Broadway Mansions today
|Location||20 Bei Suzhou Road, Hongkou District, Shanghai, China|
|Cost||$10 million (Mexican) (approximately US$3.4 million)|
|Owner||Shanghai Hengshan (Group) Holdings Company (上海市人民政府直属的上海衡山集) since at least 1985.|
|Roof||78.0 m (255.9 ft)|
|Floor area||24,596 square metres|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||B. Flazer, Palmer and Turner|
|Developer||Shanghai Land Investment Company|
|Structural engineer||John William Barrow, Palmer and Turner|
|Main contractor||Ye Guang Estate Property Company|
The Broadway Mansions (simplified Chinese: 百老汇大厦; traditional Chinese: 百老匯大廈; pinyin: Bǎilǎohuì Dàshà) is a nineteen-floor Art Deco five star hotel, one of the most famous hotels in Shanghai, China. It's been stated "since the day of its opening it had been one of the sights of Shanghai", and was for over five decades one of the primary symbols of Shanghai. It was once its most visible landmark, Completed in 1934, the same year as the Park Hotel, which is 19 feet taller, it was the tallest apartment building in Shanghai and remained so for several decades. Located near the confluence of Suzhou Creek and the Huangpu River, as well as the northern end of The Bund, it was built by the architectural and engineering firm of Palmer and Turner, and its completion in 1935 signalled the commencement of the high-rise building era in Asia. It was Shanghai's "closest approach to a modern American skyscraper." It commands possibly the best view of the Bund and Huangpu. Originally labelled as "The Broadway Mansions" in 1935, it was renamed Shanghai Mansions by the Shanghai Municipal Council in 1951, but reverted to its original name after China opened up again to the West. The Broadway Mansions has been owned and operated by the Shanghai Hengshan (Group) Holdings Company (上海市人民政府直属的上海衡山集团) since at least 1985.
- 1 Location
- 2 History
- 2.1 Broadway Mansions (1934-1951)
- 2.1.1 Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)
- 2.1.2 Highlights (1945-1949)
- 2.1.3 The Battle of Broadway Mansions (25–27 May 1949)
- 2.1.4 Highlights (1949-1951)
- 2.2 Shanghai Mansions (1951-1969)
- 2.3 Anti-Imperialism Building (ca. 1969-1972)
- 2.4 Shanghai Mansions Hotel (ca. 1972 to ca. 1996)
- 2.5 Broadway Mansions Hotel (ca. 1996 to today)
- 2.1 Broadway Mansions (1934-1951)
- 3 Ownership
- 4 Amenities
- 5 Architectural features
- 6 Evaluation
- 7 Notable guests
- 8 Notable residents
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The Broadway Mansions Hotel is located at 20 Bei Suzhou Road, Shanghai in the North Bund area of the Hongkou District. It is at the northern end of the Waibaidu Bridge (Garden Bridge). It is at the corner of Bei Suzhou Road, Huangpu Road, and Daming Road (formerly Broadway), and is less than thirty metres from the Suzhou Creek, close to its confluence with the Huangpu River. It is also bounded by Haining Road at the rear, and Wusong Road South on the west. It is across Daming Road from the Astor House Hotel.
Broadway Mansions (1934-1951)
Construction for the Broadway Mansions was started in 1930, and completed by October 1934, and cost $10 million (Mexican) (approximately US$3.4 million at that time). The Mansions was "originally built in 1934 as an exclusive residential hotel by the British." The Mansions was built by Ye Guang Estate Property Company, for the Shanghai Land Investment, Company controlled by Sir Victor Sassoon, a Sephardic Jew. Additionally, Sassoon owned the Cathay Mansions, another apartment building in the French Concession. Along with the two other tallest buildings in Shanghai, (the Palace Hotel and Sassoon House), these skyscrapers were all owned by Baghdadi Jews. The chairman of the board was Harry Edward Arnhold (born 16 January 1879 in Hong Kong), a British Jew of German ancestry who had been educated in Britain, the chairman of the Sassoon-controlled Arnhold & Company, a former Chairman of the British Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai (1923); and the sometime chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC). The primary developer and financer of the Broadway Mansions was Dr. Maurice Benjamin, another Sephardi Jew, who had "financed and built much of the Shanghai coast". Benjamin, who was one of the more prominent landowners and businessmen in Shanghai, considered an expert on real estate, was also a leading board member of the Shanghai Land Investment Company, and a former member of the Shanghai Municipal Council (1920–1921), According to Maisie Meyer, "Broadway Mansions was hailed as Maurice Benjamin's masterpiece."
In the years before the Second Sino-Japanese War, "Honkew's only outstanding building was the Broadway Mansion." On its completion, "this monumental pyramid was one of Shanghai's two tallest buildings." From its inception, it "had been a headquarters for Japanese commercial activity," due to its proximity to Shanghai's Little Tokyo, comprising the Yangpu and Hongkou districts. In 1932 Little Tokyo comprised 4.25 square miles (11 km2) out of the entire 8.3 square miles (21 km2) of the International Settlement, and had about 30,000 Japanese residents, while there about 20,000 other foreigners in both the International Settlement and French Concession combined. The area was dominated and controlled by the Japanese military. After the surrender of non-foreign Shanghai in November 1937, the International Settlement north of the Suzhou Creek, became almost exclusively Japanese in population.
Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)
The Japanese military commandeered the Broadway Mansions at 11.00am on 17 August 1937, with all non-Japanese residents were ordered to evacuate from the Broadway Mansions by Japanese military sailors, often at the point of a bayonet. Soon the Japanese flag fluttered over the Broadway Mansions, to the great delight of Japanese admiral Isoroku Yamamoto who toured Shanghai in April 1938. The Mansions became a de facto Japanese possession. The Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines in discussing accommodation in Shanghai indicated: "Broadway Mansions? No. That's out. It is ... mostly empty and in darkness. Some Japanese military are there, that is all. It is a British property, Shanghai's newest and best apartment hotel. Another indemnity is accumulating." Within a year most of the Mansions was rented to Japanese tenants. According to testimony presented to a US Congress sub-committee, "Broadway Mansion is the "brain" of all Japanese control in Shanghai. Here most of the important combined policy meetings are held." The Mansions was used as the headquarters of the Japanese Army Liaison Office. Before December 1941, the Japanese military government held weekly (and later bi-weekly) press conferences at the Broadway Mansions, and had offices there, including its transportation office. Foreigners who transgressed the Japanese rules of the territory occupied by Japan were held for questioning in the Mansions.
After December 1938, as a result of a meeting of Japanese military authorities and the Japanese-appointed puppet regime Reformed Government of the Republic of China led by Liáng Hóngzhì (梁鴻志; Liang Hung-chih) (1883-1946) in Nanjing, which led to the formation "the Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Anhui Opium Suppression Bureau (Su Zhe Wan jinyanju) on the fifth floor of the Broadway Mansions....They were empowered to control the import and distribution of opium, to enforce licensing conditions for opium hongs and smokers, and to collect revenues from opium sales.... All fifty-eight licensed opium hongs in Shanghai ... had to pick up their opium requisitions from the bureau on the fifth floor of the Broadway Mansions." The Reformed Government (and its successor, the Reorganized Government of Wang Jingwei) had its Foreign Affairs Bureau on the fourth floor of the Broadway Mansions.
Sale of Broadway Mansions (March 1939)
In an unsuccessful endeavour to increase the number of Japanese ratepayers and thus gain a majority on the Shanghai Municipal Council, which governed the International Settlement, a Japanese joint stock company purchased the Broadway Mansions by 21 March 1939 at a considerable loss to its owners for $5,000,000, with the considerable hesitation of H.E. (Harry) Arnhold, the chairman of the board. At that time The China Weekly Review reported: "One of the most luxurious hotels in Shanghai, Broadway Mansions has 156 hotel suites, 56 apartments, and eight offices and stores." Many non-missionary foreigners were interned at the Broadway Mansions after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941.
US Military occupancy (1945-1949)
After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, and the subsequent evacuation of its Japanese tenants and occupants, the Shanghai Municipal Council assumed ownership of the Broadway Mansions. The Council leased part of the Mansions to the foreign correspondents and the remainder to the United States military, where it became the headquarters for the American Military Mission that advised Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist government of the Republic of China. The first five or six floors of the Broadway Mansions was occupied by officers of the U.S. Military Aid Group in China (MAGIC) and their dependents, with 400 billets being provided at the Mansions. The ground floor hosted a small American army hospital. American fighter pilot Bill Dunn, one of the first to occupy the Mansions in August 1945, recalled: "In Shanghai we were billeted at the Broadway Mansions, a beautiful European-style hotel. There was only one problem: the rooms had no beds. Japanese officers had been billeted there, and they didn't use our type of bed, just sleeping mats. We got in touch with the hotel manager, who soon had a flock of Chinese setting up beds for us." About this time the manager was Michael Alexis Melgunow, a White Russian émigré, who had previously been the head chauffeur. After the alleged rape of two Chinese girls by American marines, approximately 5,000 anti-American Chinese university students marched on 1 January 1947 on the Broadway Mansions, at that time home for 200 U.S. servicemen and their dependents, demanding the American military (which they likened to the British imperialists and the Japanese aggressors) leave China. The American-owned China Weekly Review attributed the cause of the Chinese hostility to the "outrageous conduct" of American military police and other Army and Marine" personnel.
Foreign Correspondents' Club of China (1945-1949)
Also immediately after World War II, the Mansions hosted the Foreign Correspondents' Club of China, which had been founded in Chongqing on 18 May 1943, in its upper four floors, and billeted its members and their families, until soon after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949. American journalist John Robinson Beal explained: "It's easy to understand why the correspondents prefer Shanghai. One lives comfortably at the Broadway Mansions, ... one of the Far East's finest hotels, waited on hand and foot by servants," making it "the most decorous press club in Asia". Journalist Richard Hughes joked that "Most of the correspondents lived there, incestuously".
The bar was located in the penthouse on the 17th floor. The parties held in the Foreign Correspondents' Club were notorious. While there was intense fighting in the rural areas of China during the escalating Chinese Civil War, this "did not prevent the parties in the foreign correspondents' club atop the eighteen-story Broadway Mansions, where dancing went on under gaily colored lights." "on its top floor foreigners and their White Russian mistresses used to dance the sultry Shanghai nights away." At these parties, "White Russian mistresses mingled with the American wives and black market speculators with military personnel", who all cursed the Chinese, including both the Communists and Chiang Kai-shek. Along with the decline in value of the Chinese currency, both gambling and opium-smoking increased, as did concerns about what to do with their White Russian mistresses should the Communists triumph and evict them from China. The Mansions also hosted a popular brothel in this period of American occupancy.
While Edward Ward in 1947 considered the Mansions to be "one of the most modern luxury blocks of flats", Harrison Forman, noticing the changes in the Mansions since its halcyon days before the war, reflected on his return, "Now it looked rundown and motheaten." American Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Keyes Beech described the Broadway Mansions as "a steel and concrete apartment hotel that shot eighteen stories up from the bank of Soochow Creek, an American pillar of plenty", but indicated that "the best thing about the Broadway Mansions was the view". In May 1949 the Broadway Mansions was still the tallest apartment building in Shanghai, but described as a "building with dull red brick."
The Battle of Broadway Mansions (25–27 May 1949)
From 25 May 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, one of the few significant battles in Shanghai was, what foreign residents called, "The Battle of Broadway Mansions", where for two days there was fierce fighting in the vicinity of the Broadway Mansions between the forces of the Guómíndǎng and the People's Liberation Army. From 30 April 1949 retreating Nationalist soldiers took possession of the Broadway Mansions, the nearby Central Post Office and the Embankment apartment complex. One hundred regulars from the army of the Republic of China commanded by a major, occupied the Broadway Mansions, as part of their defence of Shanghai against invasion by the People's Liberation Army. Eventually, just over one thousand Nationalists defended the Broadway Mansions, where they had entrenched themselves on the upper floors, where they could shoot from the windows and from the roof. From the roof of Broadway Mansions, just above the Foreign Press Club, the Guómíndǎng snipers could rake the approaches to the Waibaidu Bridge by the advancing Communist forces. There about two hundred foreigners trapped within the Mansions during the battle, who were terrified for their safety. Peter Townsend recalls: "When you go out on the parapet of Broadway Mansions a bullet whistles above your head and you duck and crawl back on your hands and knees." Journalist Edwin Palmer Hoyt, whose apartment was in the Broadway Mansions, described the defeat of the Guómíndǎng: "The rot of the Guomindang was definitely showing, nowhere more tragically than on Suzhou Creek, just below the windows of the Broadway Mansions Hotel, the press hotel for the correspondents. From the windows of their comfortable apartments, they could look out at the steaming mass of humanity crowded" beneath." Townsend reported during the final stages of the battle, "They're hanging on at Broadway Mansions ... for nothing." According to Brown and Pickowicz, "The thousand or so Nationalists defending Broadway Mansions could have been subdued by the Communists in an hour if the latter had wanted to do so." The hoisting of the red flag with five yellow stars of the People's Republic of China on the roof of the Broadway Mansions on 27 May 1949 signified the final conquest of Shanghai by the People's Liberation Army.
After the surrender of Shanghai to the People's Liberation Army on 27 May 1949, and especially after the declaration of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949, the circumstances changed dramatically for the residents of the Broadway Mansions. According to Ross Terrill, "Foreign journalists drifted out of China to other assignments. The Foreign Correspondents Club in Broadway Mansions unraveled. Its Chinese staff were paid off; waiters were given leftover mustard....Today there are no dances, but you can get a good view" from the roof. On 20 June 1949 the remaining 11 foreigners residing in the Broadway Mansions were ordered to leave to make room for political and military workers. By 1950 the Shanghai branch of the Chinese Government Information Office, had its headquarters in the Broadway Mansions.
Shanghai Mansions (1951-1969)
On 1 May 1951 the Shanghai Municipal Council, who had assumed ownership in 1945, renamed the Mansions as "'Shanghai dasha' or the Grand Building of Shanghai", or as more popularly known in English, "the Shanghai Mansions". Apparently, in 1957, the Mansions was also known as the 'Golden River Hotel', which The Times journalist James Bertram (1910–1980) described as "an elaborate Western-style hotel-cum-apartment-house that has survived the war years and the Japanese occupation without visible change." In 1956 British novelist and film producer Rubeigh James Minney, who visited Shanghai in 1956, referred to the Shanghai Mansions' store on the ground floor: "On the ground floor there is a very superior general store", where, "the atmosphere was much more elegant: by contrast one might say it was on the Harrods level."
In 1965 the Mansions was described as "the huge ugly building in Shanghai." Belgian journalist Jacques Marcuse concurred with that assessment, describing the Mansions in 1967 as "that tall yet squat ugly building." while in the same year, Sally Backhouse, after describing "slab-like buildings that towered above the rest, holed by myriad windows and grimy with dirt, like dry old discolored cheese," indicated that "the largest of these was the famous 'Broadway Mansions', in capitalist days a block of luxury flats and rented buildings." Another resident described the Mansions in the mid-1960s as a huge hotel, but "Shanghai Mansion is not the most luxurious hotel in Shanghai."
Shanghai Mansion Incident (23–24 February 1967)
On 23 February 1967, a "grave incident" occurred at the Shanghai Agricultural Department, that became known as the Shanghai Mansions Incident. During the period of the Shanghai Revolution (or January Revolution) of January 1967, which led to the short-lived Shanghai People's Commune, on 20 February, men "were sent to the Shanghai mansion to urge the [striking] workers to go back to their agricultural production posts." On 23 February 1967, an "expatriate rebel group which had set up headquarters in the Shanghai Mansions, staged an assault on the Revolutionary Committee's economic department." On 24 February 1967, the evening the Shanghai Commune was renamed the Shanghai Municipal Revolutionary Committee at the instigation of Mao Zedong, "the committee sent some 'representatives' on a 'fact-finding investigation' to ... the Shanghai Mansion, the site of an apparently large but undetermined colony of returnees from the countryside." These 'counter-revolutionary" forces were suppressed, and the ring leaders were punished. However, after this incident "they continued to deploy large numbers around the Shanghai Mansions day and night, beating up public security personnel."
Anti-Imperialism Building (ca. 1969-1972)
Shanghai Mansions Hotel (ca. 1972 to ca. 1996)
By 1973, the Mansions was renamed in English the Shanghai Mansions Hotel, but retained its Chinese name. By 1973 the Mansions was the third-choice accommodation provided for Overseas Chinese: "If there isn't enough room at these two hotels, then Overseas Chinese are put into the sky scraping Shanghai Mansions Hotel overlooking the Bund. During the 1970s the Mansion was also the primary residence for "foreign experts". Edoarda Masi, an Italian language teacher, who lived at the Mansions for a year from 1976, described the Mansions as "a mastodon among the low buildings that surround it; walls, plumbing, closets are all solid." Referring to the Mansion's popularity, Masi indicated: "Depending on the time of year, this large room is half empty or crowded with tourists. The Dasha, which is known in English as Shanghai Mansions, for long stopovers. By 1978 the Mansions was used increasingly as a hotel for visitors from Third World countries, thus improving the accommodation situation in Shanghai. An American academic who stayed at the Mansions in the summer of 1982, revealed: "With its somewhat shabby decor, the hotel lobby at Shanghai Mansions was a hangout in the evenings for the African and Middle Eastern students of Shanghai." By 1984, "The Shanghai Mansions, consisting of a main and a side building, is a hotel accommodating foreign tourists, businessmen, overseas Chinese." At that time the Mansions had 370 guest rooms (including some deluxe suites) and 1,468 beds. In 1985 one visitor referred to the "Thirties fortress of Shanghai Mansions, its thick brick walls pocked by black windows. The General Manager of the Mansions from 1985 to at least 1999 was Tao Pei Tai (born 1 August 1946), who was also Deputy General Manager of Hengshan Group Holding Co., the owner of the Mansion. In 1989 a double room in the Mansions was US$50 per night. One 1991 Chinese travel guide extolled the service ethic of the Mansion: "The Shanghai Mansions adheres strictly to the guideline of "guests first, service first, courtesy first and tidiness first". However, after September 1993 the Mansions was no longer the dominant landmark in the Shanghai landscape:
The announcement of the metropolis has also changed. It is no longer the magnificent art deco silhouette of the Shanghai Dasha [Shanghai Mansions] or the Waibaidu metallic bridge which marks the beginning of the center city and the Bund but, much further upstream, the Yangpu stayed-girder bridge. Completed in 1993, it has become the huge waterway entrance into the city, as role reclaimed, the Nanpu Bridge located downstream.
While acknowledging that "the view to the river from the rooftop terrace ... is breathtaking", one 1993 Guidebook warned, "Unfortunately, its location can become a drawback in the evening, as the sonorous horns of the river barges pose a constant challenge to sleep." In 1995 the Shanghai Mansions was evaluated by the State Tourism Bureau, and named one of the twelve national best star hotels.
Broadway Mansions Hotel (ca. 1996 to today)
By 1996, the Mansions was again renamed - this time a reversion to a name similar to its original name - the Broadway Mansions Hotel, reflecting the increased openness to the West as a result of the reforms of Deng Xiaoping, and the shift from providing long-term residential apartment accommodation to that of a hotel. At that time the Mansions was described as "rather dull compared to other Shanghai hotels."
The Broadway Mansions has been owned and operated by the Shanghai Hengshan (Group) Holdings Company (上海市人民政府直属的上海衡山集) since at least 1985. The current president is Mr. Mu Xiangyang. The Hengshan Hotels and Resorts owns five other hotels in Shanghai, including the Astor House Hotel, across the road from the Broadway Mansions.
The Broadway Mansions was the first hotel in Shanghai to have a restaurant on the top of the building. Today the Broadway Mansions Hotel has six restaurants, and is famous for its Huaiyang cuisine.
According to Professor Anne Warr,
Despite the uncertainties of the 1930s, in particular the increasing Japanese control over Chinese territory, the growing influence of the Communist Party, and the corruption of the Nationalist Government, Shanghai boomed. The first American style Art Deco skyscraper appeared on The Bund just as the American economy collapsed and Shanghai was about to enter its most dynamic decade. At the end of the 1920s as Europe and America went into financial depression, shiploads of unemployed foreigners arrived in Shanghai seeking their fortune. In three years, Shanghai’s foreign population almost doubled, from 36,500 in 1930 to 70,000 in 1933. Architects abandoned the Beaux-Arts styles of earlier decades and whole-heartedly embraced Art Deco and Modernism....During this period, clashing concepts of nationalism, imperialism and internationalism were reflected in the architecture. Internationalism from New York permeated Shanghai in the form of skyscrapers and the latest Hollywood movies, while Japanese imperialism filtered into every corner.
The Broadway Mansions was designed by Mr. B. Flazer, and the structural engineer who supervised construction was John William Barrow, both of the architectural firm of Palmer & Turner. Palmer & Turner, who designed many of Shanghai's major buildings (13 buildings on the Bund alone), was one of the oldest architectural firms in the world, and was founded by British architect William Salway (1844–1902) in Hong Kong in 1868. British architect Clement Palmer (1857–1952) joined the firm in 1883, while structural engineer Arthur Turner (born 1858) joined the next year. Palmer and Turner became partners in 1891. In 1912 they established a branch in Shanghai managed by British architect, George Leopold "Tug" Wilson (1881–1967). Palmer & Turner designed many of the buildings on The Bund, including the Neo-Renaissance style Union Building (1916), its first work in Shanghai, and the first building in Shanghai to use a steel structure; the Neo-Renaissance Mercantile Bank of India, London and China building (1916); the Yokohama Specie Bank Building (1920s); and the neo-classical HSBC Building (1921–1923); the neighbouring Greek Revival neo-classical Customs House (1927). Wilson had supervised construction of the majority of British buildings along The Bund until their new client, Sir Victor Sassoon tilted them towards Art Deco and Modernism at the end of the 1920s, and such buildings as the Art Deco Sassoon House (1926–1929); the Yangtze Insurance Building; the Broadway Mansions (1934); and subsequently the Old Bank of China Building, Shanghai (1937).
The Broadway Mansions is "a brick patterned Art Deco apartment block...[that] would not have looked out of place in Manhattan", and is an example of the Art Deco or Streamline Moderne style of architecture that emerged in the 1920s and flourished in the 1930s The Broadway Mansions is a steel-framed red brick building "in the stepped skyscraper mode", that is 78 metres in height, with a total floor space of 24,596 square metres. Steel-framed structures were used in Shanghai from 1916 onwards, originally for eight- to ten-storey buildings, but by the 1930s for up to twenty-four storeys. The building's floor plan was modeled after the Chinese character for the number eight, which is a symbol of luck and prosperity. The facade of the Broadway Mansions was one of its distinctive features. The design of the Mansions was "influenced by modernism," and like "most apartment buildings in Shanghai featured a simple and modern style of exterior." According to Peter Rowe and Seng Kuan, after describing the Metropole Hotel and Hamilton House, also designed by Palmer & Turner about the same time: "A similar approach to both architecture and place making was taken almost simultaneously by B. Flazer, with the curved symmetric stepped-back facade of the Broadway Mansions....The firm of Palmer and Turner was to continue with curvilinear plan forms in the organic layout of the large Embankment Building of 1933. The Mansions had a roof top garden, and even a squash court. Initially the Mansions had 370 guest rooms, and also housed offices and shops." According to Fiona Shen, "part hotel, part apartment block, it also catered to that fixture of Shanghai economic life during the Concession period - the young, single expatriate - with its 99 stylish and compact bachelor pads." Broadway Mansions Hotel was the first hotel in Shanghai that had an indoor parking facility, a structure that had four levels with 80 spaces. The phone system was built at the time of its construction, and its phone number (46260) has remained unchanged.
The Broadway Mansions is considered "one of the finest architectural examples in Shanghai, and the ideal starting point for an art deco walking tour of the city, ... an unashamedly Gotham-esque structure with a commanding location to the north of the Bund." Soon after its opening, the Mansions was described as a "prominent, tall white structure", Professor Lancelot Forster was enthusiastic in his assessment of the newly completed Broadway Mansions in 1936. After describing its contemporary, the Cathay Hotel, which "seems to point to loftier things, ... defying the smug security of the earth as it soars upwards, and yet not so blatantly as the new Broadway Mansions which, abandoning all restraint ... lifts its optimistic head from its broad substantial shoulders and shouts to the settlement." Canadian Gordon Sinclar, described the Mansions "as posh an apartment house as anything in Toronto or Montreal." One travel guide described the Mansions as "a 22-story brick ziggurat." Harold Conant, who lived in Shanghai for ten years from 1931, depicted the Mansions: "The Broadway Mansions, which seems to be so constructed that the wind always whistles through it (which is very cheering on a hot summer day), seems to have been shown quite frequently in American newspapers". Gary Jones indicates, "the 22-floor ochre-brick structure is now dwarfed by twinkling skyscrapers that have sprung up in recent years, and yet still exudes a menacing solidity and here-to-stay confidence.
According to its official website, Broadway Mansions Hotel has accommodated hundreds of leaders and government delegates from different nations around the world. Some of these include:
- New Zealand-born William Lancelot Holland (28 December 1907 - May 2008), Research Secretary and later Executive Secretary of the Institute of Pacific Relations (1928–1960), and editor of its periodical, Far Eastern Survey and Pacific Affairs, stayed at the Broadway Mansions for several months from July 1937;
- American aviator Royal Leonard (1905–1962), the personal pilot of Chiang Kai-shek, was staying at the Broadway Mansions during the initial days of the Second Sino-Japanese War, and was able to then fly to Hong Kong after the regular air service had been terminated due to aerial combat between Japanese and Chinese forces;
- Canadian socialist James Gareth Endicott (1898–1993), a controversial former United Church of Canada missionary, former advisor to Chiang Kai-shek, but from 1945 a supporter of the Communist Party of China and friend of Zhou Enlai, and founder in 1949 of the Canadian Peace Congress, and a 1952 winner of the Stalin Peace Prize, stayed at the Shanghai Mansions on a return visit to China in 1952 with his wife, Mary Austin Endicott;
- Swiss photojournalist Fernand Gignon, one of few non-Communist reporters permitted to enter the People's Republic of China in the early 1960s, stayed on the 3rd floor of the Shanghai Mansions, "le plus grand complexe locatif de la métropole."
- American businessman and human rights campaigner John Kamm spent a week at the Shanghai Mansions in January 1976 when he was a representative of the National Council for US-China Trade. His account was published as a part of a series in the Hong Kong Economic Journal.
- Cornelius Vander Starr (15 October 1892 – 20 December 1968), an American businessman and Office of Strategic Services operative who founded the American International Group (AIG) insurance corporation in Shanghai in 1919, occupied the penthouse of the Broadway Mansions until the outbreak of World War II;
- American journalist Hallett Edward Abend (born 15 September 1884 in Portland, Oregon; died 28 November 1955 in Sonora, California), correspondent for The New York Times, had a long term lease, and lived and worked from Apartment G, "a luxurious penthouse", on the 16th floor, from 1935 until July 1940. On the evening of 19 July 1940, Abend was robbed and tortured by two Japanese men in his room, who "next morning again wore the uniform of officers of the Imperial Army of Japan." The next morning Abend moved "to another apartment in an area supervised by the Americans and British. In August 1937, after all tenants had been evacuated from the Mansions by Japanese forces, Abend's apartment was searched by men believed to be associated with the Japanese consulate;
- Italian Amleto Vespa (1888-c.1940), a mercenary and secret agent for Manchuria and later reluctantly for the Empire of Japan, lived at the Mansions from 1937;
- Japanese ultra-nationalist yakuza figure and convicted Class A war criminal Yoshio Kodama (児玉誉士夫 18 February 1911 - 17 January 1984), stayed at the Broadway Mansions during the Second Sino-Japanese War;
- American Robert Shaplen, foreign correspondent for The New Yorker, resided at the Broadway Mansions for two years immediately after the conclusion of World War II;
- American Jack Birns, one of Life magazine's staff photo journalists, resided at the Broadway Mansions from 15 December 1947;
- French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson (22 August 1908 – 3 August 2004), considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, and co-founder of Magnum Photos, an international photographic cooperative, lived in the Broadway Mansions for a year from the middle of 1949, covering the fall of the Nationalist government and the creation of the People's Republic of China;
- "LANGHAM HOTELS INTERNATIONAL EXPANDS INTO SHANGHAI WITH ITS FIRST ART-DECO BOUTIQUE HOTEL"; http://www.langhamhotels.com/pdf/pr_20071026.pdf
- It is described in 1993 as "Shanghai's best known building"; see "Shanghai", The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 27 (Encyclopædia Britannica, 1993):274;
- Dmitri Kessel, On Assignment: Dmitri Kessel, LIFE photographer (Abrams, 1985):149.
- Noël Barber, The Fall of Shanghai: The Communist Take-over in 1949 (Macmillan, 1979):96.
- Sidney Shapiro, An American in China: Thirty Years in the People's Republic (New World Press, 1979):55.
- "The Weary Wait" Time (23 May 1949); http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,794751,00.html
- Georges Binder, Tall Buildings of Asia & Australia (Images Publishing, 2001):ifc.
- Bruce Douglass and Ross Terrill, China and Ourselves: Explorations and Revisions by a New Generation (Beacon Press, 1971):90.
- Nicholas Whitlam, "Bright Lights, Old City", The Sydney Morning Herald (13 November 2008); http://www.smh.com.au/travel/bright-lights-old-city-20081113-62zc.html?page=-1
- Kang Yan and Robert Hale Smitheram, Deciphering Shanghai, 1990-2000 (Australian-Chinese Press, 2002):215.
- "SHANGHAI OFFICES OF TIMES SEARCHED; Chief Correspondent to Make a Protest to Japan - His Apartment Also Visited", The New York Times (19 August 1937):2; "The unit of Chinese currency is the yuan, a silver dollar loosely called Mexican. Since it fluctuates less in terms of Chinese commodities than in terms of gold, it is the only fair measure of Chinese values. Hence the dollars throughout this article are Mexican, unless otherwise indicated. The present value of the Mexican dollar is about thirty-four cents." See "The Shanghai Boom", Fortune 11:1 (January 1935); http://www.talesofoldchina.com/reading/fortune.php; Chang Huei Hsin, "Essays of the History of Chinese Currencies", (Tai Young Publication Co. 1994); "Mexican Eagle Dollars"; http://www.sycee-on-line.com/Mexico_dollars.htm
- J. D. Brown and Sharon Owyang, Frommer's Shanghai, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, 2004):75.
- http://www.virtualshanghai.net/Image.php?ID=1436; http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/English/chinatours/shanghai.htm
- Kenneth Frampton and Guan Zhaoye, World Architecture 1900-2000: A Critical Mosaic, Vol. 9 (Springer, 2000):59.
- 犹Pan Guang (潘光), Jews in China 太人在中国: [中英文本], 3rd ed. (五洲传播出版社, 2005):1896.
- Journal of Indian History [Dept. of History, University of Kerala] 68-71 (1992):129.
- Peter Shen, Villa Shen: An Old Shanghai Story (Pelanduk Pub., 1997).
- Journal of Indian History [Dept. of History, University of Kerala] 68-71 (1992):129; Roman Malek, From Kaifeng--to Shanghai: Jews in China (Steyler, 2000):354.
- Robert A. Bickers, Britain in China: Community Culture and Colonialism, 1900-1949 (Manchester University Press ND, 1999):132; see also Carl T. Smith, "The German Speaking Community in Hong Kong 1846-1918", 26-30.; http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/44/4402104.pdf
- Arnhold & Co., a trading company that became a leading distributor of building materials and engineering equipment, was founded as the German-registered Arnhold & Karberg & Co. in 1866 on Shameen Island in Canton (Guangzhou) by Jacob Arnhold and Peter Karsberg, and opened branches in Hong Kong (1867) and Shanghai (1881), and had 37 branches by 1901 (see see also Carl T. Smith, "The German Speaking Community in Hong Kong 1846-1918", 26-30.; http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/44/4402104.pdf; and "About Arnhold: History'; http://www.arnhold.com.hk/en/about-arnhold/history/); including branches in Hankow, Tientsin (Tianjin), Peking (Beijing), Mukden, London and New York (see E. C. Knuth, The Empire of "The City": The Secret History of British Financial Power (Book Tree, 2006):72). From 1897 to 1910, at least one of the Arnhold family was chairman of the company's board of directors: Jacob Arnhold (1897-1900), Philipp Arnhold (1900-1905; and 1906-1910); and Harry E. Arnhold (1905- 1906). (see Frans-Paul van der Putten, Corporate Behaviour and Political Risk: Dutch companies in China, 1903-1941 (Research School of Asian, African and Amerindian Studies, Leiden University, 2001):74.) Due to hostility to German companies as a consequence of World War I, and the seizure of German companies by the British and their allies, H.E. Arnhold and his brother, Charles Herbert Arnhold (born 19 September 1881 in London), "advertised themselves out of the well-known Anglo-German concern, Arnhold, Karberg & Co.". (see Edward Manico Gull, British Economic Interests in the Far East (International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1943):119; The Law Journal Reports 85 (E.B. Ince, 1916):133.), which had four equal partners: the two Arnhold brothers; Ernest Goetz, a Swiss born German subject; and Max Niclassen, of Berlin, Germany (see Ernest Charles Meldon Trehern and Albert Wallace Grant, Prize Cases Heard and Decided in the Prize Court During the Great War, Great Britain High Court of Justice, Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division, High Court of Justice Vol. 1(Stevens, 1916):644-645). Initially they formed the firm of Messrs. H.E. Arnhold (China), but on 1 October 1917, they incorporated its successor, Arnhold Brothers Limited (China), in Hong Kong, under the British ordinances, but with headquarters in Shanghai (see Asia: Journal of the American Asiatic Association 18:11 (November 1918):984), which was reconstituted as a British company after 1919. Sir Victor Sassoon became the majority shareholder in 1923 after a merger (see C.R. Maguire, China Stock and Share Handbook (Office of the North-China Daily News and Herald, ltd., 1925, 100 for list of directors). According to Stella Dong, is "most attractive asset was the Cathay Land Company, ownership of which gave Sir Victor control of a number of apartment buildings and a hotel in the International Settlement as well as choice housing estates in the French Concession." (See Stella Dong, Shanghai: The Rise and Fall of a Decadent City 1842-1949 (HarperCollins, 2001):218-219). Arnhold's served as a front for Sassoon's political interests in the International Settlement. (See Robert A. Bickers, Britain in China: Community Culture and Colonialism, 1900-1949 (Manchester University Press ND, 1999):132). Headquartered in the Arnhold Building at 6 Kiukiang Road, Shanghai (see Allister Macmillan, Seaports of the Far East: Historical and Descriptive, Commercial and Industrial, Facts, Figures, & Resources, 2nd ed. (W.H. & L. Collingridge, 1925):57) until its relocation in 1930 to the third floor of Sassoon House at 1 Nanking Road (see Stanley Jackson, The Sassoons (Dutton, 1968):217; Ernest O. Hauser, Shanghai: City for Sale (Harcourt, Brace and company, 1940):284.), Arnhold & Co. flourished until 1949 when, with the change of Government in China, the headquarters relocated to Hong Kong. Mr. Maurice Green who had been associated with the company since the Sassoon takeover, acquired the controlling interest in Arnhold in 1957 (see About Us; History).
- The China Who's Who ... (foreign) (Kelley & Walsh, 1924):18.
- According to Ernest O. Hauser, "Arnhold was Sir Victor's lieutenant." (See Ernest O. Hauser, Shanghai: City for Sale (Harcourt, Brace and company, 1940):284), or as Bickers put it more bluntly: "Harry was his man on the SMC." (see Robert A. Bickers, Britain in China: Community Culture and Colonialism, 1900-1949 (Manchester University Press ND, 1999):132) Arnhold was defeated for re-election as a member of the SMC in 1930 for his "reformist" tendencies. He also attracted antisemitic and anti-German hostility. Arnhold's defeat was warmly welcomed, as the diplomats disliked him. 'Not an attractive personality,' noted Sir Miles Lampson, the then British Minister. Arnhold was to re-emerge as a settler community leader in the 1930s, serving on the committee of serving on the committee of the British Residents' Association, and then back on the SMC from 1932 to 1937, chairing it in 1934-37. See Robert A. Bickers, Britain in China: Community Culture and Colonialism, 1900-1949 (Manchester University Press ND, 1999):132.
- Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, Treasures of Taliesin: Seventy-Seven Unbuilt Designs, 2nd ed. (Pomegranate, 1999):29.
- Maisie J. Meyer, From the Rivers of Babylon to the Whangpoo: A Century of Sephardi Jewish Life in Shanghai (University Press of America, 2003):70.
- Vaudine England, The Quest of Noel Croucher: Hong Kong's Quiet Philanthropist (Hong Kong University Press, 1998):45.
- Robert Bickers and Christian Henriot, New Frontiers: Imperialism's New Communities in East Asia, 1842-1953 (Manchester University Press ND, 2000):45.
- Sigmund Tobias, Strange Haven: A Jewish Childhood in Wartime Shanghai (University of Illinois Press, 1999):24-25.
- Fiona Lindsay Shen, "Shanghai Sino Deco", Modernism (Spring 2008):92; http://publishing.yudu.com/A6znj/MODV11N1/resources/index.htm?referrerUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.modernismmagazine.com%2Fviewonline.html&skipFlashCheck=true
- Jim Yoshida, The Two Worlds of Jim Yoshida (Morrow, 1972):128.
- Beverley Jackson, Shanghai Girl Gets All Dressed up (Ten Speed Press, 2005).
- Fortune 11:1 (January 1935), reported 19,241 foreigners, plus 25,000 Russians. See http://www.talesofoldchina.com/reading/fortune.php
- Edna Lee Booker, News Is My Job - A Correspondent in War Torn China (New York: MacMillan, 1940):15; Christian Henriot, "Little Japan in Shanghai: An Insulated Community, 1875-1945" in Robert Bickers and Christian Henriot, eds., New Frontiers: Imperialism's New Communities in East Asia, 1842-1952 (Manchester University Press, 2000):146-169.
- Peter O'Connor, Japanese Propaganda : To our American friends II, 1934-38, Vol. 9 (Global Oriental, 2005):184; United States Naval Institute, Proceedings Vol. 65 (1939):176.
- Joshua A. Fogel, The Literature of Travel in the Japanese Rediscovery of China, 1862-1945 (Stanford University Press, 1996):199.
- Journal, By American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines, 5.
- "Explosives Hurled at Property Owned by Japanese-Street Patrols Are Reinforced", The New York Times (7 July 1938):10.
- Anthony Kubek, The Amerasia Papers: A Clue to the Catastrophe of China. United States Congress: Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws Vol. 1(U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1970):279.
- Jim Yoshida, with Bill Hosokawa, The Two Worlds of Jim Yoshida (Morrow, 1972):127.
- William H. McDougall, If I Get Out Alive: World War II Letters & Diaries of William H. McDougall Jr (University of Utah Press, 2007):35; Violet Sweet Haven, Gentlemen of Japan: a Study in Rapist Diplomacy (Ziff-Davis publishing company, 1944):70; Eric Downton, Wars Without End (Stoddart, 1987):52. Philip J. Jaffe, Amerasia 3 (1940):90.
- Gus Lee, Chasing Hepburn: A Memoir of Shanghai, Hollywood, and a Chinese Family's Fight for Freedom (Harmony Books, 2003):440.
- Dora Sanders Carney, Foreign Devils had Light Eyes: A Memoir of Shanghai 1933-1939 (Dorset Pub., 1980):222.
- "Nanjing Puppet State"; http://flagspot.net/flags/cn_j_nj2.html
- Frederic E. Wakeman, The Shanghai Badlands: Wartime Terrorism and Urban Crime, 1937-1941 (Cambridge University Press, 2002):13; see also Shuxi Xu, Japan and the Third Powers No. 11 (Kelly & Walsh, 1941):202.
- Frederic E. Wakeman, The Shanghai Badlands: Wartime Terrorism and Urban Crime, 1937-1941 (Cambridge University Press, 2002):62.
- Electoral gerrymandering, sanctioned and aided by London, prevented the Japanese achieving a majority on the SMC in 1940. See Robert A. Bickers, Britain in China: Community Culture and Colonialism, 1900-1949 (Manchester University Press ND, 1999):157.
- Madeleine Constance Munday, Rice Bowl Broken (National Book Association, 1947):113; The China Weekly Review 88-89 (11 March 1939):109; The China Weekly Review 88-89 (1 April 1939):131.
- The China Weekly Review 88-89 (11 March 1939):46; Hallett Abend, My Life in China 1926-1941 (Reprint: READ BOOKS, 2007):337.
- China at War 8:1 (January 1942):38; "SHANGHAI AMERICANS SAFE BUT HARASSED", The New York Times (13 March 1942):4; Columbia University East Asian Institute, Contemporary China, Vol. 1 (Westview Press, 1976):17.
- Brown & Owyang, 75.
- Freda Utley, Last Chance in China (Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1947):91; Russell Lord and Kate Kalkman Lord, Forever the Land: A Country Chronicle and Anthology (Harper, 1950):285.
- Jean Bowie Shor, After You, Marco Polo, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1955):61.
- Harrison Forman, Blunder in Asia (Didier, 1950):12; Jack Birns, Carolyn Wakeman, and Ken Light, Assignment, Shanghai: Photographs on the Eve of Revolution (University of California Press, 2003):98.
- Emanuel Goldberg, The Stars and Stripes in China (University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1947):41.
- Hlavacek, 172.
- William R. Dunn, Fighter Pilot: The First American Ace of World War II (Reprint: University Press of Kentucky, 1996):171.
- United States Congressional Serial Set, Vol. 6 (U.S.G.P.O., 1956):HR2551, 6.
- Henry B. Lieberman, "5,000 Parade in Shanghai," The New York Times (2 January 1947):11; Spencer Moosa, "Chinese Demand Americans Leave", The Evening Independent (1 January 1947):2.
- "US TROOPS CRITICIZED", The New York Times (14 September 1947); and "ANTI-AMERICAN FEELING IN CHINA LAID TO YANKS", Chicago Tribune (14 September 1947).
- Pegge Parker Hlavacek, Alias Pegge Parker (iUniverse, 2003):62.
- Hsüan ch'uan pu, Xing zheng yuan, and Xin wen ju, China Handbook (Macmillan, 1944):534.
- Robert H. Giles, Robert W. Snyder, and Lisa DeLisle, eds., Covering China (Transaction Publishers, 2001):22; Bruce Douglass and Ross Terrill, China and Ourselves: Explorations and Revisions by a New Generation (Beacon Press, 1971):90; Paul Gordon Lauren, The China Hands' Legacy: Ethics and Diplomacy (Westview Press, 1987):173.
- Paolo Alberto Rossi, The Communist Conquest of Shanghai: A Warning to the West (Twin Circle, 1970):109.
- John Robinson Beal, Marshall in China (Doubleday Canada, 1970):133, 21.
- Pegge Parker Hlavacek, Alias Pegge Parker (Reprint: iUniverse, 2003):62.
- Richard Hughes, Foreign Devil: Thirty Years of Reporting from the Far East (Deutsch, 1972):279.
- Giles, et al., 22.
- Jack Belden, China Shakes the World (Monthly Review Press, 1970):366.
- Ross Terrill, Flowers on an Iron Tree: Five Cities of China (Little, Brown, 1975):6.
- Bert Cochran, Harry Truman and the Crisis Presidency (Funk & Wagnalls, 1973):305.
- Harrison Evans Salisbury, China: 100 Years of Revolution (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983):195.
- Sophia Knight, Window on Shanghai: Letters from China, 1965-67 (Deutsch, 1967):131.
- Edward Ward, Chinese Crackers (Lane, 1947):106.
- Harrison Forman, Blunder in Asia (Didier, 1950):12.
- John T. McQuiston, "Keyes Beech, 76, Correspondent in Asia for Five Decades, Is Dead", The New York Times (16 February 1990):D19; http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/16/nyregion/keyes-beech-76-correspondent-in-asia-for-five-decades-is-dead.html
- Keyes Beech, Tokyo and Points East (Doubleday, 1954):29.
- Noël Barber, The Fall of Shanghai: The Communist Take-Over in 1949 (Macmillan, 1979):33.
- Odd Arne Westad, Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946-1950 (Stanford University Press, 2003):250-251; Mariano Ezpeleta, Red Shadows over Shanghai (ZITA Pub. Corp., 1972):188.
- Mariano Ezpeleta, Red Shadows over Shanghai (ZITA Pub. Corp., 1972):188.
- "SHANGHAI TIGHTENS SECURITY PROGRAM", The New York Times (1 May 1949):43; "Shanghai Troops Occupy Hotels; Man Gun Posts in Skyscrapers; Raw Country Recruits With Field Equipment Billeted in Luxury Buildings on Main Streets -- May Day Parades Banned", The New York Times (2 May 1949):3.
- Jeremy Brown and Paul Pickowicz, Dilemmas of Victory: The Early Years of the People's Republic of China (Harvard University Press, 2007):391.
- Alun Falconer, New China: Friend or Foe? (Naldrett Press, 1950):13; Harrison Forman, Blunder in Asia (Didier, 1950):73; Jeremy Brown and Paul Pickowicz, Dilemmas of Victory: The Early Years of the People's Republic of China (Harvard University Press, 2007):391.
- Noël Barber, The Fall of Shanghai: The Communist Take-over in 1949 (Macmillan, 1979):149, 96.
- Barber, 149.
- Peter Townsend, China Phoenix: The Revolution in China (Cape, 1955):73; see also Roy Rowan, Chasing the Dragon: A Veteran Journalist's Firsthand Account of the 1946-9 Chinese Revolution (The Lyons Press, 2008):215.
- Edwin Palmer Hoyt, The Rise of the Chinese Republic: From the Last Emperor to Deng Xiaoping (McGraw-Hill, 1989):333.
- Townsend, 73.
- Brown & Pickowicz, 391.
- Ross Terrill, Flowers on an Iron Tree: Five Cities of China (Little, Brown, 1975):81.
- "Communists Order Foreigners Out of Shanghai Mansions", The Canberra Times (21 June 1949):1, http://ndpbeta.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/2810012
- Alun Falconer, New China: Friend or Foe? (Naldrett Press, 1950):13.
- Xudong Zhang, Postsocialism and Cultural Politics: China in the Last Decade of the Twentieth Century (Duke University Press, 2008):225.
- http://www.chinadiscounthotel.com/shanghai/mansions/broadway_mansions_hotel_shanghai.html; James Vivian Davidson-Houston, Yellow Creek: The Story of Shanghai (Putnam, 1962):195; Joseph Robert Starobin, Paris to Peking (Cameron Associates, 1955):210.
- James M. Bertram, Return to China (Heinemann, 1957):187.
- Bertram, 187.
- Rubeigh James Minney, Next Stop--Peking: Record of a 16,000 Mile Journey Through Russia, Siberia, and China (G. Newnes, 1957):129.
- Minney, 131.
- Far Eastern Economic Review 50 (1965):113.
- Jacques Marcuse, The Peking Papers: Leaves from the Notebook of a China Correspondent (Dutton, 1967):183.
- Sally Backhouse, Nine Dragons: An Encounter with the Far East (H. Hamilton, 1967):200.
- Sophia Knight, Window on Shanghai: Letters from China, 1965-67 (Deutsch, 1967):28.
- British Broadcasting Corporation, Monitoring Service, Summary of World Broadcasts (Monitoring Service of the British Broadcasting Corp, 1967).
- Current Scene: Developments in Mainland China 5-7 (1967):17.
- "The Shanghai Commune and the Rightist Reaction", Part IV: "The Suppression of the Left in China" in China 1977: End of the Revolutionary Mao Era (10 January 1977); http://www.workers.org/marcy/cd/samsupp/suppress/suppr04.htm
- United States Dept. of State, International Information Administration, Documentary Studies Section, United States Information Agency, Problems of Communism Vol. 17 (Documentary Studies Section, International Information Administration, 1968):17.
- Ezra F. Vogel, L. Culman, and Margie Sargent, The Cultural Revolution in the Provinces (East Asian Research Center, Harvard University; distributed by Harvard University Press, 1971):88.
- Lynn M. Lubkeman, The Origins of the Shanghai People's Commune of 1967 (University of Wisconsin--Madison., 1978):171.
- Problems of Communism, 17.
- Michael Schoenhals, China's Cultural Revolution, 1966-1969: Not a Dinner Party (M.E. Sharpe, 1996):145.
- "A Reporter Revisits Shanghai" Time (19 March 1973):2; http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906934,00.html; Fredric M. Kaplan, Arne J. De Keijzer, and Julian M. Sobin, The China Guidebook 1993-94, 13th ed. (Published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993):591.
- Ruth Lor Malloy, A Guide to the People's Republic of China for Travelers of Chinese Ancestry (Published 1973):37.
- Stephen Fitzgerald and Pamela Hewitt, China in the Seventies: Australian Perspectives (Contemporary China Centre, Australian National University, 1980):60.
- Kirkus Reviews Copyright (c)VNU Business Media, Inc.; http://books.google.com.au/books?lr=&client=firefox-a&as_brr=0&id=8QchAAAAMAAJ&dq=Shanghai+Mansions&q=Dasha&pgis=1#search_anchor
- Edoarda Masi, China Winter: Workers, Mandarins, and the Purge of the Gang of Four (Dutton, 1982):50.
- Masi, 138.
- Orientations 9 (Pacific Communications Ltd., 1978):32.
- New Times 11 (1978):31.
- Eugene Cooper, Adventures in Chinese Bureaucracy: A Meta-Anthropological Saga (Nova Publishers, 2000):11.
- Gu Gan, Touring Metropolitan Shanghai (The Publishing House, 1984):230.
- Gu Gan, Touring Metropolitan Shanghai (The Publishing House, 1984):231.
- Helena Drysdale, Alone Through China & Tibet (Constable, 1986):89.
- Who's Who of the Asian Pacific Rim (Barons Who's Who, 1999):381.
- Sheryl WuDunn, "The Waterfront Heart of the City," The New York Times (22 January 1989):3; http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/22/travel/the-waterfront-heart-of-the-city.html?scp=5&sq=Shanghai%20Mansions&st=cse&pagewanted=3
- 建設部建設雜誌社 , Zhongguo fan dian da quan: tu ce (測繪出版社, 1991):177.
- Bjørn B Erring, Harald Høyem, and Synnøve Vinsrygg, The Horizontal Skyscraper (Tapir Academic Press, 2002):206.
- Fredric M. Kaplan, Arne J. De Keijzer, and Julian M. Sobin, The China Guidebook 1993-94, 13th ed. (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993):591.
- Shanghai she hui ke xue yuan, Shanghai Economy Year Book (Shanghai Economy Yearbook Editorial and Publishing Agency, 1995):161.
- Alan Samagalski, Robert Strauss, and Michael Buckley, China: A Travel Survival Kit, 2nd ed. (Lonely Planet Publications, 1988):354.
- Damian Harper et al., China, 8th ed. (Lonely Planet, 2002):342.
- "Langham Hotels International Expands into Shanghai With Its First Art-Deco Boutique Hotel"; http://www.spafinder.com/NewsReleases/November19/Langham.pdf
- Anne Warr, Shanghai Architecture (watermark, 2008); quoted in "Shanghai Architectural History 1921-1949", Living Space; http://www.livingspace.sh.cn/content.php?t=arti&s=retc&type=article&id=57
- One source suggests the correct name is "Freizer"; See Alan Balfour and Shiling Zheng, Shanghai (World Cities series) (Wiley-Academy, 2002):93; see also: Françoise Ged, Shanghai (Institut français d'architecture, 2000):28; Peter G. Rowe and Seng Kuan, Architectural Encounters with Essence and Form in Modern China (MIT Press, 2004):58.
- RIBA Journal [Royal Institute of British Architects] 60 (1953):466.
- Ged, 28; Peter G. Rowe and Seng Kuan, Architectural Encounters with Essence and Form in Modern China (MIT Press, 2004):58.
- Damian Harper and David Eimer, Shanghai, 4th ed. (Lonely Planet, 2008):43.
- Banister Fletcher and Dan Cruickshank, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, 20th ed. (Architectural Press, 1996):1610
- Antonia Brodie, ed., Directory of British Architects 1834-1914: L-Z, 2nd ed. (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001):532.
- Brodie, 309).
- Antonia Brodie and Mark Girouard, Directory of British Architects 1834-1914: L-Z, 2nd. ed. (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001):1025; Banister Fletcher and Dan Cruickshank, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, 20th ed. (Architectural Press, 1996):1550; Fiona Lindsay Shen, "Shanghai Sino Deco", Modernism (Spring 2008):92; http://publishing.yudu.com/A6znj/MODV11N1/resources/index.htm?referrerUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.modernismmagazine.com%2Fviewonline.html&skipFlashCheck=true; Anne Warr, Shanghai Architecture, quoted in "Shanghai Architectural History: Early Years to 1921" Living Space: real Estate, Design and Lifestyle; http://www.livingspace.sh.cn/content.php?type=article&id=56
- Anne Warr; http://www.livingspace.sh.cn/content.php?type=article&id=56
- Layla Dawson, China's New Dawn: An Architectural Transformation (Prestel, 2005):22.
- Peter G. Rowe and Seng Kuan, Architectural Encounters with Essence and Form in Modern China (MIT Press, 2004):58.
- Patricia Bayer, Art Deco Architecture: Design, Decoration, and Detail from the Twenties and Thirties (H.N. Abrams, 1992):85.
- Keith Mundy, "Skyhigh Shanghai - Then and Now", Garuda: The Magazine of Garuda Indonesia (June 2007); http://garudamagazine.com/features.php?id=18
- Fletcher, 1550.
- Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren, Building Shanghai: The Story of China's Gateway (Wiley-Academy, 2006):153.
- Junhua Lü, Peter G. Rowe, and Jie Zhang, Modern Urban Housing in China, 1840-2000 (Prestel, 2001):96.
- Laurent Metzger, Les Lauriers de Shanghai: Des Concessions Internationales à la Métropole Moderne (Editions Olizane, 1999):29.
- Gary Jones, "An Art Deco Walking Tour of Shanghai" Jakarta Globe (11 March 2009); http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/life-times/article/12417.html
- Business Week Nos. 370-382 (1936):45.
- Lancelot Forster, The New Culture in China (Allen & Unwin, 1936):207, 208.
- Gordon Sinclair, Signposts to Adventure (McClelland & Stewart, 1947):342.
- Christopher Knowles, Fodor's Exploring China, Vol. 4 (Fodor's Travel Publications, ):186.
- Harold Abbott Rand Conant, "A Far East Journal (1915 - 1941)"; http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/5814/harc1-8a.htm&date=2009-10-25+11:30:02[HARC],
- William Lancelot Holland and Paul F. Hooper, Remembering the Institute of Pacific Relations: The Memoirs of William L. Holland (RYUUKEISYOSYA, 1995):20.
- Royal Leonard, I Flew for China (Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1942):114, 119, 165.
- Mary Austin Endicott, Five Stars Over China: The Story of our Return to New China (Published by the Author, 1953):249.
- "The Loss of Man" Time (1 December 1961):2; http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,938802-2,00.html
- "The greatest rental complex of the metropolis." Fernand Gigon, Et Mao prit le pouvoir, 20th ed. (Flammarion, 1969):241.
- "Shanghaied at the Feather and Down Minifair" Hong Kong Economic Journal (2 April 2011); http://www.hkej.com/template/blog/php/blog_details.php?%20blog_posts_id=65488
- "Men of Shanghai" Fortune (january 1935):115ff; http://www.talesofoldchina.com/reading/fortune.php; Ronald Kent Shelp and Al Ehrbar, Fallen Giant: The Amazing Story of Hank Greenberg and the History of AIG (John Wiley and Sons, 2006):43.
- "Hallett Abend, Newsman, Dead: Former Times Correspondent in Far East Was Editor of Marshallton, Iowa, Paper", The New York Times (28 November 1955):31.
- Hallett Abend, Chaos in Asia (I. Washburn, inc., 1940):272.
- Esson McDowell Gale, Salt for the Dragon: A Personal History of China, 1908-1945 (Michigan State College Press, 1953):211; Richard Porter Butrick, American University Men in China (Comacrib press, 1936):183.
- "New York Times Man Robbed and Tortured", The New York Times (20 July 1940):6; "Doubt on Abend Assault, But Quickly Retracts When His Part Is Made Known", The New York Times (25 July 1940):6.
- Hallett Abend, The God from the West: A Biography of Frederick Townsend Ward (Doubleday, 1947):ix; Hallett Abend, My Life in China 1926-1941 (Reprint: READ BOOKS, 2007):337; Paul French, Carl Crow, A Tough Old China Hand: The Life, Times and Adventures of an American in Shanghai (Hong Kong University Press, 2007):213.
- Ronald Cecil Hamlyn McKie, Echoes from Forgotten Wars (Collins, 1980):26.
- Eric Downton, Wars Without End (Stoddart, 1987):313.
- "AMERICANS LEAVING ZONES UNDER FIRE; British Are Considering Mass Evacuation of Settlement--Japanese Watch Hotels" The New York Times (15 August 1937):1; "SHANGHAI OFFICES OF TIMES SEARCHED; Chief Correspondent to Make a Protest to Japan - His Apartment Also Visited" The New York Times (19 August 1937):2.
- Tsung Chen, "Hallett Abend in China: 1926–1941";
- Amleto Vespa and H. J Timperley, Secret Agent of Japan: A Handbook to Japanese Imperialism, 2nd. ed. (Little, Brown, 1938):285.
- Yoshio Kodama, I Was Defeated: A Translation from the Japanese (1951; reprint: Radiopress, 1959):72.
- "Robert D. McFadden, Robert Shaplen, 71, Writer for New Yorker, Dies," The New York Times (16 May 1988):B7; http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/16/obituaries/robert-shaplen-71-writer-for-new-yorker-dies.html
- Robert Shaplen, A Turning Wheel: Three Decades of the Asian Revolution as Witnessed by a Correspondent for The New Yorker (Random House, 1979):xiii.
- Jack Birns, Carolyn Wakeman, and Ken Light, Assignment, Shanghai: Photographs on the Eve of Revolution (University of California Press, 2003):xiii.
- Russell Miller, Magnum: Fifty Years at the Front Line of History (Grove Press, 1999):69.
- Allen, Rewi. The People Have Strength. The Author, 1954.
- Brown, Jeremy and Paul Pickowicz. Dilemmas of Victory: The Early Years of the People's Republic of China. Harvard University Press, 2007.
- Boyle, John Hunter. China and Japan at War, 1937-1945: The Politics of Collaboration. Stanford University Press, 1972.
- Cameron, Clyde. China, Communism and Coca Cola. Hill of Content, 1980.
- Fletcher, Banister and Dan Cruickshank. Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, 20th ed. Architectural Press, 1996. Pages 1558 and 1560.
- Forman, Harrison. Changing China. Crown publishers, 1948.
- Gu, Gan. Touring Metropolitan Shanghai. The Publishing House, 1984. See pages 127, 230.
- Guillain, Robert. The Blue Ants: 600 million Chinese Under the Red Flag. Secker & Warburg, 1957. Page 180.
- Hauser, Ernest O. Shanghai: City for Sale. Harcourt, Brace and company, 1940.
- Henriot, Christian and Wen-Hsin Yeh. In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- Johnston, Tess and Dongqiang Er. A Last Look: Western Architecture in Old Shanghai. 3rd ed. Old China Hand Press, 1993. Page 106.
- Kamm, John. "Shanghaied at the Feather and Down Minifair," Hong Kong Economic Journal 2 April 2011. 
- Landman, Amos. Profile of Red China. Simon and Schuster, 1951.
- Lee, Leo Ou-fan. Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Harvard University Press, 1999.
- Malloy, Ruth Lor. Travel Guide to the People's Republic of China. Morrow, 1975. Page 75.
- Moorad, George. Lost Peace in China. E. P. Dutton, 1949.
- Nideros, Eric. "Wartime Shanghai: A Tycoon Triumphs Over the Emperor". World War II magazine (September 2006). 
- Pan, Lynn. Shanghai Style: Art and Design Between the Wars. Long River Press, 2008.
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