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Manufacturer Khrunichev
Country of origin Russia
General Characteristics
Diameter 4.10 metres (13.5 ft)
Length 2.61 metres (8 ft 7 in)
Mass 22,170 kilograms (48,880 lb)
Propellant mass 19,800 kilograms (43,700 lb)
Engine details
Engines 1 RD-2000[1]
Thrust 19.6 kN (4,400 lbf)
Specific impulse 326 s
Fuel N2O4/UDMH

The Briz-M (Russian: Бриз-М meaning Breeze-M) and Briz-KM are Russian orbit insertion upper stages manufactured by Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and used on the Proton-M rocket or Rokot, one of Russia's smaller launchers.


The Briz-M upper stage is designed for injecting large payloads into a low, medium-height or high Geosynchronous orbit.[2] The main engine can be restarted 8 times in flight and allows precision placement of the spacecraft into orbit.[3] Orbital lifetime of the Briz-M is limited by available onboard battery power and is currently 24 hours.[3] The total time of the standard Proton/Briz-M mission profile from lift-off to spacecraft separation is approximately 9.3 hours.[3] A Proton launch vehicle with a Briz-M upper stage can also inject payloads to Earth escape trajectories.[3]

One of system's design goals has been to keep overall dimensions as small as possible. Briz-M takes much less space on board the launch vehicle compared to its predecessor, the Block D upper stage, leaving freed volume for the cargo.[4] A Proton with a Briz-M can place a 4,385 kg satellite, such as an A2100AX, into a target orbit with an apogee of 35,786 km, a perigee of 7,030 km, and an inclination of 17.3°.[5][6] Maximum lift capability of the Briz-M stage is 5,645 kg to geosynchronous transfer orbit with a 1,500 m/s residual velocity to GSO.[1] A tandem launch of multiple spacecraft is also supported, with the ability to inject the spacecraft into different orbits.[1]

Briz-M is a twin upper stage consisting of a core module (using Briz-KM as the baseline) and a jettisonable add-on doughnut tank surrounding the core.[2] It is powered by a pump-fed gimballed main engine, the 14D30.[1]

Briz-KM Variant[edit]

The Briz-KM is a single-piece structure with a conical tank compartment and the engine located in a recess in the fuel tank.[7] The Briz-KM is used as a third stage of the Rockot launch vehicles.[8]


Briz-M completed its maiden flight in May 2000, when it is delivered the Gorizont communications satellite into orbit.[citation needed]

It is planned to use Briz-M with the A3 and A5 versions of the future Angara rocket family.[2]

Launch chronology[edit]

5 July 1999 launch failure due to explosion of Proton second stage. Carried a Raduga communication satellite.
6 June 2000 successful launch of a Gorizont communication satellite.
6 June 2003 successful launch of an Americom communication satellite.
10 December 2003 successful launch of three GLONASS positioning satellites.
28 February 2006[9] launch failure leaves Briz-M and payload in unusable orbit. Carried an Arabsat-4M communication satellite. The booster eventually exploded on February 19, 2007, producing over 1000 trackable pieces of space debris.[10][11]
7 July 2007 successful launch of DirecTV-10
14 March 2008 failed during second burn, leaving AMC-14 in useless orbit. The failure was caused by a ruptured exhaust gas conduit, which led to a shutdown of the turbo pump feeding the Briz-M engine.[12]
19 August 2008 successful launch of the Inmarsat 4 F3 satellite. A modification was made to the Briz-M engine to include a new conduit in response to the March 14 failure. This modification will be used in all future launches.[12][13]
20 September 2008 successful launch of Nimiq-4[14]
5 November 2008 successful launch of Astra 1M from Baikonur, Kazakhstan
10 December 2008 successful launch of Ciel-2 from Baikonur.[15]
11 February 2009 successful launch of Express-AM44 and Express-MD1 from Baikonur
1 July 2009 successful launch of Sirius FM-5 from Baikonur[16]
3 February 2011 Failed launch of Geo-IK-2 satellite from Plesetsk - failed Briz-KM restart.[17]
17 August 2011 Failed launch of Ekspress-AM4 satellite from Baikonur - lost contact with Briz-M on fourth burn.[18]
3 November 2011 successful launch of 3 Glonass satellites.[19]
11 December 2011 successful launch of AMOS-5 (Spacecom) and Luch-5A.[20]
14 February 2012 successful launch of SES-4 communication satellite[21]
6 August 2012 Failed launch of Telkom-3 and Ekspress-MD2 communication satellites[22]
8 December 2012 Partial success launch of Yamal-402 communication satellite placing close to designated orbit keeping possibility to correct it[23]


  1. ^ a b c d Proton/Breeze-M International Launch Services, retrieved on 2009-03-23
  2. ^ a b c "Breeze M upper stage". Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d Proton Launch System Mission Planner's Guide International Launch Services. Retrieved on 2008-03-23
  4. ^
  5. ^ "orbit.jpg". Khrunichev. 
  6. ^ "Breeze-M Powered Flight". Khrunichev. 
  7. ^ "Breeze KM upper stage". Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  8. ^ "Russia launches relay craft, commemorative satellite". Spaceflight Now. 
  9. ^ Spaceflight Now - Proton rocket fails in Arab satellite launch
  10. ^ "Rocket Explosion". 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  11. ^ Than, Ker (2007-02-21). "Rocket Explodes Over Australia, Showers Space with Debris". Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ "ILS PROTON SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES SIRIUS FM-5 SATELLITE". International Launch Services. 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  17. ^ "Russia Loses Contact with Military Satellite". GPS World. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  18. ^ "FAILURE: Proton-M launch with Ekspress-AM4 satellite - August 18, 2011". NASA Space Flight. 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  19. ^ STEPHEN CLARK. "Proton rocket replenishes Russian navigation system". Spaceflight Now. 
  20. ^ "Luch-5A and AMOS-5 spacecrafts launch". Tsenki. 
  21. ^ Bergin, Chris (February 14, 2012). "ILS Proton-M successfully launches SES-4". NASAspaceflight. 
  22. ^ Bergin, Chris (August 6, 2012). "Proton-M launch: Telkom-3 and Ekspress-MD2 lost after Briz-M failure". NASAspaceflight. 
  23. ^