Brockville

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Brockville
Independent city
Statue of General Isaac Brock outside the courthouse in Downtown Brockville.
Statue of General Isaac Brock outside the courthouse in Downtown Brockville.
Nickname(s): City of 1000 Islands
Motto: Industria, Intelligentia, Prosperitas (Latin: "Diligence, Understanding, Prosperity")
Brockville is located in Ontario
Brockville
Brockville
Coordinates: 44°35′N 75°41′W / 44.583°N 75.683°W / 44.583; -75.683Coordinates: 44°35′N 75°41′W / 44.583°N 75.683°W / 44.583; -75.683
Country  Canada
Province  Ontario
County Leeds and Grenville (independent)
Settled 1785
Incorporated 1832
Government
 • Type City
 • Mayor David L. Henderson
 • Federal riding Leeds—Grenville
 • Prov. riding Leeds—Grenville
Area[1][2]
 • Land 20.90 km2 (8.07 sq mi)
 • Metro 893.44 km2 (344.96 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1][2]
 • Independent city 21,870
 • Density 1,046.2/km2 (2,710/sq mi)
 • Metro 39,024
 • Metro density 43.7/km2 (113/sq mi)
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code FSA K6V
Area code(s) 613
Website www.brockville.com

Brockville, formerly Elizabethtown, is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada, in the Thousand Islands region. Though it serves as the seat of Leeds and Grenville United Counties, Brockville is politically independent and is grouped with Leeds and Grenville for census purposes only.

Known as the "City of the 1000 Islands", Brockville is located on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River, directly opposite Morristown, New York, about half-way between Cornwall in the east and Kingston in the west, and roughly a 50-minute drive to the national capital of Ottawa. It is one of Ontario's oldest urban centres, and is named after the British general Sir Isaac Brock.

History[edit]

Indigenous peoples lived along both sides of the St. Lawrence River for thousands of years. The first people known to have encountered the Europeans in the area were the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a group distinct from and preceding Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee. While the explorer Cartier recorded about 200 words in their Laurentian language, the people disappeared from the area by the late 16th century. The Iroquois by then used the St. Lawrence Valley as a hunting ground.

Victoria Hall, now the site of Brockville's City Hall, was built in 1862-64 as a concert hall in front and a butchers' market in the rear

This area of Ontario was first settled by English speakers in 1785, when thousands of American refugees arrived from the American Revolutionary War. The colonists were later called United Empire Loyalists for their political position supporting continued relationship with King George III. The struggle between Britain and the 13 American colonies took place in the years 1776 to 1783 and seriously divided loyalties among people in some colonies, such as New York and Vermont. In many areas, traders and merchants in the coastal cities or the northern border had stronger business ties and alliances with the British than did frontiersmen of the interior. During the 6-year war, which ended with the capitulation of the British forces in 1782, many of those colonists who remained loyal to the crown were frequently subject to harsh reprisals and unfair dispossession of property by their countrymen. Many "Loyalists" chose to flee north to the then-British colony of Quebec. Great Britain opened this western region of Canada by allocating land to the mostly English-speaking Loyalists and helping them with some supplies as they founded new settlements.

The St. Lawrence River, which separates between Brockville and Morristown, New York, was named by French explorers in the 18th century to commemorate the martyred Roman Christian, Saint Laurentis. The small inlet on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River had been a natural resting point for French voyageurs in the past. In 1785 the first U.E. Loyalist to take up land here on the site of Brockville was William Buell Sr. (1751–1832), an ensign disbanded from the King's Rangers, from the state of New York. Residents commonly called the first settlement "Buell's Bay". Around 1810 government officials of Upper Canada designated the village as Elizabethtown.

About 1812, leading residents of the small village decided to suggest a name which differed from the surrounding township of Elizabethtown. This was during the ensuing second war with Canada's American neighbours, known as the War of 1812. The commanding ranking British General in Upper Canada and temporary administrator of the province was Major-General Isaac Brock. He was celebrated as the "Hero and Saviour" of Upper Canada because of his recent success in securing the surrender of Fort Detroit. Perhaps to curry favour with Gen Brock, certain leading citizens in the village, including Charles Jones, proposed the name of Brockville. They began using this new name in their correspondence and dealings with Isaac Brock. Gen. Brock was soon involved in other battles on the Niagara Peninsula, and on October 13, 1812, he was fatally shot while leading troops up the heights near the village of Queenston, then being held by American militia.

The Raid on Elizabethtown occurred on February 7, 1813, when Benjamin Forsyth and 200 men crossed the frozen St. Lawrence River to occupy Elizabethtown and seize military and public stores, free American prisoners, then capture British military prisoners.[3]

The general had been aware of the honour being offered by the residents of Elizabethtown, but had no chance to give it his official blessing before his death. Provincial officials accepted the new name, which was soon commonly used by residents and visitors. In 1830 the growing population of Brockville had managed to exceed the 1000 mark. This entitled it to be represented by its own elected member in the House of Assembly. Henry Jones, the village postmaster, was elected in October 1830 to the 11th Parliament of the Province.

Brockville became Ontario's first incorporated self-governing town on January 28, 1832, two years before the town of Toronto. By means of the Brockville Police Act, passed by the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, Brockville was given the right to govern its own affairs, pass laws and raise taxes. The first elections for the new Board of Police were held on April 2, 1832, to choose four members to the Board. These four in turn chose a fifth member, Daniel Jones, who was also chosen as the first Police Board president, or Mayor of Brockville. In March 1836 he became the first native Upper Canadian to receive a royal knighthood from King William IV, and became "Sir Daniel Jones".

In the 19th century, the town became a local centre of industry, including shipbuilding, saddleries, tanneries, tinsmiths, a foundry, a brewery, and several hotels. By 1854, a patent medicine industry had sprung up in Brockville and in bordering Morristown, NY featuring products such as "Dr Morse's Indian Root Pills", "Dr. McKenzie's Worm Tablets" and later, "Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People".

The south portal of the Brockville Tunnel, Canada's first railway tunnel, opened in 1860.

In 1855, Brockville was chosen as a divisional point on the line of the new Grand Trunk Railway, which was built and opened from Montreal to Toronto. This contributed to its growth, as it could offer jobs in railway maintenance and related fields. At the same time, the north–south line of the Brockville and Ottawa Railway was built as a transportation link to join the St. Lawrence River ship route with the timber trade of the Ottawa Valley. A well-engineered tunnel for this railway was dug and blasted underneath the middle of Brockville. The Brockville Tunnel was the first railway tunnel of its kind created and opened in Canada.

Brockville and many other towns in Canada West became involved in the threatened Fenian invasion following the close of the American Civil War in 1865. In June 1866, the Irish-American "Brotherhood of Fenians" invaded Canada. They launched raids across the Niagara River into Canada West and from Vermont into Canada East. Canadian Premier John A. Macdonald called on the volunteer militia companies in every town to protect Canada. The Brockville Infantry Company and Brockville Rifle Company (now The Brockville Rifles) were mobilized to protect Brockville. These unsuccessful Fenian Raids were a catalyst that contributed to the creation of the new Dominion of Canada in 1867.

By 1869, Brockville was a town of 5000 people and a station of the Grand Trunk Railway on the St Lawrence river in th Township of Elizabeth County Leeds. Brockville was the County Town of the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville and a port of Entry. Steamers stopped in Brockville daily while plying between Montreal, Kingston, Toronto and Hamilton. The Brockville and Ottawa Railway connected with Smith's Falls, Perth, Almonte, Carleton Place and Sandy Point. In summer, a steam ferry plied every half hour between Brockville and Morrisburg New York. [4]

In 1962 Brockville was granted official status as a city. Its coat of arms features a beehive surrounded by a golden chain and bears the motto Industria, Intelligentia, Prosperitas. This is an official heraldic design. Brockville is one of the few cities that has a recognized heraldic flag.

Climate[edit]

Transportation and communications[edit]

Brockville is midway between Toronto and Montreal (330 kilometres (210 mi) northeast of Toronto and 210 kilometres (130 mi) southwest of Montreal) and less than one hour from Ottawa. Highway 401 runs through Brockville, with exits at Leeds & Grenville County Road 29 and North Augusta Road. There are several daily Via Rail connections to Montreal, Toronto and Ottawa along the Corridor.

The town has a municipal airport (Brockville Regional Tackaberry Airport) in the neighbouring Elizabethtown-Kitley Township. The Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport is approximately 100 km away.

The Thousand Islands Bridge and the Ogdensburg–Prescott International Bridge, both of which cross the St. Lawrence River into New York, are located 35 kilometres (22 mi) south-west and 25 kilometres (16 mi) north-east from Brockville, respectively.

Brockville Transit is the city-operated public transit system which covers the urban area, providing three regular scheduled bus routes and paratransit services, from Monday to Saturday.

Brockville has high band/high speed telecommunication capability provided by both Bell Canada and AT&T fibre lines.

Citywide Wi-Fi is also available by various carriers, including Starbucks and Mcdonalds(Bell Wi-Fi).

Economy[edit]

Brockville is home to several large industrial manufacturers. Calco Environmental Group Ltd. designs, manufactures, commissions, and supports turnkey solutions for soil remediation and the treatment of air and water in industrial applications. 3M operates two factories in Brockville, manufacturing tape and occupational health and safety products. Procter & Gamble operations in the city manufacture dryer sheets and cleaning products, employing 600. Other industries include ceiling fan manufacturer Canarm, pharmaceutical manufacturer Trillium Canada, and the oil-blending plant of Shell Canada. Canadian retailer Giant Tiger has also opened a distribution centre for frozen products in Brockville. Abbott Laboratories previously operated a manufacturing plant in Brockville, making infant formula and adult nutritionals for the domestic and overseas markets, but it closed in 2012, a loss of 150 jobs.[6] Many area residents are employed at the Invista Canada facility (formerly DuPont Canada Ltd.) located in Maitland, just east of Brockville. Transcom WorldWide (formerly NuComm International) also operates a large call centre employing roughly 200 people.

Brockville is also the main administrative, health-care and commercial centre for Leeds—Grenville county. Major public-sector employers include the Upper Canada District School Board, which has its headquarters in Brockville; and the Brockville Mental Health Centre, locally referred to as the "psych", short for Psychiatric Hospital.

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop.   ±%  
1871 5,102 —    
1881 7,609 +49.1%
1891 8,791 +15.5%
1901 8,940 +1.7%
1911 9,374 +4.9%
1921 10,043 +7.1%
1931 9,736 −3.1%
1941 11,342 +16.5%
1951 12,301 +8.5%
1961 17,744 +44.2%
1981 19,896 +12.1%
1986 20,880 +4.9%
1991 21,582 +3.4%
1996 21,752 +0.8%
2001 21,375 −1.7%
2006 21,957 +2.7%
2011 21,870 −0.4%
[10][11][12][13][13][14]
Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2006 Census)
Population group Population  % of total population
White 20,670 95%
Visible minority group
Source:[15]
South Asian 70 0.3%
Chinese 150 0.7%
Black 55 0.3%
Filipino 95 0.4%
Latin American 50 0.2%
Arab 0 0%
Southeast Asian 125 0.6%
West Asian 20 0.1%
Korean 15 0.1%
Japanese 10 0%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 45 0.2%
Multiple visible minority 50 0.2%
Total visible minority population 685 3.1%
Aboriginal group
Source:[16]
First Nations 230 1.1%
Métis 150 0.7%
Inuit 0 0%
Aboriginal, n.i.e. 20 0.1%
Multiple Aboriginal identity 10 0%
Total Aboriginal population 410 1.9%
Total population 21,765 100%

Tourism[edit]

Tour boat on the St. Lawrence River with Morristown visible on the opposite shore. This significant river was named by French explorers in the 1700s to commemorate the martyred Christian Lawrence of Rome.

The community is dominated by the St. Lawrence River and is known as The City of the Thousand Islands. St. Lawrence River tour boats offers scenic trips on the river. The Brockville area is the launching point for some of the best fresh-water wreck diving in the world. Numerous sunken ships have been discovered below the waters of the St. Lawrence and a number of dive operators with fully equipped boats are ready to take divers to these sites.

A revitalized downtown area, waterfront open to the public with parks and walking trails, and numerous shopping locations are found throughout the city. The city's architecture consists of many stately mansions and elaborate fountains, carefully preserved as reminders of Canadian history. The historic Fulford Place house museum is located in the east end of Brockville at 287 King St. E. This was the palatial home of Senator George Taylor Fulford, whose success in marketing "Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People" around the world made him one of the area's richest industrialists before his death in 1905. The house owned and operated by the Ontario Heritage Trust is open for public tours on a seasonal schedule.

The Brockville Museum, situated in the historic downtown core, features exhibits and artifacts related to Brockville's rich Loyalist history and the city's development as a waterfront community.[17]

The Maritime Discovery Centre, a $12-million dollar (estimated) tourism and waterfront education attraction is currently approved by the city. It will be part of developer Simon Fuller's $60-million Tall Ships Landing condominium project located on Broad Street.

Brockville has been awarded one of Canada's safest communities by the World Health Organization.[18]

Brockville boating[edit]

Brockville also offers excellent boating resources, with a large, deep-water municipal marina, a yacht club and several commercial marinas. Just upstream on the mighty St. Lawrence River is the Brockville Islands group, which contain some city island parks, and an island park belonging to the St. Lawrence Islands National Park system.

Brockville is at the downstream end of the world-famous Thousand Islands, which extend as far as Kingston, Ontario (at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River at Lake Ontario), 80 km away.

The next closest commercial boating facilities are each about a half-day boat-trip away (at displacement speeds), downstream at Prescott, Ontario and upstream at Rockport, Ontario. So, many boaters come to Brockville during their boating vacations, to re-fuel, have repairs done, and re-provision, before casting off again for home.

Culture[edit]

Broad Street in Brockville.
War Memorial in Brockville.

The city has several music, art and dance organizations, such as Brockville Artists Studio Association, Brockville Community Choir, Brockville Concert Association, Brockville Musicians' Association, Brockville Operatic Society, City of Brockville Pipe Band, and the Thousand Islanders Chorus.

The Brockville Concert Band arises from a long tradition of community and military bands in Brockville. Civic bands provided entertainment at public venues such as community picnics and outdoor skating rinks. The Brockville Rifles Reserve Band entertained "on the green" in the 1930s and 40s.

Military band members returning from the Second World War formed the Brockville Civic Band. Re-organized as the Brockville Concert Band in 1974, it inherited a musical tradition (and actual sheet music) from civic and military bands dating back to the turn of the 20th century. The Brockville Concert Band plays a series of summer concerts every second Tuesday in Hardy Park in Brockville within view of the beautiful St. Lawrence River. The band also plays for various civic functions and entertains at charitable fundraising events. Since 1995, the band's musical director and conductor has been trumpeter and music teacher Lance Besharah.

St. Lawrence College in Brockville is home to the Music Theatre - Performance Program which trains students to enter the professional world of musical theatre. SLC Stage produces three professional quality musicals each season at the Brockville Arts Centre. The Brockville Arts Centre is a 710-seat, newly refurbished theatre venue with a full season of entertainment offerings.[19]

Several festivals occur each year. Riverfest, a four-day entertainment event, was an annual attraction but saw its final year in 2011.[20]

Local media[edit]

Print[edit]

The city's main daily newspaper is The Recorder & Times. There is a free weekly newspaper, St Lawrence EMC. A new free monthly newspaper called Snap Brockville is now being distributed free to residents of Brockville.

Radio[edit]

Television[edit]

Sports[edit]

Several local clubs, organizations and high schools have achieved success on provincial, national, and international levels, such as the Brockville Rowing Club,[21] one of the oldest and most successful rowing clubs in Canada. The Rowing Club has captured the Royal Canadian Henley Championships several times. The club has also sent crews to London, England where they have won several Henley Women's Regatta titles. This success often comes by competition against clubs from much larger Canadian centers such as Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Close to 50 Brockville Area Youth are offered an opportunity to participate in a national level rowing program annually. The club has also sent athletes to cities across Europe and Asia to compete at international regattas as part of the Canadian National Team.

Thousand Islands Secondary School is home to a strong high school track & field and cross-country running program. The Pirates have captured numerous Canadian championships and have won 5 straight overall provincial (OFSAA) Ontario championships in track & field and cross country running in an association of over 1000 schools since 2004. With over 15 former students currently on NCAA athletic track & field scholarships in the United States, TISS has been awarded over $1,000,000 in student athletic scholarships. The TISS team travels all over North America including Ohio, Florida, New Hampshire, and British Columbia, consistently winning major international championships. The accomplishments of the school have inspired the community to construct a $1.5 million athletic centre at the school.

The Brockville Braves are a Tier I Junior "A" ice hockey team from Brockville, Ontario, Canada. They are a part of the Central Junior A Hockey League.

Founded in 1963, the Braves are the second oldest team that has never ceased operation in CJHL history—second only to Pembroke. In the 1979, the teams was the focus of national attention when they were left homeless due to their arena collapsing. This did not stop the Braves though, playing their home games out of Cardinal and Rockland, Ontario, the Braves did not miss a beat.

It took until 1986 for the Brockville Braves to win a CJHL championships. They clinched the Bogart Cup on a late April night, defeating their nemesis Pembroke Lumber Kings 8-7 in the finals. Braves' goalie Jacques Breault was the hero, as with 22 seconds to go in the game, turned away a penalty shot by the league's all-time leading scorers Luc Chabot. Although losing to Orillia, Ontario in the Ontario playdowns, the team was a memorable one. Notable members of this team were all-time Braves leading scorer Larry Mitchell, Breault, Paul Duford, Tim Dubas, Dan Nummikoski, Steve Rachwal, Chad Badawey and Rob White.

Since that championship, the team has experienced more bad times than good. The late 80's and early 90's were not good to the Braves, who failed to make the playoffs multiple times.

In 1997, times began to change for the better again. The Braves were given the duty of hosting the Fred Page Cup, the Eastern Canadian Junior "A" championship. This allowed for their team to compete in the event and give them the experience they needed for the next season. The Braves regained their league title in 1998, bringing the club around full circle. The team will host the 2010 Fred Page Cup.

3 star graduates Bryan Murray (Barry's Bay, Ontario) Mike Daoust (Brockville, Ontario) and Guy Come (Iroquois Falls, Ontario)of the Brockville Braves won the 2001 NCAA National Championship with the Plattsburgh Cardinals vs the RIT Tigers.

Brockville Bunnies Youth Baseball Program is also an elite level program that operates out of this small city, with provincial championships and several pro and Olympic graduates. The Brockville youth basketball teams, the Brockville Blues and the Brockville Blazers, provide basketball coaching and training for boys and girls across the area. The Blues and Blazers have repeatedly placed in the Ontario Baseball Association (OBA) championships. A female basketball player, Stacey Dales (a graduate of Thousand Islands Secondary School), has gone on to play for the University of Oklahoma Sooners, coming in a close second for the NCAA title in her graduating year. She also has the highest Canadian woman's draft pick for the WNBA, where she has played for the Washington Mystics and Chicago Sky. She currently works for ESPN. Upper Canada Swim Club is another local youth organization that operate at a high level of competition.

There are several golf courses in the Brockville area for a variety of skill levels. Sunnidel Golf is a par three course designed for an easy going round. The Brockville Highlands is a full length 18 hole course. The course has a small membership and is open to patrons willing to pay green fees. The Brockville Country Club poses greater difficulty to the average golfer. The membership comprises an older demographic and is semi-private. The course is open to green fees however certain playing restrictions are imposed.

The Brockville Ontario Speedway (The BOS) is a clay oval track located just north of the city on Highway 29 in Forthton. The track races every Saturday night from May to September. Classes that race every week include Rookies, Street Stock, Sportsman, Modified and Vintage.

The Brockville Privateers R.F.C. was formed in 1993, reestablishing a local rugby club in the area. Rugby has been played in Brockville area as far back as 1899. The original Brockville Rugby Football Club eventually became part of Brockville Collegiate Institute (BCI). Brockville Rugby now includes multiple men's and women's teams along with a strong junior age grade program.

Education[edit]

Brockville is associated with one college campus, four high schools, and several elementary schools.

Community colleges[edit]

St. Lawrence College (Brockville Campus) has an enrolment of around 800. St. Lawrence College was recently ranked number one in Ontario for graduate employment rate.[22]

High schools[edit]

Thousand Islands Secondary School has an enrolment of approximately 1000 and is both a university and college preparatory school with strong technology facilities. It is also known for its athletics programs including: track and field, women's basketball, men's soccer, and cross country running.

St. Mary Catholic High School is the English Catholic school and has around 600 students.

Brockville Collegiate Institute has an enrolment of approximately 560 and is predominantly a university preparatory school with a strong theatre, rowing, cheerleading, music, and football programs. It is very important to Brockville's history and recently celebrated its 125th year as a school (2013). The school is a landmark and the home of Norm, the Red Ram.

Ecole Academie Catholique Ange Gabriel is a French Catholic school (Grades JK-12) and has an enrolment of approximately 282 students.[23]

Elementary schools[edit]

Public elementary schools in the city include: Commonwealth Public School, Prince of Wales Public School, Westminster Public School, Toniata Public School, and Vanier Public School.

The Catholic English elementary schools are: St. Francis Xavier, St. John Bosco and James L. Jordan.

Académie Catholique Ange-Gabriel is a French language Catholic school serving JK - Grade 12.[23]

Heritage Community Christian School located 20 minutes from downtown Brockville is a privately funded Christian school offering pre-school through grade 8 in a Christian environment.[24]

Fulford Academy is a private boarding school for international students grades 7 - 10 learning English as a Second Language (ESL).[25]

Notable residents[edit]

The wooden carved statue of Sally Grant sits atop of the Brockville Court House

Sister city[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Brockville census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  2. ^ a b "Brockville (Census agglomeration) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  3. ^ Parks Canada - The War of 1812
  4. ^ The province of Ontario gazetteer and directory. H. McEvoy Editor and Compiler, Toronto : Robertson & Cook, Publishers, 1869
  5. ^ Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000.Environment Canada. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
  6. ^ Record & Times article on plant closure
  7. ^ "2011 Community Profiles". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. July 5, 2013. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  8. ^ "2006 Community Profiles". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  9. ^ "2001 Community Profiles". Canada 2001 Census. Statistics Canada. February 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  10. ^ 104.pdf, Canada Year Book 1932
  11. ^ 143.pdf, Canada Year Book 1955
  12. ^ 191.pdf, Canada Year Book 1967
  13. ^ a b [1], E-STAT Table
  14. ^ [2], Ontario (Canada): Province, Major Cities & Towns - Statistics & Maps on City Population
  15. ^ [3], Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
  16. ^ [4], Aboriginal Population Profile from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
  17. ^ [5] Brockville Museum Website
  18. ^ Brockville Police Services - WHO Designation
  19. ^ [6] Brockville Arts Centre
  20. ^ Death of Riverfest: We're all to blame | Editorial | Opinion | Brockville Recorder. Recorder.ca (2011-12-08). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  21. ^ Brockville Rowing Club
  22. ^ "St. Lawrence College number one in the province with graduate employment rate of 90.5 per cent". St. Lawrence EMC. Apr 25, 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  23. ^ a b "Historique de l'école". Académie catholique Ange-Gabriel. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  24. ^ "HCCS--Official Website". Heritage Community Christian School. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  25. ^ "Academics: Grades 7 to 10". Fulford Academy. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  26. ^ "Brockville, Ontario (City)". 2006 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  27. ^ "Brockville, Ontario (Census agglomeration)". 2006 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 

External links[edit]