British Rail Class 73
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|British Rail Class 73|
|Builder||73/0: British Railways’ Eastleigh Works
73/1: English Electric at Vulcan Foundry
|Build date||1962, 1965–1967|
|AAR wheel arr.||B-B|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Wheel diameter||3 ft 4 in (1,016 mm)|
|Length||16.36 m (53 ft 8 in)|
|Locomotive weight||73/0: 76.30 long tons (77.52 t; 85.46 short tons)
73/1: 76.80 long tons (78.03 t)
|Electric system(s)||660–750 V DC Third rail|
|Prime mover||English Electric 4SRKT Mk II|
|Traction motors||73/0: EE 542A
73/1: EE 546/1B
|Top speed||73/0: 80 mph (129 km/h)
73/1: 90 mph (145 km/h)
|Power output||Electric (continuous): 1,420 hp (1,059 kW)
Electric (one-hour): 1,600 hp (1,193 kW)
Engine: 600 hp (447 kW)
|Tractive effort||73/0 (electric): 42,000 lbf (186.8 kN)
73/0 (diesel): 34,100 lbf (151.7 kN)
73/1 (electric): 40,000 lbf (177.9 kN)
73/1 (diesel): 36,000 lbf (160.1 kN)
|Train heating||Electric Train Heating|
|Train brakes||Vacuum, Air and Electro-Pneumatic|
South West Trains
|Number||E6001–E6049; later 73001–73006, 73101–73142|
|Axle load class||Route availability 6|
The British Rail Class 73 is a United Kingdom model of electro-diesel locomotive. The type is unusual in that it can operate from the Southern Region's 650/750 V DC third-rail or an on-board diesel engine to allow it to operate on non-electrified routes. This makes it very versatile, although the diesel engine produces less power than is available from the third-rail supply so the locomotives rarely stray from the former Southern Region of British Rail. Following the withdrawal and scrapping of the more powerful Class 74 electro-diesels in 1977, the Class 73 is now unique on the British railway network. 10 locomotives have been scrapped.
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 Technical details
- 4 British Rail operations
- 5 Post-privatisation operations
- 6 Preservation
- 7 Fleet summary
- 8 Fleet details
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
|This section requires expansion with: the reason an electro-diesel locomotive was chosen. (April 2011)|
These locomotives were ordered as part of British Railways' 1955 Modernisation plan which included the extension of the Southern Region electrification to various main lines.
This class of 49 locomotives was built in two batches using English Electric components. The first six locomotives were built by BR at Eastleigh works in 1962 and were numbered E6001-E6006 and classified as type JA. With the introduction of TOPS in 1968 they were to have been classified as Class 72, to differentiate from the later built units. However, instead they became Class 73/0. In the early 1970s the locomotives were renumbered 73001-73006.
Following successful trials of the initial locomotives, a production run of 43 locomotives were built by English Electric at their Vulcan Foundry between 1965 and 1967. They were initially classified as Class JB and numbered E6007-E6049. They differed slightly from the six earlier machines, most notably having an increased tractive effort as well as a higher maximum speed (90 mph as opposed to 80). Following the introduction of TOPS, they became Class 73/1 and were renumbered 73101-73142. One locomotive, E6027, had already been withdrawn following accident damage and so was not renumbered. Further changes were the use of large round Oleo buffers with a pneumatic withdrawal mechanism rather that the traditional coach style (oval) saddle buffer which relied on a pin and spring mechanism. As the JA examples came in for overhaul over the years, the saddle buffers were also replaced making visual identification of the differing machines almost impossible from a distance.
From new, all members of the class were fitted with the Pullman style rubbing plate between the buffers allowing them to close couple with Southern Region electro-pneumatically controlled electric multiple units and diesel electric multiple units for push-pull train operation - the reason for retractable buffers.
The narrow box-like body allowed use all over the Southern Region network including through the narrow tunnels on the Hastings Line.
These locomotives were equipped to operate from the 650 or 750 V DC third-rail or an on-board diesel engine to allow it to operate over non-electrified routes.
Electrical power was gathered in the normal manner of collector shoes which ran along the top of the third rail. There are two shoes mounted on either side of each bogie which could be retracted when not in use to avoid damage as they were prone to drop out of gauge slightly when not under pressure.
A major design flaw with the class was that the traction current circuits of each bogie were not isolated. The 3rd rail supply is generated close to the rail line and there are many areas where it changes from one substation to another. Although great effort is made to ensure the voltages are the same between sections, at the extreme ends of supply there can be very large differences due mainly to voltage drops caused by other electric trains. There are examples of fires in class 73 where the locomotive has acted as an electrical bridge between two different substations causing the traction circuit inside the locomotive to take the brunt of the huge surges in supply as trains move in and out of the sections behind and in front. This problem was particularly noticeable at junctions where conductor rails cannot be separated by a good distance and many of the class were damaged by fire caused in this manner over the years. Class 73 was well known for incredible displays of arcing at the collector shoes for this exact reason.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2011)|
Unlike the previous Southern Region Class 70 and Class 71 electric locomotives, these did not have a booster to maintain traction power over gaps in the conductor rail. However, they could move forward onto an electrified section under diesel power.
Diesel engine and generator
|This section requires expansion. (April 2011)|
The 600 horsepower (447 kW) English Electric 4SRKT Mk II diesel engine was less powerful, but more reliable than the 650 horsepower (485 kW) Paxman 6YJXL fitted to the later Class 74 electro-diesel locomotives.
|This section requires expansion with: material similar to that in the British Rail Class 74 section on Electronic traction control. (April 2011)|
The Class 73 uses two separate power controllers on the driver's desk; one for electric and the other for diesel power.
Multiple working was to the standard SR 27-wire system a design that ensured excellent compatibility. They could work with other 33/1, 71, 74, most Southern Region electric multiple units and diesel electric multiple units built 1956-74. Being EP, class 73 multiple working was also possible with Blue Star coupling-coded mainline diesel locomotives of types 2, 3 and 4 - though such operational combinations were rare. Delivery of class 73/1 from Vulcan Works was with the locomotives under power, most often as light-engine moves. Many such movements also included deliveries of later-build class 20 (blue-star coded) in tow. Both locomotives would be under power with a single crew and the trip south would constitute part of the "burn-in" of both diesel engines. On such moves, the class 73 would often work into Doncaster yard, drop off the '20 and continue south to Stewarts Lane depot in South London all in a single move. As an aside here, such was the reliability of both the design and build, the '73 would often be put to work the same day of arrival after examination by the reception fitters.
Incompatible coupling codes required two locomotive crews. Waterloo - Exeter services traditionally used locomotives borrowed from the Western Region and this service was a mainstay for "Warship" class 42/43 locomotives. Over the years, this class suffered badly from vacuum train brake failures and the Stewarts Lane standby was often called to assist. 73+42 combinations have been noted leading Exeter trains as far as Basingstoke or Salisbury where the failed locomotive would be replaced. Ironically, the class 73 on electrical power was capable partner for the Warship and any delay in the service leaving was usually made-up by the time the train arrived at Basingstoke.
British Rail operations
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Since privatisation, the Class 73 fleet has been reduced in size following the large-scale withdrawals of the EWS and Gatwick Express fleets. However, many smaller operators have acquired locomotives, so their continued use is assured for the foreseeable future.
Eurostar owns and formerly operated two Class 73 locomotives, which were specially modified to be enable them to haul a Eurostar unit. The two locomotives; 73118 and 73130, have additional coupling equipment fitted and were primarily used to rescue failed Eurostar sets, or to haul them over non-electrified routes. They were rarely used away from North Pole depot. When Eurostar moved its operations to the new Temple Mills depot and onto the overhead wiring of High Speed 1 in 2007, the Class 73 locomotives became redundant and were loaned to educational initiatives: 73130 went to RailSchool in East London and 73118 went to Barry Rail Centre in South Wales. Subsequently, when RailSchool failed, 73130 was loaned to the Bluebell Railway but is stored away from the railway.
FM Rail (previously Fragonset Railways) bought several redundant locomotives from EWS. Most of these were initially stored at various locations around the country, including preservation sites, such as the Mid-Hants Railway, the Peak Railway and the Dartmoor Railway. Some of these locomotives were repaired for use on these heritage railways, such as no. 73134 on the Dartmoor Railway.
One locomotive, no. 73107 "Spitfire" returned to mainline traffic in 2004 following overhaul. It was repainted in Fragonset's black freight livery, and was expected to be used on empty coaching stock moves associated with charter trains. It was regularly hired to FirstGBRf from late 2004 as cover for their fleet and was based at C2C's East Ham Depot along with the Blue Pullman Rake. In 2007 it was acquired by RT Rail and has been overhauled and repainted in a GBRf-esque livery at St. Leonards Depot.
Until mid-2005, Gatwick Express operated several Class 73s with Mk 2 EMU sets with GLV luggage vans. Most have now been withdrawn and replaced by EMUs. However 73202 "Dave Berry" has been retained as a "Thunderbird" engine to rescue failed EMUs. Along with the rest of the Gatwick Express franchise, it has now passed to Southern.
GB Railfreight is the newest operator of Class 73 locomotives, having bought six redundant Gatwick Express locomotives, numbers 73203-207 and 73209. Four of these (73204-206 and 209) have now been returned to traffic after overhaul by Fragonset at Derby. They have been repainted in the company's blue and orange livery, and named after female employees. The locomotives are primarily used on engineering trains originating from Eastleigh and Tonbridge. The former company FirstGBRf has purchased 73208 and repainted it into BR Blue. In early 2009 73207 was repainted in Large Logo Blue and used for shunting duties in Whitemoor Yard. FirstGBRf has also acquired 73141, 73212 and 73213, with all three painted in the new First Group livery; however, 73212 lacks the FirstGroup logo. 73141 was named 'Charlotte' in July 2009, which was known for being named twice in February 2009. Now operated by the Eurotunnel Group, the trains are now being de-branded from the First Group branding. 73119 was purchased from Knights Rail Services in September 2011 and returned to service in June 2012. In 2013, Class 73s 73109 and 73136 were brought by GB Railfreight. They have since been repainted along with FirstGRBF liveried 73141, 212 and 73213 at St. Leonards Depot into GB Railfreight livery.
Commencing in 2013, five GB Railfreight Class 73 are being re-engined as Class 73/9 by Brush Traction Wabtec at their factory in Loughborough. The first three converted locomotives, renumbered 73961-3 from 73209, 73204 and 73206 respectively, are being fitted with MTU 1,600 hp V8 engines. All existing mechanical and electrical components have been removed prior to the re-fit, and the frontal appearance of the locomotives has been altered by the provision of light clusters and the installation of a more central location for the jumper cables. The dual driving positions have been retained although with a new design for the driver's controls. The refurbished locomotives will be capable of working with existing Class 73/1 and 73/2 units in either diesel or electric mode.
Merseyrail Electrics had a fleet of four Class 73/0 locomotives (Nos. 73 001, 73 002, 73 004*, 73 005 & 73 006), based at Birkenhead North TMD, for use on shunting and other departmental duties. Two, nos. 73001 and 73006 were repainted into Merseyrail's yellow livery. They were later fitted with sandite discharging equipment and reclassified as Class 73/9. The locomotives were withdrawn from traffic by 2002, and all four were later sold for preservation.
- 73 004 was used as a source of spare parts and was the first to be cut up.
Network Rail inherited two redundant Gatwick Express locomotives, nos. 73212 and 73213, from its predecessor Railtrack. These were overhauled and painted in the company's blue and green livery. They are used on engineering trains associated with an upgrade of electrical supply systems on the former Southern Region.
A third locomotive, no. 73141, was originally bought for spare parts, but was returned to traffic in case of failure of one of the other two locomotives. The locomotives were later repainted into Network Rail all-over-yellow with red buffer beams.
In 2009, 73141 was acquired by FirstGBRf, with 73212 and 73213 following shortly afterwards.
South West Trains
South West Trains inherited one locomotive, no. 73109, which is used as a "Thunderbird" rescue locomotive. It was named in 1990 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Britain. It is affectionately known as "BoB" by rail enthusiasts.
South West Trains later expanded its fleet, by leasing two more locomotives from Porterbrook, nos. 73201 and 73235. Both are former Gatwick Express locomotives. The first of these, no. 73235, was overhauled in early 2005 and repainted in the new Desiro blue livery. It was joined by no. 73201 later in the same year. Around the same time, no. 73109 was also repainted into the new blue livery. 73109 was acquired by Transmart Trains in 2009.
Transmart Trains (formerly The Class 73 Locomotive Preservation Company)
The Class 73 Locomotive Preservation Company (C73LPC) formed in 2004 to manage locomotive 73136 at Stewarts Lane Depot, London. 73136, the last 73 operated by EWS was renamed "Perseverance", is now fully fitted with TPWS and OTMR equipment following the implementation of OTMR during the summer of 2006. The locomotive is registered for use on the national rail network and is available for either short term 'spot' hire or medium term contracts. The loco was hired to the Bluebell Railway during 2009 to assist with its Northern Extension to East Grinstead. In August 2006, the company was contracted by GBRf to repaint GBRf's 73208 into BR Blue for future use on charter work with 73136. The company has also restored 73210 at Stewarts Lane Depot, this locomotive is privately owned. The loco moved to its new home on the Mid Norfolk Railway in September 2008.
The Class 73 Locomotive Preservation Company changed ownership in 2009 and was renamed Transmart Trains in 2010. Since the takeover, the company expanded its operations and managed five Class 73 locomotives. These were 73109, 73118, 73133, 73136, 73211. Number 73211 has been stripped for spares and is unlikely to return to service. 73133 has since been sold to a partner group of Transmart, and left Selhurst by road for a new life at Barry Island.
In 2013, Class 73s 73109 and 73136 were sold on for further use with GB Railfreight. They have since been repainted along with FirstGRBF liveried 73141, 212 and 73213 at St. Leonards Depot into GB Railfreight livery.
Several locomotives have been preserved on heritage railways, where perforce they run on their diesel engines: no preserved line has third rail electrification. They are particularly popular because they have a small diesel engine and hence are efficient with speeds normally limited to 25 mph, yet they are big mainline locomotives and thus more attractive than diesel shunters with similar-sized engines. Of note are the first built locomotive, No. 73001 (an ex-Merseyrail Class 73/9), and the former Pullman locomotive, No. 73101.
73136 was rescued from a scrapyard and rebuilt by a group of enthusiasts to main-line standards. It was the first privately preserved electric locomotive to be certified for use on Network rail lines at a speed of 90 mph.
|Numbers (current in bold)||Name||Livery||Location||Notes|
|E6001||73001||73901||-||BR blue with black cab window surrounds||Dean Forest Railway||First-built JA locomotive. Operational.|
|E6002||73002||-||-||BR Blue Large Logo||Dean Forest Railway||Static Display.|
|E6003||73003||-||Sir Herbert Walker||BR two-tone green||Swindon and Cricklade Railway||First example preserved (December 1996). Operational.|
|E6005||73005||-||-||BR Electric Blue||Eastleigh Works||Awaiting repair.|
|E6006||73006||73906||-||BR Blue||Crewe Heritage Centre||Operational.|
|E6007||73101||73100||The Royal Alex'||Pullman||Avon Valley Railway||First-built JB locomotive. Former Pullman locomotive.
|E6016||73110||-||-||BR Electric Blue||Nottingham Transport Heritage Centre||Operational.|
|E6035||73128||-||OVS Bulleid CBE||EW&S Red/Gold||Pontypool and Blaenavon Railway||.|
|E6036||73129||-||-||BR Electric Blue||Gloucestershire Warwickshire Railway||Bodywork repairs/Repaint completed.|
|E6040||73133||-||-||BR Electric Blue||Barry Island Railway||Operational.|
|E6047||73140||-||-||BR blue with small warning panels||Spa Valley Railway||Operational.|
|No. range||Operators||Loco nos.||No. in traffic||Withdrawn||No. preserved|
|Class 73/2||14*||73201-213/235||Gatwick Express||73202/211||2||-||1|
|South West Trains||73235||1||-|
|Key:||In Service||Withdrawn||Preserved||Under Repair||Departmental||Scrapped|
|E6001||73001||73901||-||-||Merseyrail||Merseyrail||05/2000||Preserved at Dean Forest Railway|
|E6002||73002||-||-||-||BR Blue Large Logo||Merseyrail||11/1995.||Preserved at Dean Forest Railway||Stored as surplus to requirements and used as spares at Kirkdale with 73005 (which was later resurrected). It is now preserved, although unlikely to run again. It is on static display at Lydney and used as a source of spares and storage. It is heavily stripped, although it retains power unit from 73132.|
|E6003||73003||-||Sir Herbert Walker||1993-||BR Green||EWS||09/1996||Preserved at Swindon and Cricklade Railway|
|E6004||73004||-||The Bluebell Railway||1987–1990||Bluebell Blue||British Rail||09/1991||Scrapped at Kingsbury by HNRC (02/2004)||Used as a source of spares for 73003 at Isfield.|
|E6005||73005||-||1988–1993||BR Blue||Merseyrail||12/2001||Preserved at Severn Valley Railway|
|E6006||73006||73906||-||-||Merseyrail||Merseyrail||12/2001||Preserved at Crewe Heritage Centre|
|E6007||73101||73100||Brighton Evening Argus
The Royal Alex'
|Pullman||EWS||05/2002||Stored at Derby RTC. To be added to the 73/3 overhaul program.|
|E6008||73102||73212||Airtour Suisse||1985–1997||First Group Blue||GB Railfreight||-||In service||Now the oldest class 73 still in main line use|
|E6009||73103||-||-||-||InterCity Executive||Nemesis Rail||01/1999||Burton upon Trent|
|E6010||73104||-||-||-||InterCity Executive||04/1999||Withdrawn at Weardale Railway||Stored inside old steam shed, possibly used as a source of spares for 73139 at Wolsingham, Weardale Railway.|
|E6011||73105||-||Quadrant||1987–1990||Civil Engineers||Nemesis Rail||02/2000||Burton upon Trent.|
|E6012||73106||-||-||-||BR Engineers Grey||EWS||02/2000||Scrapped at Rotherham (09/2004)|
|Plain Grey||RT Rail||-||In service|
|E6014||73108||-||-||-||Civil Engineers||EWS||01/2002||Scrapped at Rotherham (09/2004)|
|E6015||73109||-||Battle of Britain 50th Anniversary||1990-||SWT Blue/Red||Transmart Trains||-||In service, owned by Transmart Trains and available for main line hire.|
|E6016||73110||-||-||-||BR Electric Blue||EWS||05/2002||Preserved at Nottingham Transport Heritage Centre|
|E6017||73111||-||-||-||InterCity Executive||British Rail||05/1991||Scrapped at Stewarts Lane (01/1997)|
|E6018||73112||73213||University of Kent at Canterbury||1990–1997||First Group Blue||GB Railfreight||-||In service|
|E6019||73113||73211||County of West Sussex||1986–1991||Gatwick Express||Gatwick Express||07/2002||Withdrawn||Previously Withdrawn at Stewarts Lane & heavily stripped, since purchased by RVEL with a view to re-engining.|
|E6020||73114||-||Stewarts Lane Traction Maintenance Depot||1994–1999||BR Blue Large Logo||Nemesis Rail||01/1999||On loan to Battlefield Line Railway|
|E6021||73115||-||-||-||BR Blue||British Rail||04/1982||Scrapped at Slade Green Depot (04/1982)|
|E6022||73116||73210||Selhurst||1986–1997||INTERCITY||Gatwick Express||09/2002||Preserved at Mid-Norfolk Railway|
|E6023||73117||-||University of Surrey||1987–1996||BR Blue||Nemesis Rail||01/1999||Burton upon Trent|
|E6024||73118||-||The Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway||1987–1996||EPS Grey||Eurostar||-||Operated by Transmart trains and operational at the Barry Rail Centre|
Borough of Eastleigh
|BR Blue||GB Railfreight||-||In service|
|E6026||73120||73209||Alison||2005-||GBRf||GB Railfreight||-||at Brush Loughborough as a test bed for MTU re-engining & new control systems|
|E6027||-||-||-||-||BR Blue||British Rail||07/1972||Scrapped at Slade Green (02/1973)||Extensively damaged in an accident at Horsham 08/01/1972.|
|BR Blue||GB Railfreight||-||In service.||Renamed Kirsten on 10 August 2006 at London Victoria.|
|E6029||73122||73207||County of East Sussex||1985–1997||BR Blue Large Logo||GB Railfreight||02/2001||In service||Used for several Months as Yard Shunter at Whitemoor yard, March and returned to main line service during 2009.|
|GBRf||GB Railfreight||-||In service|
|E6031||73124||73205||London Chamber of Commerce
|GBRf||Intercity executive||-||In service||Out of service for most of 2010 awaiting new wheelsets and a repaint, this work was completed during early 2011 and was enhanced by an unexpected repaint into Intercity 'Executive' livery by St Leonards depot|
|GBRf||GB Railfreight||-||In service|
|E6033||73126||-||Kent & East Sussex Railway||1991–1997||Network SouthEast||EWS||01/1999||Scrapped at Booth Roe Metals, Rotherham 6/8/09||Stored early/mid-1996. Became source of spare parts for the Class 73 refurbishment programme at Stewarts Lane in July 1996 and to donate power unit to 73112 (now 73213) for reinstatement. Moved to Old Oak Common in early 1998 to provide further spares and officially withdrawn 1/1999. It was then moved to the Fire Service Training College at Moreton-in-Marsh and used for training exercising until sold for scrap 26/7/09.|
|E6034||73127||73203||-||-||Gatwick Express||FirstGBRf||05/2001||Withdrawn||Stripped for spares and scrapped, after periods in store at Peterborough, Tonbridge and St Leonards depots, during mid-2009|
|E6035||73128||-||O.V.S. Bullied C.B.E.
C.M.E. Southern Railway 1937-1949
|1991–1997||EW&S Red/Gold||EWS||02/2002||Preserved at Pontypool and Blaenavon Railway|
|E6036||73129||-||City of Winchester||1982–2003||Network SouthEast||EWS||06/2002||Preserved at Gloucestershire and Warwickshire Railway||Bodywork restoration and repaint into electric blue livery nearly complete.|
|E6037||73130||-||City of Portsmouth||1988–1996||EPS Grey||Eurostar||-||In service|
|E6038||73131||-||County of Surrey||1988–1993||EWS Red/Gold||EWS||09/2003||Scrapped at Rotherham (08/2004)|
|E6039||73132||-||-||-||InterCity Executive||-||11/1998||Scrapped by Ron Hull Jr, Rotherham (08/2006)||Stripped of parts at Derby RTC|
|E6040||73133||-||The Bluebell Railway||1990–2004||Transmart Trains Green livery with small yellow warning panels||Transmart Trains||-||In service, available for hire.||Previously used at Fairwater Yard, Taunton. Now in process of being repainted and repaired at Selhurst Depot. Owned by Transmart Trains.|
|E6041||73134||-||Woking Homes 1885-1985||1985–1996||InterCity Executive||Nemesis Rail||04/1999||Burton upon Trent|
|E6042||73135||73235||-||-||SWT Blue/Red||South West Trains||-||Stored|
|E6043||73136||-||Kent Youth Music
|Transmart Trains Green with small yellow warning panels||Transmart Trains||01/2004||Owned by Transmart Trains; available for main line hire|
|E6044||73137||73202||Royal Observer Corps
|Southern||Southern / Gatwick Express||-||In service.||Repainted from Gatwick Express livery at St Leonards Railway Engineering, released 09/12/13, moved back to Stewarts Lane 10/12/13|
|E6045||73138||-||-||-||Network Rail||Network Rail||-||In Service.|
|E6046||73139||-||-||-||Weardale Railway brown and cream||03/1999||Operational. Leased out to Weardale Railway.|
|E6047||73140||-||-||-||BR Blue||Spa Valley Railway||11/1998||Preserved at Tunbridge Wells West (75F).||First JB in preservation, private owned, on hire to the Spa Valley Railway in 2000|
|E6048||73141||-||Ron Westwood / David Gay
|First Group Blue||GB Railfreight||-||In Service.||Network Rail named 73141 twice (one name on each side) on 20 February 2009. By July 2009, the locomotive was in service with FirstGBRf.|
|BR Blue||RT Rail||-||In service.||Renamed Broadlands on 21 May 2009 during the centenary celebration of Eastleigh Works.|
- P32AC-DM A United States locomotive with the same ability.
- Glasspool, David. "Class 73". Kent Rail. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "Electro-Diesel 73141 Named Twice". Southern Electric Group. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
- "GBRF's New Class 73s close to completion", Modern Railways, February 2014, p.87.
- "BBRF,s first class 73/9 is close to completion", Railways Illustrated, March, 2014, p.8-9.
- "?". RAIL (640): 30–31. 24 March 2010.
- McManus, Michael. Ultimate Allocations, British Railways Locomotives 1948 - 1968. Wirral. Michael McManus.
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