Broad Street railway station (London)

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Broad Street
Broad street station 1865.png
Broad Street is located in Central London
Broad Street
Broad Street
Location of Broad Street in Central London
Location
Place City of London
Local authority City of London
Grid reference TQ331817
History
Platforms 9
Original company North London Railway
Pre-grouping North London Railway
Post-grouping London, Midland and Scottish Railway
1 November 1865 (1865-11-01) Station opened
30 June 1986 (1986-06-30) Station closed
Replaced by Liverpool Street
Portal icon London Transport portal
Portal icon UK Railways portalCoordinates: 51°31′08″N 0°05′00″W / 51.5189°N 0.0833°W / 51.5189; -0.0833

Broad Street railway station was a major terminal station in the City of London, adjacent to Liverpool Street station. Broad Street was opened in 1865 as the main terminus of the North London Railway network of suburban services. It closed in 1986 because of diminishing passenger usage.

History[edit]

Opening[edit]

The extension of the North London Railway (NLR) to Broad Street (via the Kingsland Viaduct) was authorised by the North London Railway Act of 22 July 1861. The station was opened on 1 November 1865[1] as the terminus of a network of commuter railways linking east and west London via the looping route of the NLR, originally with seven platforms and three approach lines. A goods station was situated next to the passenger station, and that opened to traffic on 18 May 1868. It was built on a deck and a lift was provided to move wagons down to warehouses below. The deck was not strong enough to carry locomotives, so shunting was done by rope and capstan.

Expansion and development[edit]

Plan of Broad Street and Liverpool Street stations in 1888
Broad Street railway station in 1961

A fourth approach line was added in 1874, a further (eighth) platform in 1891, and a final (ninth) platform in 1913. At its peak, Broad Street was the third-busiest station in London (after Liverpool Street and Victoria). At the start of the 20th century, more than one train per minute arrived or departed Broad Street during rush hour, with over 27 million passengers in 1902. The Great Northern Railway also used Broad Street as a supplement to its King's Cross terminal some miles to the west.

Deterioration[edit]

North London Line (City Branch)
North London Line (To Richmond)
Highbury & Islington
Canonbury Curve (To ECML)
Canonbury
Dalston Junction
North London Line (To Stratford)
Kingsland Viaduct
Haggerston
Shoreditch
GEML (To Stratford)
Broad Street
Liverpool Street
Looking into the station in 1983.

In the early years of the 20th century the North London Line suffered a drastic loss in passengers and, especially, revenue, owing to the expansion of the bus, tram and Underground networks. For example, from 1900 to 1905, passengers dropped by 4 per cent and 13.4 per cent;[clarification needed] by 1913 numbers had dropped to 44.6 per cent compared to 1900, and by 1921 to only 23.3 percent.[2] The patronage of Broad Street station declined accordingly. This was not helped by the fact that on 8 September 1915 the station was damaged by an enemy Zeppelin attack.

In the face of the competition, the governing board finally decided to electrify the NLR, on the two conductor rail at 600 V DC system, and electrified services started on 1 October 1916, using Oerlikon stock, though the Watford service was not electrified until 10 July 1922. At the terminus only the western five lines were ever electrified.[3] After 1922 the NLR was fully absorbed into the London and North Western Company, and disaggregated figures are not available; however, electrification appears to have at least stemmed the tide of passenger losses.

The station was badly damaged during the Second World War and was never fully repaired. Local services to Poplar were withdrawn on 14 May 1944 and never reinstated. The main station building closed in 1956 with passengers being directed to a new concourse level building at the platform entrance to buy tickets.

By 1960, only 41 trains carrying 6,400 passengers arrived at Broad Street in the three morning peak hours. The line and station were earmarked for closure under the Beeching cuts of 1963, but local opposition persuaded the government to give it a reprieve. However, the station was gradually run down and the level of service was steadily reduced. In 1967 the major part of the train shed roof was removed, having become unsafe, whilst four of the nine platforms were taken out of use in 1969, the same year that the Broad Street goods yard closed. In 1976, peak hour services to the Eastern Region via the Canonbury Spur were withdrawn with the opening of the Northern City Line, and a further platform was disconnected. The station was now very dilapidated, with trees growing between disused platforms. The crumbling facade and the cavernous, dark interior (including a disused buffet and ticket office) were fascinating yet forbidding.

Closure[edit]

By 1985, only 6,000 passengers per week were using Broad Street station and only about 300 arrived daily in the morning peak. From 13 May 1985 the service to Richmond was diverted away from Broad Street, leaving only the peak hour Watford Junction services. It was agreed that Broad Street would be closed with the last remaining trains diverted to Liverpool Street once a new connecting chord was built from the North London Line. Until this was done, it was possible to accommodate this last service from the outer end of one platform, and therefore in November that year demolition of the station began. The remaining single platform was used until the last train left on 27 June 1986, when the station was finally closed on 30 June 1986[1] along with Dalston Junction, the other remaining station on the North London Line's City branch. Demolition of the station was completed by the end of 1986.

Reuse[edit]

Current reuse of Broad Street locale
To Richmond
NLL to Stratford
Dalston Junction
Haggerston
Hoxton
GEML
Shoreditch High Street
Shoreditch
ELL
Broad Street
Liverpool Street
To Maidenhead
Crossrail to Shenfield


Broad Street was replaced by the vast Broadgate office and shopping complex and nothing remains of the station. However, three giant girders which formerly supported a now-demolished part of the Kingsland Viaduct approaching Broad Street form a feature at the Broadgate entrance to Liverpool Street (at the corner of Eldon Street and Blomfield Street). Nonetheless, most of this viaduct, leading to the North London Line, remains largely intact, and has been restored to carry the London Overground along the old trackbed as far as Highbury & Islington. The former line over the Great Eastern Street viaduct to Broad Street has been utilised as a location for artists' studios, housed in converted Jubilee line Underground trains[4]

The Crossrail project, which is seeing a new underground railway line built through central London, will have one of its new stations at Liverpool Street. A new ticket hall serving the Crossrail station will be built within the old Underground ticket hall with its entrance at 100 Liverpool Street, the old entrance to the Underground that served Broad Street, with the platforms themselves under the Broadgate complex.[5]

An often overlooked feature of the concourse was a 10-foot-tall (3.0 m) war memorial made of white marble, that was installed on 10 February 1921 and containing inscriptions of 64 names. The memorial commemorated the workers of the North London Railway company who lost their lives in 'The Great War'. Upon closure the memorial was put in store at Richmond station in 1989. On 7 June 2011 it was rededicated outside Hoxton Overground Station by Rev James Westcott of St. Chad's Church and London's transport commissioner Peter Hendy.[6] The Bishop of Stepney, Rt Rev Adrian Newman, Rev Graham Hunter, vicar of St John's Hoxton, and various other local clergy as well as MP Meg Hillier were in attendance at the new Hoxton War Memorial's inaugural Armistice Day service on 11 November 2011.

In popular culture[edit]

Paul McCartney's 1984 feature film and album of the same name, Give My Regards to Broad Street, was inspired by the station. In one of the last scenes of the film, McCartney walks into the station and sits alone on one of its benches.

The Spooks episode "Lesser Of Two Evils" depicts an attack on the station, which is portrayed as being a busy commuting point. It is also shown as containing a London Underground station.

Preceding station Disused railways Following station
Terminus   North London Railway   Shoreditch
Terminus   British Rail
London Midland Region

North London Line (City Branch)
  Dalston Junction

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Catford, Nick. "Broad Street railway station". Subterranea Britannica. Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. 
  2. ^ White, Henry Patrick (1987). "Volume 3 - Greater London". A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain (Newton Abbott: David St John Thomas). p. 237. 
  3. ^ Mitchell, Vic; Smith, Keith (1997). North London line : Broad Street to Willesden Jn. via Hampstead Heath. Midhurst: Middleton Press. p. 96. 
  4. ^ "Any old iron? Disused tube carriages being turned into studio space". Tube Lines. 2006-08-03. Archived from the original on 2006-11-27. 
  5. ^ "Crossrail update". British Land. Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. 
  6. ^ "Blood and Custard". Modern Railways (Ian Allan) 68 (754): 33. July 2011. 

External links[edit]