|Bromberg-Ost concentration camp|
|Period||12 September 1944 – 20 January 1945|
|Prisoners||Averaging 300 female prisoners|
Bromberg-Ost (German: Konzentrationslager Bromberg-Ost) was the female subcamp of the German Nazi concentration camp KL Stutthof between 1944-1945, set up in the city of Bydgoszcz during the later stages of World War II. The mostly Jewish women prisoners dispatched from the main camp in Sztutowo worked as slave-labour for the German railways; loading cargo, clearing and repairing tracks, and digging ditches. The commandant of the camp was SS-Scharführer Anton Kniffke. No warm clothing was provided before mid-December. Women who managed to survive were taken on a death march to Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg.
The direct order to set up subcamp Bromberg-Ost was issued on 12 September 1944, by the superintendent of Stutthof concentration camp, Paul Werner Hoppe. The following day the first 300 women prisoners were sent there under the inspection of seven female overseers from Schutzstaffel (Defense Corps). From June 1944 until March 1945 the position of Oberaufseherin in Bromberg-Ost was held by Johanna Wisotzki, while among guards reassigned to Bromberg-Ost from Stutthof were the notoriously cruel aufseherinnen Ewa Paradies, Herta Bothe and Gerda Steinhoff who took part in selections of prisoners to be sent to the gas chambers.
A group of thirteen ex-officials and overseers of the Bromberg-Ost and Stutthof concentration camps were tried and convicted of crimes against humanity at the Stutthof trials, the war crime tribunals held at Gdańsk, Poland, from April 25, 1946, to May 31, 1946. Eleven convicts were sentenced to death, while the remainder were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.
- Damian Karaszewski (2013), Obóz Bromberg-Ost (Aussenarbeitslager Bromberg-Ost). Firtel bydgoski.
- Female guards in Nazi concentration camps: names, and ranks
- Janina Grabowska (22 January 2009). "Odpowiedzialność za Zbrodnie Popełnione w Stutthofie. Procesy" [Responsibility for the Attrocities Committed at Stutthof. The trials.] (INTERNET ARCHIVE). KL Stutthof, Monografia. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Benjamin B. Ferencz, Less Than Slaves: Jewish Forced Labor and the Quest for Compensation
- Female guards in Nazi concentration camps. Gerda Steinhoff