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Brokered programming (also known as time-buy & blocktime) is a form of broadcast content in which the show's producer pays a radio or television station for air time, rather than exchanging programming for pay or the opportunity to play spot commercials. A brokered program is typically not capable of garnering enough support from advertisements to pay for itself, and may be controversial, esoteric or an advertisement in itself.
Common examples of brokered programming
Common examples are religious and political programs and talk-show-format programs similar to infomercials. Others are hobby programs or vanity programs paid for by the host or his supporters, and may be intended to promote the host's personality, for instance in preparation for a political campaign, or to promote a product, service or business that the host is closely associated with. A live vanity show may be carried on several stations by remote broadcast or simulcast, with the producer paying multiple stations an airtime fee. Financial advisors and planners often produce this kind of programming.
Brokered commercial programs promote products or services by scripting shows made to sound similar to talk radio or news programming, and may even include calls from listeners (or actors playing the part of listeners). The programs are a specific type of infomercial, as they focus on a topic related to the product and repeatedly steer listeners and "callers" to a particular website or toll-free telephone number in order to purchase the product being featured. Although presented in the style of live programs, these are typically pre-recorded and supplied to stations on tape, disc, or downloaded MP3 formats.
Most of these programs feature a disclaimer at either the beginning or the end of the program (or both), usually read by the program's host or (most often) by a separate announcer; some radio stations play a standard disclaimer before all such programs.
Although some syndicators of multi-topic, ad-supported talk shows may pay a fee to stations with very large Arbitron-verified listenership, the same syndicator will normally charge a fee to small stations and may charge nothing to stations with moderate listenership. Each arrangement depends on whether the station can deliver enough listeners to allow the syndicator to earn money from ad sales. Syndicated programs normally carry a number of their own advertisements that must be played during commercial breaks, but set aside time for local stations to play their own advertisements.
Stations also frequently employ one or more of their own hosts, but at some small stations these hosts may be unpaid volunteers motivated by the chance to promote an agenda, gain personal exposure or get work experience.
The use of brokered programming varies by station -- some stations, mainly news radio and sports radio stations, use brokered programming to fill holes in some dayparts, especially during the late-night hours and weekends. The format of brokered programs varies; many sports radio stations will use brokered programs from sports handicappers and prognosticators to fit their format, while news and talk radio stations will often rely on brokered programs that sell vitamin or nutritional supplements, financial planning products and services, and alternative medical products, fitting those stations' older audiences.
Sometimes, even programs dealing with gardening and home improvement (usually presented on weekend mornings on many talk radio stations) are broadcast under a brokered arrangement, as was the case with KRLD gardening expert Neil Sperry before his show was canceled outright in 2010.
Program time is often brokered to churches on Sunday mornings in a manner that parallels televangelism; there are also religious stations that rely primarily on brokered programs, and these stations often get the derisive title of "pay for pray," a play on the unethical practice of "pay for play" on music stations. There are also some AM radio stations that are dedicated to the brokered format, selling time for as little as 15 minutes or even selling the entire broadcasting day to a single entity, with the station holding the broadcast license and providing the facilities. That long-form type of brokered programming is especially popular among ethnic and religious broadcasters as well as with privately owned U.S.-based shortwave radio broadcasters.
Music radio programs
Brokered programs are not exclusive to talk radio; music radio programs can also be brokered. The brokered format, popular among specialty and niche music format, usually involves the show itself lining up its own advertising and paying the station for its airtime. The idea reduces the risk for the station and assures the show remains on the air as long as the show's producers continue to pay the station.
Record companies (through independent promoters) may also purchase brokered time on music stations to have the station play a new single as a "preview", which has the potential to be inserted onto a station's general playlist but has not received the traction to do so. These spots are often the length of the song with an introduction and disclaimer at the end of the song stating the artist, album title, and releasing label, and come under titles such as CD Preview. The segments must be carefully disclaimed by the record companies so as to not violate payola laws and the playing of the song, as it is paid for, cannot be applied to song popularity charts, as has happened in the early 2000s with some forms of this concept. 
Local marketing agreements
If a station sells all of its time to a programmer, essentially leasing the station, it is a local marketing agreement (LMA). Like owning a station, this counts toward United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) caps that prevent excessive concentration of media ownership in the U.S. and Canada. However, in the case of television stations, LMA's do not count towards caps in the U.S.
Examples of brokered, non-religious programming
- "Life Change Radio" with Rodney and Tamara Laroux
- The American Advisor with Joseph Battaglia
- The Gold Show with Jonathan Rose of Capital Gold
- The Ray Lucia Show (financial planning/advice)
- Safe Money Radio (financial planning/advice)
- Missed Fortune Radio (life insurance sales)
- Investors Edge with Gary Kaltbaum (investment advice)
- Purity Products (multivitamins and dietary supplements)
- New Vitality (multivitamins and dietary supplements)
- Cutlery Corner Knife Show (ION Television)
- Healthline with Dr. Bob Marshall (multivitamins and dietary supplements)
- Financial Planning for Life
- The Money Report with Bruce Barket
- Res-Q Health Line
- The Rock & Roll Lawyer Show with Sheldon Kay
- The Mutual Fund Show with Adam Bold (financial planning/advice)
- Market Wrap with Moe Ansari (financial planning/advice)
- The Power Hour with Joyce Riley and Dave von Kleist
- Boomers and Seniors
- Let's Talk Nutrition
- Inside Business with Fred Thompson
- Sacramento and Co.
- The Kevin Trudeau Show
- SMILE TALK with Dr. John Chao
- MARINA's High-nrg Fitness Musical Health Talk
- Norm and Mike
- House Calls
- Canadian talk radio station discusses adopting its first brokered program
- Simnacher, Joe (February 5, 2010). "Radio host Neil Sperry's gardening show on KRLD-AM to be canceled". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- Stelter, Brian. "You Can Change the Channel, but Local News Is the Same". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2012.