|Mandate of the United Kingdom|
God Save the King/Queen
|Languages||English (official), Ewe|
|Political structure||League of Nations Mandate|
|Historical era||20th century|
|-||Occupation||27 August 1914|
|-||Partitioning||27 December 1916|
|-||League of Nations mandate||20 July 1922|
|-||Integration with Gold Coast||13 December 1956|
|-||Independence as part of Ghana||6 March 1957|
|Currency||British West African pound|
|Today part of||Ghana|
British Togoland was a League of Nations Class B mandate in West Africa, under the mandatory power of the United Kingdom. It was effectively formed in 1916 by the splitting of the occupied German protectorate of Togoland into two territories, French Togoland and British Togoland, during the First World War. In 1922, British Togoland was formally placed under British rule while French Togoland, now Togo, was placed under French rule.
Following the Second World War, the political status of British Togoland changed, as it became a United Nations Trust Territory, although still administered by the United Kingdom. During the decolonization of Africa, a referendum was organised in British Togoland in May 1956 to decide the future of the territory. A majority of voters taking part voted to merge the territory with the neighbouring Gold Coast, a British Crown colony. Less than three months after the two territories were formally merged in December 1956, the Gold Coast gained independence as Ghana in March 1957.
The territory of British Togoland was first formed after a partition of Togoland on 27 December 1916, during World War I. British and French forces already occupied Togoland. After the war, on 20 July 1922, the League of Nations gave its mandate to formally transfer control of British Togoland to the United Kingdom.
United Nations trust territory
After World War II, the mandate became a United Nations trust territory administered by the United Kingdom. During the mandate and trusteeship periods, British Togoland was administered as part of the adjoining territory of the Gold Coast, under the name of Trans-Volta Togo (TVT).
In 1954, the British government informed the UN that it would be unable to administer the Trust Territory after 1957. In response, in December 1955, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution advising the British government to hold a plebiscite on the future of British Togoland.
On 9 May 1956, this referendum was held under UN supervision with the choice between formal integration with the future independent Gold Coast or continuation as a Trust Territory.
The Togoland Congress campaigned against integration. There was vocal opposition to the incorporation of Togoland from the Ewe people who voted against in British Togoland, as the Ewe wanted the unification of the Ewe people in British Togoland and French Togoland as a separate Ewe state (modern Togo).
It was reported that the vote results was 42% against from the Ewe people (Togoland Congress), and 58% for integration. On 13 December 1956, this unification was put into effect, creating a single entity that became the territory Volta Region on 6 March of the following year.
- Volta Region
- McLaughlin (1994), "The Politics of the Independence Movements".