational

D417 50017 50117 Royal Oak Network SouthEast (Original) Plym Valley Railway Previously used to operate VSOE Northern Belle.

Oprational

D419 50019 - Ramillies BR Blue Large Logo Mid-Norfolk Railway Under overhaul
D421 50021 - Rodney BR Blue Large Logo (Black Roof) Tyseley Locomotive Works Currently stored unservicable
D426 50026 - Indomitable Network SouthEast (Revised) Severn Valley Railway Operational and fitted with OTMR and TPWS equipment for mainline operation. Requires GSM-R Radio.
D427 50027 - Lion Network SouthEast (Revised) Mid Hants Railway Operational
D429 50029 - Renown BR Blue Large Logo (Black Roof) Peak Rail -
D430 50030 - Repulse BR Blue Large Logo Peak Rail -
D431 50031 - Hood BR Blue Large Logo Eastleigh works (Arlington Rail) Under assessment.
D433 50033 - Glorious BR Blue Large Logo Tyseley Locomotive Works Previously at Swindon Steam Railway Museum. Now owned by Vintage Trains.
D435 50035 50135 Ark Royal Non-prototypical Load-Haul Severn Valley Railway Currently under repair at Eastleigh works
D442 50042 - Triumph BR Blue Bodmin & Wenford Railway -
D444 50044 - Exeter BR Blue Severn Valley Railway Mainline registered
Currently awaiting a power unit repair at Brush, Loughborough.
D449 50049 50149 Defiance BR Blue Large Logo (Black Roof) Severn Valley Railway Mainline registered.
Currently undergoing a power unit repair at the Severn Valley Railway.

Gallery[edit]

References, literature and notes[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ after The Hoover Company, the name "Hoover" being a genericized trademark used to apply to all makes of Vacuum cleaners in the UK

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.auran.com/trainz/database/class50t.html
  2. ^ "Class 50 Locomotive Names". Class50.com. Retrieved 2 October 2010. 
  3. ^ http://www.d400fund.org.uk/
  4. ^ http://www.devondiesels.org.uk/
  5. ^ http://www.50026.com/
  6. ^ a b Locomotives owned by Renown Repulse Restoration Group
  7. ^ Locomotives operated by the Class 50 Alliance Ltd (Accessed 2009-01-28)
  8. ^ a b c Locomotives owned by the Class 50 Alliance Ltd (Accessed 2009-01-28)

Sources[edit]

  • Clough, David (2004). Class 50s in Operation. Hersham: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-711029-71-7. 
  • Chalcraft, John; Scott-Lowe, Graham (1979). Book of the Fifties. Gloucester: Peter Watts Publishing. ISBN 0-906025-10-9. 
  • Chalcraft, John (1985). Portrait of the Fifties. Bristol: Rail Photoprints. ISBN 0-906883-07-5. 
  • Vaughan, John (1979). The Power of the 50s. Oxford: OPC. ISBN 0-86093-060-2. 

Further reading[edit]

  • McManus, Michael. Ultimate Allocations, British Railways Locomotives 1948 - 1968. Wirral. Michael McManus. 

External links[edit]