Britons in Hong Kong
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2008)|
|Demographics and Culture of Hong Kong|
|Other Hong Kong topics|
|Hong Kong portal|
Britons never made up more than a small portion of the population in Hong Kong, despite the fact that Hong Kong was under British rule for more than 150 years. However, they did leave their mark on Hong Kong's institutions, culture and architecture. The British population in Hong Kong today consists mainly of career expats working in banking, education, real estate, law and consultancy, as well as a large number of British-born Chinese, former Chinese émigrés to the U.K., and Hong Kongers (mostly ethnic Chinese) who successfully applied for full British citizenship before Hong Kong's reversion to Chinese sovereignty in 1997.
Estimating the number of Britons in Hong Kong, as with the rest of Asia, can be difficult for a variety of reasons. One reason is that not all immigrants or visitors register with the British consulate in Hong Kong. Another is that a large part of the British population is transitory, working in the city for only a few months or years.
The Immigration Department of Hong Kong estimated that there were 28,000 British citizens living in Hong Kong eight months after the handover of sovereignty in 1997. (This number included many British-born Chinese and ethnic Chinese who obtained full British citizenship in the 1990s under the British Nationality Selection Scheme in Hong Kong.) A large proportion of the British who were government employees left following the handover—though it should be noted that, as a result of the localisation policy in effect in Hong Kong since 1984, only a small fraction of the 184,000 government employees were British.
There have been noticeably fewer native Britons emigrating to Hong Kong since the handover. The drop is due to more than one factor, but a major reason is that when Hong Kong was a British colony Britons wishing to live and work in Hong Kong were not subject to the immigration and visa restrictions that would apply today. It was quite common for young Britons to go to Hong Kong to work in blue-collar occupations, particularly during economic downturns in Britain. This advantage ended with the handover: Britons applying for permission to work in Hong Kong must now prove they will have jobs that cannot be filled by local residents, which means blue-collar jobs in Hong Kong (e.g., in retail or construction) are for the most part no longer an option for Britons.
In the decade before the handover around 3.4 million British Dependent Territories Citizens (BDTCs) of Hong Kong (mainly ethnic Chinese) acquired the status of British National (Overseas) (BN(O)) by registration. BN(O)s may be considered Britons, because BN(O) is one of the six categories of British nationality. However, BN(O)s do not have the right of abode in the UK (just as BDTCs did not have that right), and China does not recognise Hong Kong-born ethnic Chinese BN(O)s as British nationals.
The first British presence in the area was the British East India Company, which started trading in the area in 1699 and set up a trading post in Canton in 1711. The British captured Hong Kong Island in 1841 during the First Opium War and were officially ceded the territory in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking. Over the next 150 years Britons came to Hong Kong in relatively large numbers—many to work in the colony's administration, trading houses, and merchant banks—along with other Europeans and Americans.
Between 1991 and 1996 there was a substantial increase in the number of British citizens in Hong Kong; the number of UK passport holders in Hong Kong more than doubled, to over 34,000. This increase was mainly due to the British Nationality Selection Scheme, which granted British citizenship to 50,000 families (mostly ethnic Chinese), some of whom did not emigrate. However, those years also saw many young people from the United Kingdom coming to Hong Kong to take up unskilled jobs (e.g., as doorpersons or in food service).
In 1997 sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred back to China. Around that time, and in subsequent years, many Britons and part-British Eurasians either returned to the United Kingdom or emigrated to the United States or to Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.
- Article "Gender, Households and Identity in British and Singaporean Migration to China"
- Vines, Steven (1998-04-04). "Britons drawn to post-colonial Hong Kong". The Independent. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- Article "Hong Kong: Children, Foreign Workers"
- What’s next for Hong Kong’s Britons? - - MSNBC.com
- Stephen Vines (1996-06-02). "In Hong Kong today, it's the Brits who are the 'coolies'". The Independent. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Stephan Phelan in Hong Kong", Herald Scotland, 2010-05-17, retrieved 2011-02-01