Bromley

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Bromley
Market Square, Bromley - geograph.org.uk - 1162719.jpg
Market Square, Bromley
Bromley is located in Greater London
Bromley
Bromley
 Bromley shown within Greater London
Population 16,826 (Bromley Town ward)[1]
OS grid reference TQ405695
   – Charing Cross 9.3 mi (15.0 km)  NW
London borough Bromley
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BROMLEY
Postcode district BR1
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
UK Parliament Bromley and Chislehurst
London Assembly Bexley and Bromley
List of places
UK
England
London

Coordinates: 51°24′25″N 0°01′16″E / 51.4070°N 0.0210°E / 51.4070; 0.0210

Bromley is a large suburban town, the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Bromley in south east London,[2] England. It was historically a market town chartered since 1158 and an ancient parish in the county of Kent.[3] Its location on a coaching route and the opening of a railway station in 1858 were key to its development, and the economic history of Bromley is underpinned by a shift from an agrarian village to commerce and retail. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Bromley significantly increased in population and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1903. It has developed into one of a handful of regionally significant commercial and retail districts outside central London[4] and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. Most of Bromley including the town centre falls under the BR1 postcode area, whereas areas to the west towards Shortlands are part of BR2 instead. The population of the town, consisting of the Bromley Town ward, was 16,826 in the 2011 census.

History[edit]

Bromley is first recorded in a charter of 862 as Bromleag and means 'woodland clearing where broom grows'. It shares this Old English etymology with Great Bromley in Essex, but not with the Bromley in Tower Hamlets.[5]

The history of Bromley is closely connected with the See of Rochester. In AD 862 Ethelbert, the King of Kent, granted land to form the Manor of Bromley. It was held by the Bishops of Rochester until 1845, when Coles Child, a wealthy local merchant and philanthropist, purchased Bromley Palace (now the hub of the Bromley Civic Centre) and became lord of the manor. The town was an important coaching stop on the way to Hastings from London, and the now defunct Royal Bell Hotel (just off Market Square) is referred to in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. It was a quiet rural village until the arrival of the railway in 1858 in Shortlands, which led to rapid growth, and outlying suburban districts such as Bickley (which later overflowed into Bromley Common) were developed to accommodate those wishing to live so conveniently close to London.[6]

Bromley, also known as Bromley St Peter and St Paul, formed an ancient parish in the Bromley and Beckenham hundred and the Sutton-at-Hone lathe of Kent.[7] In 1840 it became part of the expanded Metropolitan Police District. The parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 and a local board was formed in 1867. The board was reconstituted as Bromley Urban District Council in 1894 and the parish became Bromley Urban District. It formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933.[8] In 1934, as part of a county review order, the borough was expanded by taking in 1,894 acres (7.66 km2) from the disbanded Bromley Rural District; an area including parts of the parishes of Farnborough, Hayes, Keston and West Wickham. Bromley became part of the newly created Greater London in 1965, in the new London Borough of Bromley.

Governance[edit]

Bromley forms part of the Bromley and Chislehurst Parliament constituency and the London European Parliament constituency. The current MP is Bob Neill. James Cleverly is the London Assembly member for the Bexley and Bromley constituency, in which the town is located.

Bromley's most prominent MP was the former Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.

Geography[edit]

Bromley is the largest town or district in southeast London. It is located 9.3 miles (15 km) south east of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan.[4]

Other nearby areas:

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[9]

Climate data for Bromley
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7
(44)
8
(46)
10
(50)
13
(55)
16
(61)
19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
14
(57)
10
(50)
7
(45)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
3
(37)
4
(39)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
9
(48)
7
(45)
4
(39)
2
(36)
6.2
(43.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 43
(1.7)
38
(1.5)
30
(1)
30
(1.2)
28
(1.1)
36
(1.4)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
41
(1.6)
434
(16.9)
Avg. precipitation days 22 19 20 20 18 17 18 18 18 21 21 21 233
Source: Weatherbase [10]

Economy[edit]

Bromley is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan.[11]

The town has a large shopping and retail area, including a pedestrianised High Street and Intu Bromley shopping centre.

The shopping area includes many upmarket retailers such as Gap, Oasis, Russell & Bromley and Waterstone's, whilst the large concentration of restaurants includes a branch of the small chain of trendy, Belgian-themed Belgo restaurants.

Transport[edit]

Bromley North Railway Station

Rail[edit]

Bromley is served by two rail stations:

Bromley South station with services to London Victoria nonstop or, via Herne Hill // Kentish Town via Blackfriars and also London St.Pancras (Intl) // trains are available to many other stations incl. Orpington, Sevenoaks via Swanley, Gillingham, Ashford International via Maidstone East and a splitting service to Ramsgate and Dover Priory via Chatham.

Bromley North station with services to London Bridge and Charing Cross by changing at Grove Park.

Eurostar services to Brussels and Paris are accessible from Bromley South by connecting to the international service at St.Pancras or Ashford International.

Buses[edit]

Bromley is served by many Transport for London services and an Arriva Kent route, these connect it with areas including Beckenham, Bexleyheath, Catford, Chislehurst, Croydon, Crystal Palace, Eltham, Lewisham, New Addington, Orpington, Penge, Sevenoaks, Sidcup, Tonbridge, Tunbridge Wells and West Wickham.

Culture[edit]

Bromley has a number of theatres, the most notable being the Churchill Theatre in the town centre and the Bromley Little Theatre close to Bromley North railway station. The Churchill Theatre was opened on 19 July 1977 by HRH Prince of Wales, and seats 785. It is now run on a contract currently held by the Ambassador Theatre Group and is successful commercially, acting as both a receiving and producing house, with many of its own productions transferring to the West End or touring nationally. An example being recent tours of The Rocky Horror Picture Show.

Bromley also has a large central library in the same building as the Churchill Theatre with a large book stock, Internet and wifi access, reference library and local studies department. Empire Cinemas own a four-screen site in Bromley, with screen 1 being its biggest with a capacity of 392. Screens 2 and 3 have disabled access.

Bromley also has the cultural distinctiveness of having its own Morris team, The Ravensbourne Morris Men. Founded in 1947 as a post war revival team following an inaugural meeting at the then Jean's Café, which was located opposite Bromley South Station.[12]

Popular culture[edit]

In the famous Monty Python Spam sketch Bromley was stated to be the location of the fictional Green Midget Café, where every item on the menu was composed of spam in varying degrees. In another Monty Python sketch it was stated that all seven continents are visible from the top of the Kentish Times building in Bromley.

The Mall in Bromley appeared on the cover of the 1982 album Sounds Like Bromley by Bromley born Billy Jenkins. The picture is of the rear of the then Bromley Toy Fayre, Bramber Womenswear and car park above a supermarket.

Sport and leisure[edit]

The town has four Non-League football clubs, two teams play their home games at the Courage Stadium on Hayes Lane Bromley F.C. and Cray Wanderers F.C., the other teams Holmesdale F.C. and Greenwich Borough F.C. play at Oakley Road. Bromley F.C. are in the Conference South, which is the highest level of regionalised football in England, two divisions below the Football League. Cray Wanderers F.C. are currently one division below Bromley F.C. in the Isthmian League Premier Division.

Beccehamians RFC is a rugby union club founded in 1933 which plays competitive rugby at Sparrows Den at the bottom of Corkscrew Hill in nearby West Wickham.[13]

Education[edit]

Ravensbourne School, Bromley

Bromley has numerous schools, and is home to Bromley College of Further & Higher Education. There are two selective schools in nearby Orpington (within the London Borough of Bromley) with an 11+ exam. They are Newstead Wood School and St Olave's and St Saviour's Grammar School. There is also The Priory School, a specialist Sports School, which is in Orpington. There are two specialist Media Arts Schools, Hayes School and The Ravensbourne School. Bishop Justus School is a specialist Music College. It also has the Ravens Wood and Darrick Wood Schools. There are many independent schools within the London Borough of Bromley, including Eltham College (in the nearby area of Mottingham - within the borough of Bromley and near the London Borough of Lewisham) and Bromley High (situated in the nearby, affluent area of Bickley- also within the borough of Bromley). Bromley has also opened up to a recent new secondary school called Bishop Justus, a music specialist school and college.

Landmarks[edit]

The parish church of St Peter and St Paul stands on Church Road. It was largely destroyed by enemy action on 16 April 1941 and rebuilt in the 1950s incorporating the medieval tower and reusing much of the flint and fragments of the original stone building.[14] The most noteworthy historic building is Bromley College, London Road. The mature and very well maintained central public open spaces are noteworthy: Queen's Gardens, Martin's Hill, Church House Gardens, Library Gardens and College Green.

Notable areas[edit]

Bromley has a number of affluent areas and is regarded as being one of the better-off London Boroughs.[15] There are a number of gated communities within the borough, most noticeably Keston Park (in Keston, Orpington), Farnborough Park (Farnborough, Orpington) and Bickley Park (in the area of Bickley & Chislehurst). Another notable area is The Glades shopping centre (renamed Intu Bromley in 2013), Bromley's main shopping mall.

Notable residents[edit]

Owen Chadwick was born in Bromley in 1916. He was awarded the Order of Merit, was Vice Chancellor of University of Cambridge, Master of Selwyn Cambridge, Regius Professor of Modern History, Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Chancellor of University of Anglia, President of British Academy, and a Rugby Union International.

H. G. Wells, "one of the remarkable minds of the twentieth century," was born in Bromley on 21 September 1866, to Sarah and Joseph Wells; his father was the founder of the Bromley Cricket Club and the proprietor of a shop that sold cricket equipment.[16] Wells spent the first thirteen years of his life in Bromley. From 1874 to 1879 he attended Tomas Morley's Bromley Academy, at 74 High Street.[17] There is an 'H.G. Wells Centre' in Masons Hill near the southern end of the High Street which houses the Bromley Labour Club. In August 2005, the wall honouring H.G. Wells in Market Square was repainted. The current wall painting features a rich green background with the same H.G. Wells reference and the evolution sequence of Homo sapiens featured in Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, a former resident of nearby Downe Village.[18] Wells wrote about Bromley in an early unsigned article in the Pall Mall Gazette in which he expressed satisfaction that he had been born in an earlier, more rural Bromley.[19] A Blue Plaque marks H.G. Wells' birthplace in Market Square, on the wall of what is now a Primark store. A marble plaque appears above the door of number 8 South Street, erstwhile home to the Dame school where "Bertie", as he was called as a child, learned to read and write. H.G. Wells featured Bromley in two of his novels: The War in the Air (which refers to Bromley as Bunhill) and The New Machiavelli (in which Bromley is referred to as Bromstead).

Other world famous authors who hail from Bromley include Captain W.E. Johns (author of the Biggles adventures), David Nobbs (author of The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin and writer for Les Dawson and The Two Ronnies), and Enid Blyton who wrote influential children's fiction such as the Secret Seven and Famous Five stories. A blue historical plaque can be found on the external wall of her former home on Shortlands Road, Bromley.

Other famous people who lived in Bromley include Alex Clare, Charles Darwin, David Bowie, Richmal Crompton, Pixie Lott, Starsmith, Christopher Tennant, Peter Frampton, Aleister Crowley, Siouxsie Sioux, Gary Rhodes, Poly Styrene, singer Billy Idol, Trevor Goddard, actor Billy Jenkins, cricketer Jill Cruwys,[20] the anarchist Peter Kropotkin,[21] the former Clash drummer Topper Headon, historian Richard Jefferis, illustrator Charles Keeping, Formula 1 test driver Gary Paffett, children's writer Andrew Murray, tenor Roland Cunningham, actor Michael York who attended Bromley Grammar School for Boys,[22] clarinetist Chris Craker, Philip Eames Recruitment Innovator, Don Perrin, Canadian author who attended Burnt Ash School in Bromley, and Sir Thomas James Harper, an officer decorated in the Crimean War. In the 20th century, the Parish Church of St Peter and St Paul produced, in quick succession, three Church of England Bishops: Henry David HalseyBishop of Carlisle, Philip GoodrichBishop of Worcester, David Bartleet – Bishop of Tonbridge. Steve Barnes, Educator and Mathematician, Sculptor Nicholas Cornwell and Maisy James the Big Brother 12 housemate. Some time before 1881 the engineer and industrialist Richard Porter moved to Beckenham where he remained until his death in 1913. Comedian Frankie Boyle claims to be a former resident and recently described Bromley as a 'lobotomy made out of bricks' [23]

The comedian Chris Addison[24] currently lives in Bromley.

West Ham United F.C. midfielder Gary O'Neil, former Millwall FC and current Everton FC midfielder Tim Cahill and Reading FC (previously Blackburn Rovers) striker Jason Roberts lived in Bromley, English darts player Les Capewell was born in Bromley, Manchester United defender Rio Ferdinand, Leicester City F.C. defender John Pantsil. Cricketer Matthew Featherstone was born in Bromley and played List A cricket for the Kent Cricket Board.

Scottish education secretary Michael Russell MSP was born and spent the early years of his life in Bromley.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://data.london.gov.uk/2011-census-ward-pop
  2. ^ Mayor of London (February 2008). "South East London sub region". Greater London Authority. Retrieved 29 September 2009. 
  3. ^ "Bromley CP/AP through time | Census tables with data for the Parish-level Unit". Visionofbritain.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  4. ^ a b Mayor of London (February 2008). "London Plan (Consolidated with Alterations since 2004)". Greater London Authority. Retrieved 29 September 2009. 
  5. ^ Mills, Anthony David (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280106-6
  6. ^ "Bromley". Mick Scott, Nonsuch Publishing. 2005. 
  7. ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Bromley parish. Retrieved on 29 September 2009.
  8. ^ Robson, William (1939). The Government and Mis-government of London. London: Allen & Unwin. 
  9. ^ Climate Summary for Bromley, UK
  10. ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013.  Retrieved on June 4, 2013.
  11. ^ Mayor of London (February 2008). "London Plan (Consolidated with Alterations since 2004)". Greater London Authority. 
  12. ^ "Ravensbourne Morris - Home side of the World Morris Dancing Record Holder Ben Dauncey". Ravensbourne.org. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  13. ^ Beccehamians RFC
  14. ^ "St Peter and St Paul website". 
  15. ^ "Overview of London boroughs | London's Poverty Profile". Londonspovertyprofile.org.uk. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  16. ^ David C. Smith, H.G. Wells: Desperately Mortal: A Biography (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1986), p. 4.
  17. ^ David C. Smith, H.G. Wells: Desperately Mortal: A Biography (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1986), p. 6.
  18. ^ Darwin. www.bromley.gov.uk. 
  19. ^ David C. Smith, H.G. Wells: Desperately Mortal: A Biography (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1986), p. 5.
  20. ^ "Jill Cruwys". Cricinfo. 
  21. ^ "Peter Kropotkin". Bromley Council. 
  22. ^ "Michael York". When We Were Kids. 
  23. ^ "Frankie Boyle". London: The Evening Standard. 21 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "Chris Addison". London: The Guardian. 26 April 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • James Thorne (1876), "Bromley", Handbook to the Environs of London, London: John Murray