Broad Front (Uruguay)

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Broad Front
President Mónica Xavier
Founded February 5, 1971
Headquarters Colonia 1367, Montevideo, Uruguay
Newspaper Voces del Frente
Ideology Democratic socialism[1]
Socialism
Social democracy
Christian left
Marxism
Political position Centre-left[2][3] to Left-wing[4][5]
International affiliation Socialist International,
Progressive Alliance,
COPPPAL,
Foro de São Paulo
Chamber of Deputies
50 / 99
Chamber of Senators
16 / 30
Party flag
Bandera del Frente Amplio.svg
Website
http://www.frenteamplio.org.uy/
Politics of Uruguay
Political parties
Elections

The Broad Front (Spanish: Frente Amplio, FA) is a Uruguayan left-wing coalition of political parties. It is led by Mónica Xavier. Frente Amplio has close ties with PIT-CNT trade union and the cooperative housing movement.

History[edit]

Frente Amplio was founded as a coalition of more than a dozen fractured leftist parties and movements in 1971. The first president of the front and its first candidate for the presidency of the country was General Liber Seregni. The front was declared illegal during 1973 military coup d'état of and emerged again in 1984 when democracy was restored in Uruguay.

In 1994 Progressive Encounter (Encuentro Progresista) was formed by several minor independent factions and the Frente Amplio. EP and FA started contesting elections jointly under the name Encuentro Progresista - Frente Amplio. Later another force, Nuevo Espacio, became linked to the front. Thus it started contesting elections as Encuentro Progresista - Frente Amplio - Nueva Mayoria.

In 2005 member organizations of Progressive Encounter and New Majority (essentially Nuevo Espacio) merged into the front, and the coalition took the name of the larger force, Frente Amplio. Previously, EP and later NM had been allied with FA but organizationally separate structures.

At the 2004 general election, the party won 51.7% of the popular vote and 52 out of 99 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 17 out of 31 in the Senate, while its presidential candidate, Tabaré Vázquez, won the presidential election. The Front retained its majority and the presidency in the 2009 election with José Mujica elected as president.

The alliance is - as far as available - formed by:

Splits[edit]

Along its history, despite the fact of constantly attracting political factions from other parties, the Broad Front suffered some splits as well:

Ideology[edit]

The Broad Front consists primarily of progressive political parties. However, in government it has tended to follow policies favouring a market economy with expanded social programs. Not all the parties in the Broad Front can be considered left-wing, indeed some lean towards fiscal conservatism or social conservatism. Uruguay Assembly of Danilo Astori can be considered a centrist party and Astori has followed fiscal conservative policies as finance minister, whereas the Christian Democratic Party is vocally opposed to abortion. Tabaré Vázquez during his presidency maintained his pro-life stance, in contrast to the stance of many in his own Socialist Party, leading him to leave his positions in the party.[6]

2004 electoral strength[edit]

e • d Summary of the 31 October 2004 General Assembly of Uruguay election results
Parties and alliances Votes Chamber of Deputies Chamber of Senators
% Seats % Seats
Broad Front – Progressive Encounter – New Majority (Frente Amplio – Encuentro Progresista – Nueva Mayoría) 51.7 52 17
National Party (Partido Nacional-Blancos) 35.1 36 11
Colorado Party (Partido Colorado) 10.6 10 3
Independent Party (Partido Independiente) 1.9 1 -
Total (turnout  %)   99   31
Source: Electoral Court and El País Uruguay, Angus Reid

Results in the 2004 internal elections[edit]

In 2004 the first internal elections for EP-FA-NM was held. Previously elections had only been held within FA.

List Party Votes  %
609 Espacio 609 Movimiento de Participación Popular 148,426 33.18
Izquierda Abierta
Movimiento Claveles Rojos
Columna Blanca
90 Espacio 90 Partido Socialista 79,090 17.68
Movimiento Socialista Emilio Frugoni
Partido por la Seguridad Social
Acción Renovadora
2121 Espacio 2121 Asamblea Uruguay 40,741 9.11
Movimiento Popular Frenteamplista
738 Alianza Progresista Confluencia Frenteamplista 37,628 8.41
Corriente 78
Partido Demócrata Cristiano
Corriente Encuentrista Independiente
77 Vertiente Artiguista Artiguismo y Unidad 34,536 7.72
Izquierda Democrática Independiente
99000 Nuevo Espacio 30,762 6.88
1001 Democracía Avanzada Partido Comunista del Uruguay 26,569 5.94
Frente Izquierda de Liberación
326 Movimiento 26 de Marzo 12,175 2.72
1303 Corriente Popular 8,776 1.96
1813 Liga Federal Frenteamplista 7,425 1.66
5271 Corriente de Izquierda Tendencia Marxista 5,233 1.17
Alternativa Popular 1815 - Espacio Solidario
Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores-CI
Unión Popular
567 Unión Frenteamplista Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo 2,664 0.64
9393 Corriente de Unidad Frenteamplista 2,354 0.53
1968 Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores-IV Internacional 387 0.09
871 Partido Obrero Revolucionario (Trotskista-Posadista) 371 0.08
5205 Movimiento 20 de Mayo 198 0.04
11815 86 0.02
2571 Agrupación 5 de Febrero de 1971 23 0.01
Total: 447,313

Electoral results[edit]

Latest elections[edit]

e • d 2009 Uruguayan parliamentary election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Chamber of
Deputies
Senate
Broad Front 1,105,262 49.34 50 16
National Party 669,942 29.90 30 9
Colorado Party 392,307 17.51 17 5
Independent Party 57,360 2.56 2
Popular Assembly 15,428 0.69
Total 2,240,299 100.00
Registered voters 2,563,250 89.86% turnout
Source: Corte Electoral

Presidential[edit]

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
# of overall votes  % of overall vote # of overall votes  % of overall vote
1994 Tabaré Vázquez 621,226 30.6 (#3)
1999 Tabaré Vázquez 861,202 40.1 (#1) 982,049 45.9 (#2)
2004 Tabaré Vázquez 1,124,761 51.7 (#1)
2009 José Mujica 1,105,262 48.0 (#1) 1,197,638 52.4 (#1)

Parliament[edit]

Election year # of overall votes  % of overall vote # of overall
Chamber seats won
+/- # of overall
Senate seats won
+/- Notes
1994 621,226 30.6 (#3)
31 / 99
9 / 31
1999 861,202 40.1 (#1)
40 / 99
Increase 9
12 / 31
Increase 3
2004 1,124,761 51.7 (#1)
52 / 99
Increase 12
17 / 31
Increase 5
2009 1,093,869 47.5 (#1)
50 / 99
Decrease 2
16 / 30
Decrease 1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gregory, Stephen (2009), Intellectuals and Left Politics in Uruguay, 1958-2006, Sussex Academic Press, p. 129 
  2. ^ Gregory, Stephen (2009), Intellectuals and Left Politics in Uruguay, 1958-2006, Sussex Academic Press, p. 4 
  3. ^ Mainwaring, Scott; Scully, Timothy R. (2003), "The Diversity of Christian Democracy in Latin America", Christian Democracy in Latin America (Stanford University Press): 49 
  4. ^ Schooley, Helen (2001), "Uruguay — History", South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2002 (Europa Publications): 760 
  5. ^ Busky, Donald F. (2002), Communism in History and Theory: Asia, Africa, and the Americas, Praeger Publishers, p. 224 
  6. ^ Vázquez leaves Socialist Party

External links[edit]