The front cover of a British biometric passport issued since 2006.
|Date first issued||1915 (first 'modern' passport)
February 6, 2006 (biometric passports)
October 5, 2010 (current version)
|Issued by||United Kingdom|
|Type of document||Passport|
|Eligibility requirements||British citizenship or any of the various forms of British nationality|
|Expiration||10 years after issuance for individuals aged 16 and above; 5 years for citizens up to the age of 15|
British passports may be issued to people holding any of the various forms of British nationality, and are used as evidence of the bearer's nationality and immigration status within the United Kingdom or the issuing state/territory.
- 1 Issuing
- 2 Visa requirements
- 3 History
- 4 Physical appearance
- 4.1 Passports issued by the IPS and FCO
- 4.2 Passports issued by Crown Dependencies and Gibraltar
- 4.3 Passports issued by British overseas territories
- 5 Endorsements
- 6 Next Generation biometric passports and national identity registration
- 7 Fees
- 8 Number of passports and space for stamps
- 9 Expired passports
- 10 Vulnerabilities
- 11 Additional notes
- 12 See also
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
- 15 Gallery
In the United Kingdom, British passports (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) are issued by HM Passport Office. In conjunction with the Post Office, it is possible to submit most passport applications at a number of branches.
In British overseas territories, British Overseas Territories Citizen passports are issued by the Governor of the territory, whilst British Citizen passport application are forwarded to the Passport Section of the appropriate Foreign Office mission covering the territory (e.g. the United States for all the Caribbean British Overseas Territories).
In Commonwealth and foreign countries, British passports are issued by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the Passport Section of a British consulate, embassy, or High Commission. Since 2009, some British embassies do not themselves issue full passports (though quickly available emergency passports of limited validity are issued for one-way travel to the UK or to another part of the Commonwealth), and applications must be sent by the applicant to a centralised processing point; applications from Chile, for example, must be sent to UK Passport Service Centre for the Americas and Caribbean, Washington DC, USA. The FCO says: "In their 2006 report on consular services, the National Audit Office recommended limiting passport production to fewer locations to increase security and reduce expenditure". In other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, applications for British passports can be submitted in person at the counter in a number of post office branches. Passport book production is limited to the UK from 2010.
As of 2011[update] holders of the following categories of British nationality can apply for a British passport:
- British citizens (GBR)
- British Overseas Territories Citizens (GBD) (formerly British Dependent Territories Citizens)
- British Overseas citizens (GBO)
- British subjects (GBS)
- British protected persons (GBP)
- British Nationals (Overseas) (GBN)
All British passports are issued in the exercise of discretion by Her Majesty's Government under the royal prerogative. In any event, discretion must be exercised reasonably and not on a whim, and even though there is no statute governing the issue of passports, such prerogative powers are susceptible to the normal processes of judicial review (Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service  AC 374). The only exception applies to British Nationals (Overseas), who are entitled to hold a passport in that status (there is no discretion to refuse to issue a passport).
Since all British passports are issued in the name of Her Majesty, The Queen herself does not require a passport in order to travel abroad.
British citizens (except those solely connected to a Crown Dependency), British subjects with the right of abode and British Overseas Territories citizens from Gibraltar are UK nationals for the purposes of EU law and are usually entitled to move freely within the European Economic Area and Switzerland with no more than a check on their identity and nationality at an external border of a Member State. In exceptional circumstances, entry may be refused on grounds of public policy, public security or public health.
The right of abode, i.e., the right to enter and live in the United Kingdom freely, is held by all British citizens automatically. It is also held by some British subjects and those other Commonwealth citizens who were patrials under the Immigration Act 1971.
Visa requirements for British citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the United Kingdom. In 2013, British citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 173 countries and territories, ranking the British passport 1st in the world (tied with Finnish and Swedish). Visa requirements for other classes of British nationals such as British Nationals (Overseas), British Overseas Citizens, British Overseas Territories Citizens, British Protected Persons or British Subjects are different.
Safe Conduct documents, usually notes signed by the monarch, were issued to foreigners as well as English subjects in medieval times. They were first mentioned in an Act of Parliament, the Safe Conducts Act in 1414. Between 1540 and 1685, the Privy Council issued passports, although they were still signed by the monarch until the reign of Charles II when the Secretary of State could sign them instead. The Secretary of State signed all passports in place of the monarch from 1794 onwards, at which time formal records started to be kept.
Passports were written in Latin or English until 1772, when French was used instead. From about 1855 English was used, with some sections translated into French for many years.
About 1855 passports became a standard document issued solely to British nationals. They were a simple single-sheet paper document, and by 1914 included a photograph of the holder.
The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 was passed on the outbreak of World War I. A new format was introduced in 1915: a single sheet folded into eight with a cardboard cover. It included a description of the holder as well as a photograph, and had to be renewed after two years.
Some duplicate passports and passport records are available at the British Library; for example IOR: L/P&J/11 contain a few surviving passports of travelling ayahs for the 1930s. A passport issued on 18 June 1641 and signed by King Charles I still exists.
Various changes to the design were made over the years:
- In 1927, the country name changed from "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" to "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" (alternatively the name of the colony appeared here)
- In 1954, the name of the Secretary of State was removed.
- In 1968 the validity was extended from five years renewable up to ten, to ten years non-renewable.
- At the end of 1972, several modifications were made. A special blue watermarked paper was introduced to make alteration and forgery more difficult. The number of pages was reduced from 32 to 30, and the holder's eye colour and the maiden name of a married woman were removed.
- In May 1973, an optional 94-page passport was made available which provided many more pages for immigration stamps and visas for frequent travellers.
- In 1975, lamination over the bearer's photograph was introduced to make alteration harder. Overprinting of the laminate was added in 1981 to make removal easier to spot.
- In 1979, UK exchange controls were abolished, and the foreign exchange page was removed.
- In 1982, the holder's occupation and country of residence were removed.
- In July 1988, changes were made to ease the introduction of machine-readable passports later in the year. Joint and family passports were no longer issued and the descriptions of distinguishing features and height were removed. The old blue style started to be replaced by the burgundy passport from August, although some offices issued the remaining stock of blue passports until as late as 1993.
- 1998: Digital facial image rather than a laminated photograph, and intaglio or raised printing on the inside of the covers. Children not included on new adult passports.
- 2006: Biometric passports (also called ePassports) comply with the US visa waiver programme.
- 2010: The Identity & Passport Service announced that the British passport was to be redesigned. Pages of the passport will contain well-known UK scenes including the White Cliffs of Dover, the Gower Peninsula, Ben Nevis and the Giant's Causeway. There will also be new security features, namely moving the chip which stores the holder's details to the inside of the passport cover where it will no longer be visible (this gives additional physical protection as well as making it much harder to replace the chip without damage to the passport cover being spotted), a secondary image of the holder printed onto the observations page, new designs now stretching across two pages and a new transparent covering which includes several holograms to protect the holder's personal details.
The old blue passport
A 32-page passport with a dark blue cover, commonly known as the old blue style, came into use in 1920 with the formation of the Passport Service following international agreement on a standard format for passports, and remained in use until replaced by the European Union-style machine-readable passport in late 1988. As with many documents worldwide and all booklet-format documents, details were handwritten into the passport and (as of 1955) included: number, holder's name, "accompanied by his wife" and her maiden name, "and" (number) "children", national status. For both bearer and wife: profession, place and date of birth, country of residence, height, eye and hair colour, special peculiarities, signature and photograph. Names, birth dates, and sexes of children, list of countries for which valid, issue place and date, expiry date, a page for renewals and, at the back, details of the amount of foreign exchange for travel expenses (a limited amount of sterling, typically £50 but increasing with inflation, could be taken out of the country). The bearer's sex was not explicitly stated, although the name was written in with title ("Mr John Smith"). Descriptive text was printed in both English and French (a practice which still[update] continues), e.g., "Accompanied by his wife (Maiden name)/Accompagné de sa femme (Née)". Changed details were struck out and rewritten, with a rubber-stamped note confirming the change.
If details and photograph of a man's wife and details of children were entered (this was not compulsory), the passport could be used by the bearer, wife, and children under 16, if together; separate passports were required for the wife or children to travel independently. The passport was valid for five years, renewable for another five, after which it had to be replaced.
The passport had a printed list of countries for which it was valid, which was added to in handwriting as validity increased. A passport of 1955 was valid for the British Commonwealth, USA, and all countries in Europe "including the USSR, Turkey, Algeria, Azores, Canary Islands, Iceland, and Madeira"; during its period of validity restrictions eased and it was endorsed "and for all other foreign countries".
The British visitor's passport
A new simplified type, the British Visitor's Passport, was introduced in 1961. It was a single-page cardboard document valid for one year obtainable for many years from Employment Exchanges, as agents of the Passport Office, and then from a Post Office. It was accepted for travel by most West European countries (excluding surface travel to West Berlin), but was dropped in 1995 since it did not identify the holder's nationality or meet new security standards.
European format passports
On 15 August 1988, the Glasgow passport office became the first to issue burgundy-coloured machine-readable passports. They followed a common format agreed amongst member states of the European Community, and had the words 'European Community' on the cover, changed to 'European Union' in 1997. The passport has 32 pages; a 48-page version is available with more space for stamps and visas. There are two lines of machine-readable text printed in a format agreed amongst members of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, and a section in which relevant terms ("surname", "date of issue", etc.) are translated into the official EU languages. Passports issued overseas did not all have a Machine Readable Zone but these was introduced gradually as appropriate equipment was made available overseas.
In 1998 the first digital image passport was introduced with photographs being replaced with images printed directly on the bio-data page which was moved from the cover to an inside page to reduce the ease of fraud. These documents were all issued with machine readable zones and had a hologram over the photograph, which was the first time that British passports had been protected by an optically variable safeguard. These documents were issued until 2006 when the biometric passport was introduced. The bio-data page is printed with a finely detailed background including a drawing of a red grouse (a native British bird), and the entire page is protected from modification by a laminate which incorporates a holographic image of the kingfisher; visa pages are numbered and printed with detailed backgrounds including drawings of other birds: a merlin, curlew, avocet, and red kite. An RFID chip and antenna are located on the obverse of the data page and hold the same visual information as is printed, including a digital copy of the photograph with biometric information for use with facial recognition systems. The Welsh and Scottish Gaelic languages were included in all British passports for the first time in 2005, and appear on the titles page replacing the official languages of the EU, although the EU languages still appear faintly as part of the background design. Welsh and Scottish Gaelic precede the official EU languages in the translations section.
British passports are burgundy, with the coat of arms of the United Kingdom emblazoned in the centre of the front cover.
Passports issued by the IPS and FCO
The words "UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND" are inscribed above the coat of arms, whilst the word "PASSPORT" is inscribed below. The biometric passport symbol appears at the bottom of the front cover under the word "PASSPORT".
The words "EUROPEAN UNION" are printed at the top of British passports issued to British nationals who are considered "Nationals of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for the purposes of EU law" (i.e. British citizens, British subjects with the right of abode in the UK and British Overseas Territories Citizens connected with Gibraltar). It is not included at the top of other British passports (i.e. British Nationals (Overseas), British Overseas Citizens, British Protected Persons, and British Overseas Territories Citizens.
British passports issued by the UK contain on their inside cover the following words in English only:
- Her Britannic Majesty's Secretary of State Requests and requires in the Name of Her Majesty all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass freely without let or hindrance, and to afford the bearer such assistance and protection as may be necessary.
In older passports, more specific reference was made to "Her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs", originally including the name of the incumbent.
British passports issued by HM Passport Office and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office include the following data on the information page:
- Photograph of the holder (digital image printed on page)
- Type (P)
- Code of issuing state (GBR)
- Passport number
- Given names
- Nationality (the class of British nationality, such as "British Citizen" or "British Overseas Citizen", or if issued on behalf of a Commonwealth country, "Commonwealth Citizen")
- Date of birth
- Place of birth (only the city or town is listed, even if born outside the UK; places of birth in Wales are entered in Welsh upon request )
- Date of issue
- Date of expiry
- Holder's signature (digital image printed on page)
- Machine Readable Zone starting with P<GBR
The items are identified by text in English and French (e.g., "Date of birth/Date de naissance"); there is a section in which all this text is translated into all official EU languages, as well as Welsh and Scottish Gaelic.
Besides the ordinary passports described above, special passports are issued to government officials from which diplomatic status may (diplomatic passport) or may not (official passport) by the text on the cover. A special passport is available for the Queen's Messenger. The latter passport contains the text QUEENS MESSENGER – COURRIER DIPLOMATIQUE below the coat of arms, and the text "BRITISH PASSPORT" above it.
Passports issued by Crown Dependencies and Gibraltar
British passports issued directly by the Crown Dependencies as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar are slightly different from those issued by HM Passport Office to residents of the United Kingdom and by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to British nationals abroad. The words EUROPEAN UNION still appear across the top of passport covers, signifying the special status of these nationals within the jurisdiction of the EU.
Passports for British citizens connected to the Crown Dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey and the Isle of Man do not carry the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" on the front cover. In their place, these passports feature the words BRITISH ISLANDS — BAILIWICK OF JERSEY or BAILIWICK OF GUERNSEY or ISLE OF MAN, as appropriate.
Gibraltar passport covers are virtually identical to British passports issued by the IPS and FCO, except that they feature the word GIBRALTAR directly above the coat of arms and below the words "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland."
In passports issued by the Crown Dependencies, the passport note request is slightly different to those issued by the UK, coming from the Lieutenant Governor of the respective island. This difference results from the dependencies owing allegiance to Queen Elizabeth II rather than the Government of the United Kingdom.
The issuing of a British Passport by the authorities in the Crown Dependencies cannot be inferred from the machine readable zone as the issuing country code and citizenship code (both GBR) is identical to passports issued by the United Kingdom for British Citizens.
Passports issued by British overseas territories
Passports issued by British overseas territories to British Overseas Territories Citizens do not bear the text "UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND", but instead the words "BRITISH PASSPORT" above the coat of arms and the name of the Territory below it (e.g. "TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS").
The nationality reads "British Overseas Territories Citizens". On the machine-readable zone, the three-letter abbreviation of the territory is given in the field of the code of issuing state while GBD (British Overseas Territories Citizen, formerly British Dependent Territories Citizen) is shown in the nationality field. A British Virign Islands passport is an exception with VGB for both the issuing state and nationality code. Either of these features enables automatic distinction between BOTCs related to different territories.
Certain British passports are issued with printed endorsements on the Official Observations page. These form part of the passport when it is issued, as distinct from immigration stamps subsequently entered in the visa pages:
- Holder is not entitled to benefit from European Community provisions relating to employment or establishment
- British citizens from the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man without a qualifying connection to the United Kingdom by descent or residency for more than five years have this endorsement in their passports, as the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are part of the European Community only for the purposes of the free movement of goods.
- Holder of this passport has Hong Kong (Permanent) Identity Card No: A123456(7) which states that holder has right of abode in Hong Kong *
- British National (Overseas) passports usually have one of these endorsements in their passport, as a valid Hong Kong permanent identity card or Hong Kong identity card (which guarantees right of abode and/or entry in/into Hong Kong) is normally required to possess a BN(O) passport.
- Holder is entitled to right of abode in the United Kingdom
- British Subjects with the right of abode (usually from Ireland) have this endorsement in their passports.
- Holder is entitled to readmission in the United Kingdom
- British Overseas Citizens, British Subjects and British Protected Persons without the right of abode who have been granted indefinite leave to enter or remain retain this entitlement for life, and their passports are accordingly issued with this endorsement.
- Holder is subject to control under the Immigration Act 1971
- British nationals without the right of abode will have this endorsements in their passports unless they have been granted indefinite leave to enter or remain. However, even though a British National (Overseas) passport does not entitle the holder the right of abode in the UK, this endorsement is not found in BN(O) passports (1999–2006 and biometric versions).
- In accordance with UK immigration rules the holder of this passport does not require an entry certificate or visa to visit the UK
- This endorsement is found in British National (Overseas) passports, and accordingly holders of the BN(O) passport have six-month access to the UK as a visitor without an entry certificate or visa.
- The holder is or Holder is also known as ...
- This endorsement is found in passports where the holder uses or retains another professional name or has an academic, feudal or legal title. The styling 'Dr ...', 'Professor ...' or similar is recorded here, or the alternative professional name. For example, Cliff Richard's birth name was Harry Webb, and his passport would read:
"Holder is also known as Cliff Richard."
- The holder's name in Chinese Commercial Code: XXXX XXXX XXXX
- This endorsement was found in British passports (British National (Overseas) and passports for BOTC with a connection with Hong Kong) held by people with Chinese names issued by the Hong Kong Immigration Department before the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong. After the handover, British passport issued in Hong Kong can only be issued at the British Consulate-General, and this endorsement is no longer in use. (See also: Chinese commercial code)
- Holder is a dependant of a member of Her Britannic Majesty's Diplomatic Service
- This endorsement is found in British passports held by people who are dependants or spouses of British diplomats.
Next Generation biometric passports and national identity registration
There had been plans, under the Identity Cards Act 2006, to link passports to the Identity Cards scheme. However, in the Conservative – Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement that followed the 2010 General Election, the new government announced that they planned to scrap the ID card scheme, the National Identity Register, and the next generation of biometric passports, as part of their measures 'to reverse the substantial erosion of civil liberties under the Labour Government and roll back state intrusion.'
The Identity Cards Act 2006 would have required any person applying for a passport to have their details entered into a centralised computer database, the National Identity Register, part of the National Identity Scheme associated with identity cards and passports. Once registered, they would also have been obliged to update any change to their address and personal details. The schedule for putting passport applicants' and renewers' details on the National Identity Register (NIR) has not been announced
The identity card was expected to cost up to £60 (with £30 going to the Government, and the remainder charged as processing fees by the companies that would be collecting the fingerprints and photographs). In May 2005 the Government said that the cost for a combined identity card and passport would be £93 plus processing fees.
The next generation of biometric passports, and which would have contained chips holding facial images and fingerprints, were to have been issued from 2012. Everyone applying for a passport from 2012 would have had their 10 fingerprints digitally scanned and stored on a database, although only two would have been recorded in the passport.
In May 2006 a "Renew for Freedom" campaign was launched by the NO2ID opposition group, urging passport holders to renew their passports in the summer of 2006 in order to delay being entered on the National Identity Register. This followed the comment made by Charles Clarke in the House of Commons that "anyone who feels strongly enough about the linkage [between passports and the ID scheme] not to want to be issued with an ID card in the initial phase will be free to surrender their existing passport and apply for a new passport before the designation order takes effect". In response, the Home Office said that it was "hard to see what would be achieved, other than incurring unnecessary expense" by renewing passports early.
The cost of obtaining a standard passport over the years has increased greatly. While consumer prices in the UK have increased by 24% from early 1998 to 2009, the price of a passport renewal increased by 269%.
- £72.50 - 18 September 2013
- £72.50 - 3 September 2012 - a decrease of 6.5%, as a result of a restructuring programme within the Identity and Passport Service that delivered savings of £40million in the previous financial year
- £77.50 – 3 September 2009 – an increase which the Government said was necessary due to a falling number of passport applicants, and also to pay for enhanced passport security measures. The Conservatives and Liberal Democrats said that people were paying for the price of introducing ID cards.
- £72 – 4 October 2007 – due to an increase in the consular premium added by the Foreign & Commonwealth Office 
- £66 – 5 October 2006 – for the introduction of the latest generation passport, anti-fraud measures and interviews for first-time applicants 
- £51 – 1 December 2005 – to reflect the cost of implementing key anti-fraud measures 
- £42 – 2 October 2003 – to pay for new anti-fraud measures 
- £33 – 21 November 2002 
- £30 – 14 January 2002 
- £28 – 16 December 1999 – to fund a major overhaul of the Passport Agency following the summer crisis 
- £21 – 26 March 1998 
- £18 – November 1992
The above fees apply for passports issued in the United Kingdom by HM Passport Office.
Passports issued outside the UK by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The fees for purchasing a passport through the Regional Passport Processing Centre, British Embassy Paris.
- €170 (adults; 32 pages)
- €205 (adults; 48 pages)
- €108 (children)
The courier fee is at least €27, September 2012. The Western European Passport Service in Paris provides passports for applicants in Belgium, Egypt, France, Gaza, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jerusalem and the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, the Netherlands, Yemen.
The Identity and Passport Service issued a fee breakdown in response to a request made under the freedom of information act in May 2008. Costs listed are Application processing, FCO consular protection, Book production, Secure delivery, Anti fraud initiatives, Authentication by Interview and Administrative.
Number of passports and space for stamps
Some countries require that a passport contain one or more blank pages to allow space for stamps. Pages cannot be added into British passports. If a passport is full, the bearer must apply for a new passport. A standard British Passport has 32 pages, but a 48-page "jumbo passport" is also available.
HM Passport Office permits two passports to be held concurrently if there is reason to do so.
On expiry and replacement by a new passport the issuing office cuts off the corners of the expired passport and returns it to the holder. Expired passports are sometimes accepted as proof of identity and right of residence, but this has become more difficult as legislation has come into force penalising those who employ workers without the right to work in the UK, for example; but a British passport which expired not more than 10 years ago is accepted as proof of eligibility when applying for a new passport.
According to The Guardian, the information contained on a biometric passport can be viewed using readily available hardware and software. Information is stored in encrypted form on an RFID tag, with the password as a combination of information written on the passport, so that anyone with access to the passport will be able to read the chip. The passport is also vulnerable to brute force attacks. And, because it is possible to read the RFID tags remotely at a distance of several centimetres, it is not necessary to be in possession of the passport to extract the data.
This makes cloning of the passport possible. Because the biometric passport is supposedly highly secure and therefore trusted, it is thought that the holder of a cloned passport might be more likely to escape detection than the holder of a traditional passport.
Passports are not needed by citizens of either the United Kingdom or Ireland to travel between each other's countries as they are both part of the Common Travel Area, but some identification may be required for air or sea travel.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Passports of the United Kingdom.|
- Identity document
- Visa requirements for British citizens
- Visa requirements for British Overseas Citizens
- Visa requirements for British Overseas Territories Citizens of Montserrat
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Bechuanaland Protectorate passport
1959 Grenadian passport
British Guianese passport
Federation of Malaya passport
1949 New Zealand passport
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