Briz-M

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Briz-M
Manufacturer Khrunichev
Country of origin Russia
General characteristics
Diameter 4.10 metres (13.5 ft)
Length 2.61 metres (8 ft 7 in)
Gross mass 22,170 kilograms (48,880 lb)
Propellant mass 19,800 kilograms (43,700 lb)
Engine details
Engines 1 RD-2000[1]
Thrust 19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)
Specific impulse 326 s
Fuel N2O4/UDMH

The Briz-M (Russian: Бриз-М meaning Breeze-M) and Briz-KM are Russian liquid-propellant rocket orbit insertion upper stages manufactured by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and used on the Proton-M rocket or Rokot, one of Russia's smaller launchers.

Characteristics[edit]

The Briz-M upper stage is designed for injecting large payloads into a low, medium-height or high Geosynchronous orbit.[2] The main engine can be restarted 8 times in flight and allows precision placement of the spacecraft into orbit.[3] Orbital lifetime of the Briz-M is limited by available onboard battery power and is currently 24 hours.[3] The total time of the standard Proton/Briz-M mission profile from lift-off to spacecraft separation is approximately 9.3 hours.[3] A Proton launch vehicle with a Briz-M upper stage can also inject payloads to Earth escape trajectories.[3]

One of system's design goals has been to keep overall dimensions as small as possible. Briz-M takes much less space on board the launch vehicle compared to its predecessor, the Block D upper stage, leaving freed volume for the cargo.[4] A Proton with a Briz-M can place a 4,385 kg satellite, such as an A2100AX, into a target orbit with an apogee of 35,786 km, a perigee of 7,030 km, and an inclination of 17.3°.[5][6] Maximum lift capability of the Briz-M stage is 5,645 kg to geosynchronous transfer orbit with a 1,500 m/s residual velocity to GSO.[1] A tandem launch of multiple spacecraft is also supported, with the ability to inject the spacecraft into different orbits.[1]

Briz-M is a twin upper stage consisting of a core module (using Briz-KM as the baseline) and a jettisonable add-on doughnut tank surrounding the core.[2] It is powered by a pump-fed gimballed main engine, the 14D30.[1]

Briz-KM Variant[edit]

The Briz-KM is a single-piece structure with a conical tank compartment and the engine located in a recess in the fuel tank.[7] The Briz-KM is used as a third stage of the Rockot launch vehicles.[8]

History[edit]

Briz-M completed its maiden flight in May 2000, when it is delivered the Gorizont communications satellite into orbit.[citation needed]

It is planned to use Briz-M with the A3 and A5 versions of the future Angara rocket family.[2]

Launch chronology[edit]

Date Configuration Notes
5 July 1999 Proton-K/Briz-M launch failure due to explosion of Proton second stage. Carried a Raduga communication satellite.
6 June 2000 Proton-K/Briz-M First successful flight of the Briz-M and delivery of Gorizont #45L communication satellite.
7 April 2001 Proton-M/Briz-M Maiden flight of Proton-M. Successful delivery of Ekran-M #18L communications satellite.
30 December 2002 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of an Nimiq 2 satellite.
6 June 2003 Proton-K/Briz-M successful launch of an Americom communication satellite.
10 December 2003 Proton-K/Briz-M successful launch of three GLONASS positioning satellites.
15 March 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Eutelsat W3A communications satellite.
17 June 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Intelsat-10-02 communications satellite.
5 August 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Amazonas 1 satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit.
15 October 2004 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of AMC-15 communications satellite for SES Americom.
3 February 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of AMC-12 communications satellite for SES Americom.
22 May 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Direc TV-8 satellite.
8 September 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Anik-F1R satellite.
29 December 2005 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of AMC-23 communications satellite.
28 February 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M launch failure leaves Briz-M and payload in unusable orbit. Carried an Arabsat-4A communication satellite. The booster eventually exploded on February 19, 2007, producing over 1000 trackable pieces of space debris.[9][10]
4 August 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Hot Bird 8 communications satellite into the geostationary orbit for the Eutelsat.
8 November 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Arabsat-4B (Badr-4) communications satellite.
11 December 2006 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of MEASAT-3 Malaysian communications satellite.
10 April 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Anik F3 satellite for Telesat of Canada.
7 July 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of DirecTV-10
6 September 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M Proton-M with JCSAT-11 satellite crashed after second stage failure of a gimbal mechanism.
18 November 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Sirus 4 communications satellite.
9 December 2007 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Raduga-1M #1 satellite.
15 March 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M failed during second burn, leaving AMC-14 in useless orbit. The failure was caused by a ruptured exhaust gas conduit, which led to a shutdown of the turbo pump feeding the Briz-M engine.[11]
19 August 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of the Inmarsat 4 F3 satellite. A modification was made to the Briz-M engine to include a new conduit in response to the March 14 failure. This modification will be used in all future launches.[11][12]
20 September 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Nimiq-4[13]
6 November 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Astra 1M from Baikonur, Kazakhstan
10 December 2008 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Ciel-2 from Baikonur.[14]
11 February 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Express-AM44 and Express-MD1 from Baikonur
1 July 2009 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Sirius FM-5 from Baikonur[15]
3 February 2011 Rokot/Briz-KM Failed launch of Geo-IK-2 satellite from Plesetsk - failed Briz-KM restart.[16]
17 August 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M Failed launch of Ekspress-AM4 satellite from Baikonur - lost contact with Briz-M on fourth burn.[17]
3 November 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of 3 Glonass satellites.[18]
11 December 2011 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of AMOS-5 (Spacecom) and Luch-5A.[19]
14 February 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of SES-4 communication satellite[20]
6 August 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Failed launch of Telkom-3 and Ekspress-MD2 communication satellites[21]
8 December 2012 Proton-M/Briz-M Partial success launch of Yamal-402 communication satellite placing close to designated orbit keeping possibility to correct it[22]
26 March 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Satmex 8 communications satellite to Geostationary transfer orbit[23]
15 April 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Anik G1 satellite[24]
14 May 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful launch of Eutelsat-3D satellite[25]
3 June 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of SES-6 communication satellite into super-synchronous transfer orbit[26]
30 September 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Astra-2E communication satellite into Geosynchronous transfer orbit[27]
25 October 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Sirius FM-6 satellite into Geostationary transfer orbit[28]
12 November 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Raduga 1M #3 military communications satellite. However, all telemetry and data from the Briz-M was lost due to failed onboard data processing system Пирит (Pyrite)[29]
8 December 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Inmarsat-5 F1 satellite into super-synchronous transfer orbit[30]
26 December 2013 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Ekspress AM-5 satellite[31]
15 February 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M successful orbital insertion of Turksat-4A telecommunications satellite into Geostationary transfer orbit[32]
16 March 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Express AT1 and Express AT2 telecommunications satellites into Geostationary orbit[33]
28 April 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Luch-5V & KazSat-3 communications satellites into Geosynchronous orbit[34]
16 May 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Loss of Ekspress AM-4R satellite due to failed Proton-M third stage[35]
28 September 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Olimp-K/Luch military communications satellite into Geostationary orbit[36]
21 October 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M Ekspress-AM6 satellite was delivered to a lower-than-planned orbit. Later, Roscosmos stated that Ekspress-AM6 would be able to reach its planned orbit and expected to be operational by July 1, 2015[37]
15 December 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Yamal 401 satellite into Geostationary orbit[38]
28 December 2014 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Astra 2G satellite to Geostationary orbit[39]
1 February 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Inmarsat 5-F2 satellite into Supersynchronous orbit[40]
19 March 2015 Proton-M/Briz-M successful delivery of Ekspress AM-7 communications satellite into Geostationary orbit[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Proton/Breeze-M International Launch Services, retrieved on 2009-03-23
  2. ^ a b c "Breeze M upper stage". Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide International Launch Services. Retrieved on 2008-03-23
  4. ^ http://www.russianspaceweb.com/proton.html
  5. ^ "orbit.jpg". Khrunichev. 
  6. ^ "Breeze-M Powered Flight". Khrunichev. 
  7. ^ "Breeze KM upper stage". Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  8. ^ "Russia launches relay craft, commemorative satellite". Spaceflight Now. 
  9. ^ "Rocket Explosion". Spaceweather.com. 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  10. ^ Than, Ker (2007-02-21). "Rocket Explodes Over Australia, Showers Space with Debris". Space.com. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  11. ^ a b PROTON BREEZE M CLEARED FOR RETURN TO FLIGHT
  12. ^ ILS PROTON SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES INMARSAT-4 F3 SATELLITE
  13. ^ http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-successfully-launches-telesat%E2%80%99s-nimiq-4-satellite
  14. ^ http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsroom/news-releases/ils-proton-successfully-launches-ciel-ii-satellite
  15. ^ "ILS PROTON SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES SIRIUS FM-5 SATELLITE". International Launch Services. 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  16. ^ "Russia Loses Contact with Military Satellite". GPS World. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  17. ^ "FAILURE: Proton-M launch with Ekspress-AM4 satellite - August 18, 2011". NASA Space Flight. 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  18. ^ STEPHEN CLARK. "Proton rocket replenishes Russian navigation system". Spaceflight Now. 
  19. ^ "Luch-5A and AMOS-5 spacecrafts launch". Tsenki. 
  20. ^ Bergin, Chris (February 14, 2012). "ILS Proton-M successfully launches SES-4". NASAspaceflight. 
  21. ^ Bergin, Chris (August 6, 2012). "Proton-M launch: Telkom-3 and Ekspress-MD2 lost after Briz-M failure". NASAspaceflight. 
  22. ^ "Russian scientists devising plan to get just-launched satellite to correct orbit". RT. December 9, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  23. ^ Chris Bergin (March 26, 2013). "ILS Proton-M makes successful return with Satmex 8". NASA SPACEFLIGHT.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  24. ^ Chris Bergin (April 15, 2013). "ILS Proton-M successfully launches Canada’s Anik G1". NASA SPACEFLIGHT.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  25. ^ Chris Bergin (May 14, 2013). "ILS Proton-M launches with EUTELSAT 3D". NASA SPACEFLIGHT.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  26. ^ Chris Bergin (June 2, 2013). "ILS Proton-M successfully lofts SES-6". NASA SPACEFLIGHT.com. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  27. ^ "Proton-M/Briz-M makes successful Return to Flight - Delivering Astra 2E". SPACEFLIGHT 101. September 30, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Sirius FM-6 in Orbit after successful Proton Launch & Briz-M Flight". SPACEFLIGHT 101. October 25, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  29. ^ "Recent Briz-M Flight was not without Flaw, Officials confirm". SPACEFLIGHT 101. November 29, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Proton/Briz-M completes long Flight to deliver Inmarsat-5 F1 to Orbit". SPACEFLIGHT 101. December 9, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Proton Rocket launches advanced Russian Communications Satellite". SPACEFLIGHT 101. December 26, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Proton-M & Briz-M successfully boost Turksat 4A into Orbit". SPACEFLIGHT 101. February 15, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Express AT1 and Express AT2 launch a success". THALES. March 18, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  34. ^ "Proton/Briz-M successfully Launches Luch-5V & KazSat-3 Comsats". SPACEFLIGHT 101. April 28, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  35. ^ "Ekspress AM-4R - Proton Launch Updates". SPACEFLIGHT 101. September 30, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  36. ^ Anatoly Zak (January 13, 2014). "Proton successfully returns to flight delivering a secret Olymp satellite". Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  37. ^ "Ekspress AM-6 Satellite begins Maneuvers to correct its Orbit". SPACEFLIGHT 101. November 12, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  38. ^ "Proton Rocket successfully completes 400th Launch, lofting Yamal 401". SPACEFLIGHT 101. September 30, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Successful Proton Mission Caps busy Year of Russian Space Launches". SPACEFLIGHT 101. December 27, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  40. ^ "Inmarsat 5-F2 Comsat arrives in Orbit after successful Proton/Briz-M Mission". SPACEFLIGHT 101. February 1, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  41. ^ "Ekspress AM-7 ComSat successfully delivered to Orbit by Proton/Briz-M". SPACEFLIGHT 101. March 19, 2015. Retrieved March 22, 2015.