British Rail Class 85

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British Railways AL5
British Rail Class 85
85007 Carlisle.jpg
85007 at Carlisle
Type and origin
Power type Electric
Builder British RailwaysDoncaster Works
Build date 1961–1964
Total produced 40
Specifications
Configuration Bo-Bo
AAR wheel arr. B-B
UIC classification Bo-Bo
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Wheel diameter 4 ft 0 in (1.219 m)
Length 56 ft 6 in (17.22 m)
Locomotive weight 79.5 long tons (80.8 t; 89.0 short tons)
Electric system(s) 25 kV AC Catenary
Traction motors 847 hp (632 kW) BTH 189, 4 off
Performance figures
Maximum speed 85/0: 100 mph (160 km/h)
85/1: 80 mph (130 km/h)
Power output 3,200 hp (2,400 kW)
Tractive effort 50,000 lbf (222,000 N)
Train heating Electric Train Heating
Locomotive brake Air
Locomotive
brakeforce
69 long tons-force (688 kN)
Train brakes Vacuum, Dual from 1968–1971
Career
Operator(s) British Rail
Number(s) E3056–E3095; later 85001–85040
Axle load class Route availability 6
Retired 1981–1992
Disposition One preserved, remainder scrapped

The British Rail Class 85 is an electric locomotive built during the early 1960s, as part of BR's policy to develop a standard electric locomotive. Five prototype classes (81-85) were built and evaluated, which eventually led to the development of the Class 86 locomotive. The locomotives of Class 85 were originally fitted with germanium rectifiers which were eventually replaced by silicon rectifiers. Forty of these locomotives were built from 1961-64 by BR at Doncaster Works. The class were used to haul trains on the then newly electrified West Coast Main Line, from Birmingham, to Crewe, Manchester Piccadilly, Liverpool and later Preston. By 1965, electrification had spread south to London Euston.

Under the earlier BR classification, the type was given the designation AL5 (meaning the 5th design of 25 kV AC locomotive), and locomotives were numbered E3056-E3095. In 1968, this was changed to Class 85, when BR introduced a new computer numbering system. From 1971 onwards, locomotives were progressively renumbered into the 85001-040 series. Fifteen locomotives were converted for freight only use, numbered in the 85/1 series - see table below. These locomotives were restricted to 80 mph.

Power supply[edit]

The locomotives always worked on power provided by overhead catenary energized at 25,000 V AC. However, the main transformer, normally operated with the four windings in series, could be operated at 6250V AC with the transformer windings in parallel. This voltage was initially to be used where limited clearances gave concern over use of the higher voltage.

Preservation[edit]

One locomotive has been preserved, 85101 (having previously numbered E3061 & 85 006) This locomotive is preserved by the AC Locomotive Group, who also have examples of Classes 81-86. at Barrow Hill Engine Shed. It was named to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Doncaster Works, and is painted in Railfreight Distribution livery, a livery it never carried in service. Their intention is to eventually restore this locomotive to operational condition.

Fleet details[edit]

Class 85, no. 85101 'Doncaster Plant 150 1853-2003', on display at Doncaster Works open day on 27 July 2003
Class No. Built

(* Converted)

Loco Nos. Withdrawn
Class 85/0 40 85001-85040 1991
Class 85/1 14* 85101-85114 1991
Key: Preserved Scrapped
Numbers Withdrawn Disposal
Class AL5 Class 85/0 Class 85/1
E3056 85001 - 1985 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3057 85002 - 1989 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3058 85003 85113 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3059 85004 85111 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3060 85005 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3061 85006 85101 1992 Preserved at Barrow Hill Engine Shed
E3062 85007 85112 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3063 85008 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3064 85009 85102 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3065 85010 85103 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3066 85011 85114 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3067 85012 85104 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3068 85013 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3069 85014 - 1989 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3070 85015 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3071 85016 85105 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3072 85017 - 1987 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3073 85018 - 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3074 85019 - 1989 Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow
E3075 85020 - 1990 Accident damaged
Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3076 85021 85106 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3077 85022 - 1989 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3078 85023 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3079 85024 85107 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3080 85025 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow
E3081 85026 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3082 85027 - 1983 Fire damaged
Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow
E3083 85028 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3084 85029 - 1988 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3085 85030 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3086 85031 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3087 85032 85108 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3088 85033 - 1984 Scrapped at MC Metals Glasgow
E3089 85034 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3090 85035 85109 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3091 85036 85110 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3092 85037 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3093 85038 - 1990 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3094 85039 - 1987 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow
E3095 85040 - 1991 Scrapped at MC Metals, Glasgow

Further reading[edit]

  • McManus, Michael. Ultimate Allocations, British Railways Locomotives 1948 - 1968. Wirral. Michael McManus. 

External links[edit]