Brodnica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the village of the same name, see Brodnica, Greater Poland Voivodeship.
Brodnica
Old Town
Old Town
Coat of arms of Brodnica
Coat of arms
Brodnica is located in Poland
Brodnica
Brodnica
Coordinates: 53°15′N 19°24′E / 53.250°N 19.400°E / 53.250; 19.400
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian
County Brodnica County
Gmina Brodnica (urban gmina)
Established 13th century
Town rights 1298
Government
 • Mayor Jarosław Radacz
Area
 • Total 23.15 km2 (8.94 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Total 32,588
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 87–300 to 87–302
Area code(s) +48 56
Car plates CBR
Website http://www.brodnica.pl

Brodnica [brɔdˈɲit͡sa] ( ) (German: Strasburg in Westpreußen) is a town in northern Poland with 27,400 inhabitants as of 1995. Previously part of Toruń Voivodeship [a province], from 1975 to 1998, Brodnica has been situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. It is the seat of Brodnica County, and Brodnica Landscape Park, a protected area, also gets its name from Brodnica.

History[edit]

Brodnica – the capital of the district, whose present quarter Michałowo, a settlement mentioned as early as in 1138 and then in 1240 as castrum Michałowo, hides relics from Neolithic era. As it is confirmed in old documents Michałowo was the capital of the Masovian Castellany. The town was chosen owing to its good position on the Drwęca (on the trade route leading from Masovia to Prussia) and a customs house between Dobrzyń and Chełmno Land (mentioned in 1252).

The first reference to the town of Brodnica dates from 1263. Brodnica received town privileges in 1298. Although the Teutonic rule ended here with the Treaty of Toruń 1466 (as on the entire Chełmno Land), Brodnica remained in the hands of Teutonic Knights until 1479. A favourable location on the intersection of important routes used for transportation of different goods (wood, fish, furs, animal skin, grain, wool) accelerated the development of the town, making it an important trading centre, the status still reflected in the number of well-preserved granaries along the Drwęca. In the Teutonic state Brodnica was the seat of the Commander: in the Polish Republic it was the capital of the district starosty, and the former Commander's lands were then royal property. Between 1486 and 1604 the town belonged to the Działyński family, then between 1604 and 1625 to Anna Vasa of Sweden who was the royal sister of Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden. In later years it was the property Queen Cecily Renata, Chancellor Jerzy Ossoliński, Queen Maria Casimira, and Marshal Franciszek Bieliński.

Brodnica was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772, during the First Partition of Poland, but in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars, Brodnica became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. Between 1815–1920 Brodnica was again under a Prussian administration as part of the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871.

The 19th century saw 20 thousand Polish soldiers interned after the failure of the November Uprising (1830–1831) and many townspeople and noblemen involved in the January Uprising (1863). It is in Brodnica region too that Masovian insurgents sought refuge from Russian persecution after the failure of the January Uprising.

Between 1886 and 1910 Brodnica received railway connections with Działdowo, Grudziądz, Iława, Sierpc and Jabłonowo Pomorskie, which made it an important railway junction and triggered the industrial progress. In the 19th century the Chełmno Land (and Brodnica in particular) was a refuge of Polish patriots who contributed greatly to social, cultural and economic life of the region, like Ignacy Łyskowski.

In 1920, after the end of World War I and the Treaty of Versailles was established, the town of Brodnica became part of Poland.

During World War II approximately 1,000 Jews and Gypsies inhabitants were murdered by the SS and the Selbstschutz, and, after the war ended, most of German inhabitants were expelled or killed by the Polish and Red Army during the expulsion of the Germans.

Important dates in the history of Brodnica[edit]

Number of inhabitants by year
Note: table is based on primary,
possibly biased, sources.[1][2][3][4]
Year Number
1772 1,283
1783 1,853
1807 2,113
1816 1,994
1826 2,669
1831 2,585
1875 5,454
1880 5,801
1890 6,122
1905 7,217
1931 8,521
2006 32,588
  • 1262 the town in Prussia is first mentioned
  • 1285–1370 – the construction of the parish church (Gothic Church of St. Catherine)
  • 1298 – city rights
  • 1303–1466 – the Michałowo land is administered by the Teutonic Knights
  • 1310–1330 – the construction of the city walls
  • 1312–1327 – the construction of a castle for the Teutonic Order
  • 1550 – a great fire sweeps through the town and destroys the castle
  • 1466 - Strasburg goes from Teutonic Order State to Royal Prussia.
  • 1479 – Michelau, Strasburg district at the time, is the seat of the local starost. In 1560 a court district of Michelau (Michałowo) comprising the Löbauer Land (Nowe Miasto Lubawskie) is created
  • 1807 – 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte take over, visits the town. After his defeat Strasburg reverts to Kingdom of Prussia
  • 1840 – Frederick William IV of Prussia visits the town
  • 1850 – a great fire destroys the oldest part of the town
  • With the Treaty of Versailles from 1920 the West Prussian town of Strasburg is given to Poland and named Brodnica.
  • 18 January 1920 – General Haller's Blue Army arrives to the town
  • 15–18 August 1920 – the eastern part of the district is seized by the Red Army, (Polish–Soviet War)
  • 18 August 1920 – Battle of Brodnica: between Polish forces and the Red Army
  • 22 June 1924 – President of the Republic of Poland Stanisław Wojciechowski visits Brodnica
  • 1919–1939 – Gazeta Brodnicka (Brodnica Newspaper) is published 3 times a week in the Kazimierz Wojciechowski printing house (in 1921 renamed Gazeta Michałowska (Michałowo Newspaper)
  • 26 October 1939 – West Prussia is lost by Poland and united in the Third Reich: Jews have status of slaves with no human rights
  • 23 January 1945 – the Red Army seizes Strasburg, more than 700 inhabitants of the town as well as of other West and East Prussian towns are deported to Soviet camps (gulags). All territory east of the Oder-Neiße-Line are severed from Germany.
  • 2 July 2010 – Marshal of the Sejm Bronisław Komorowski visits Brodnica

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate).[5]

Climate data for Brodnica
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
(59)
16.6
(61.9)
24.1
(75.4)
30.0
(86)
34.0
(93.2)
36.2
(97.2)
38.2
(100.8)
37.7
(99.9)
34.1
(93.4)
27.3
(81.1)
20.2
(68.4)
16.8
(62.2)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.9
(37.2)
8.3
(46.9)
13.6
(56.5)
19.4
(66.9)
22.1
(71.8)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
19.3
(66.7)
13.9
(57)
6.7
(44.1)
3.2
(37.8)
13.4
(56.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.0
(39.2)
9.8
(49.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.2
(64.8)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
15.3
(59.5)
9.9
(49.8)
4.4
(39.9)
0.2
(32.4)
9.6
(49.3)
Average low °C (°F) −4.6
(23.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.0
(42.8)
10.3
(50.5)
14.3
(57.7)
15.5
(59.9)
15.1
(59.2)
11.3
(52.3)
5.9
(42.6)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.8
(27)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F) −28.5
(−19.3)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−6.8
(19.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.1
(34)
4.7
(40.5)
3.0
(37.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
−6.9
(19.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−28.5
(−19.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 25
(0.98)
23
(0.91)
30
(1.18)
38
(1.5)
45
(1.77)
62
(2.44)
70
(2.76)
58
(2.28)
35
(1.38)
39
(1.54)
37
(1.46)
30
(1.18)
492
(19.37)
Avg. precipitation days 14 12 11 9 11 12 13 13 9 12 14 12 142
 % humidity 81 82 75 68 63 68 70 72 74 77 80 82 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56 67 118 179 230 237 236 229 171 122 55 40 1,740
Source: Polish Central Statistical Office (closest city on record

Geographical location[edit]

Castle in Brodnica (tower)
Railway station in Brodnica

Brodnica is located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship on an important route transit over the small river Drewenz, about 48 kilometers south-east of Grudziądz, 90 kilometers south-west of Olsztyn and 98 kilometers south of Elbląg.

Points of interest[edit]

Worth noting is the War cemetery in Brodnica established by the Germans during the World War I. 15 November saw a burial of 25 German soldiers killed in the Russian offensive. In 1920 31 Polish soldiers killed during the battle of Brodnica with the Bolsheviks on 18 August were laid to rest here. In 1943 German soldiers who died in the local hospital together with those who lost their lives on 21 January 1945 during the Soviet offensive were put in the ground. A curiosity is that the Red Army soldiers who died on the same day were buried here as well. It is also a burial place for UB people notorious for waging war with Polish anti-communist partisans after 1945.

Sport in Brodnica[edit]

Football[edit]

International relations[edit]

Crests based on partnership towns

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Brodnica is twinned with:

Famous people who's born and lived in Brodnica and Brodnica County[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck: Volständige Topographie des Königreichs Preussen. Part II: Topographie von West-Preussen, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 42–44.
  2. ^ Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6th edition, Vol. 19, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, pp. 95–96.
  3. ^ Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Provinz Westpreußen, Kreis Strasburg (2006).
  4. ^ August Eduard Preuß: Preußische Landes- und Volkskunde. Königsberg 1835, p. 437, no. 46.
  5. ^ Climate Summary for Poznan, Poland (nearest city on record)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°15′N 19°24′E / 53.250°N 19.400°E / 53.250; 19.400