Bromo-DragonFLY

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Bromo-DragonFLY
Kekulé, skeletal formula of bromo-DragonFLY (R)
Identifiers
CAS number 502759-67-3 N
PubChem 9839057, 10544447 R, 10496688 S
ChemSpider 8014776 N, 8719838 R YesY, 8672089 S YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL149024 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C
13
H
12
BrNO
2
Molar mass 294.144 g mol−1
log P 2.519
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Bromo-DragonFLY (or 3C-Bromo-Dragonfly, DOB-Dragonfly[2]) is a psychedelic drug related to the phenethylamine family. Bromo-DragonFLY is considered an extremely potent hallucinogen, only slightly less potent than LSD with a normal dose in the region of 200 μg to 800 μg, and it has an extremely long duration of action up to several days.[3] Bromo-DragonFLY has a stereocenter and R-(-)-bromo-DragonFLY is the more active stereoisomer.

History[edit]

Bromo-DragonFLY was first synthesized by Matthew Parker in the laboratory of David E. Nichols in 1998. As with the earlier and less potent dihydrofuran series of compounds nicknamed FLY, Bromo-DragonFLY was named after its superficial structural resemblance to a dragonfly.

Pharmacology[edit]

The hallucinogenic effect of bromo-DragonFLY is mediated by its agonist activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. Bromo-DragonFLY also has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, and is most accurately described as a non-subtype selective 5-HT2 agonist, as it is actually twice as potent an agonist for 5-HT2C receptors as for 5-HT2A, as well as being less than 5x selective for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2B.[4][5]

Dosage[edit]

The typical dose of Bromo-DragonFLY is not known, however it has varied from 500 μg to 1 mg.[3] It has about 300 times the potency of mescaline, or 1/5 the potency of LSD. It has been sold in the form of blotters, similar to the distribution method of LSD, which has led to confusion, and reports of mistakenly consuming Bromo-DragonFly. It has a much longer duration of action than LSD and can last for up to 2–3 days[3] following a single large dose, with a slow onset of action that can take up to 6 hours before the effects are felt.

Toxicity[edit]

4BDF powder. The pink color is most likely due to an impurity. Pure BDF is white to off-white like most recreational drugs so there is no way to distinguish between them by eye.

The toxicity of Bromo-DragonFLY appears to be fairly high for humans when taken in doses above the therapeutic range, with reports of at least five deaths believed to have resulted from Bromo-DragonFLY reported in Norway,[6] Sweden,[7][8] Denmark,[9][10] Finland[11] and the United States. Laboratory testing has confirmed that in October 2009, a batch of Bromo-Dragonfly was distributed, mislabeled as the related compound 2C-B-FLY, which is around 20x less potent than BDF by weight. This mistake is believed to have contributed to several lethal overdoses and additional hospitalizations. The batch implicated in these deaths also contained significant synthesis impurities, which may have contributed to the toxicity.[12]

Vasoconstrictive action resulting from severe overdose of Bromo-DragonFLY is known to have caused tissue necrosis of the extremities in at least one case. In September 2007, a 35-year-old Swedish male required amputation of the front part of his feet and several fingers on one hand after taking a massive (but unknown) overdose; reportedly, the compound acted as a long-acting efficacious vasoconstrictor, leading to necrosis and gangrene which became apparent several weeks after the overdose occurred. Treatment was of limited efficacy in this case, although tolazoline is reportedly an effective treatment where available.[13][14]

Overdoses, disturbing experiences, and Bromo-DragonFLY associated health problems have been described. One case in 2008 in England involved inhalation of vomit, causing nearly fatal asphyxia.[15] Seizures have also been reported.[16]

On October 3, 2009, a 22-year-old male from Copenhagen died after ingesting Bromo-dragonfly. His friend described the trip saying, "It was like being dragged to hell and back again. Many times. It is the most evil [thing] I've ever tried. It lasted an eternity" [17]

On May 7, 2011, in the United States, two young adults died after overdosing on Bromo-DragonFLY, which they thought was 2C-E, and several others were hospitalized during the same incident. Because they took a dosage appropriate for 2C-E, those who took the drug received, in some cases, 100x the normal dose. Both deaths followed seizures, vomiting blood, and terrifying hallucinations. Several surviving victims are reportedly still suffering from its physical effects.[18]

Drug prohibition laws[edit]

United States[edit]

Bromo-DragonFLY is listed as a Schedule I in Oklahoma.[citation needed]

Canada[edit]

Could be considered Schedule 1 [19] as it is an analogue of amphetamine.[20] The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1.[21] However Health Canada has concluded numerous times that this chemical is "NOT SCHEDULED" [22]

United Kingdom[edit]

Bromo-DragonFLY is widely reported by the media as being a class A drug.[23] However, as of 2014, it remains unclear to what extent it is covered by the UK phenylethylamine catch-all clause, with commentators noting both the structural similarities[24] and differences[25] to the phenylethylamine class. If the prosecution could demonstrate structural similarity in court, it would be considered a Class A substance.[26] It is not explicitly named in the misuse of drugs act.[27]

Sweden[edit]

Sveriges riksdag added Bromo-Dragonfly to schedule IV ("substances, plant materials and fungi with medical use") as narcotics in Sweden as of Jan 3, 2008, published by Medical Products Agency in their regulation LVFS 2007:14 listed as Bromo-Dragonfly, brombensodifuranyl-isopropylamin.[28] Bromo-DragonFLY was first classified as "health hazard" by Sveriges riksdags health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of Jul 15, 2007, in their regulation SFS 2007:600 listed as brombensodifuranylisopropylamin (Bromo-Dragonfly), making it illegal to sell or possess.[29]

Denmark[edit]

On December 3, 2007 the drug was banned in Denmark.[30] The substance has been declared illegal by health minister Jakob Axel Nielsen, following recommendations from the Danish Health Ministry. It is currently classified as a dangerous narcotic and therefore its possession, manufacture, importation, supply or usage is strictly prohibited. Anyone involved in such activities can face legal action.[31]

Norway[edit]

Bromo-DragonFLY is currently on the Norwegian narcotics list,.[32][33] Thus it is effectively a narcotic drug by Norwegian law.

Poland[edit]

Currently, Bromo-DragonFLY is an uncontrolled substance in Poland.[citation needed]

Romania[edit]

The chemical compound has been added as an illegal substance under the Law 143/2000 on February 10, 2010.[34]

Australia[edit]

As of 9 September 2011, Bromo-DragonFLY was added to Schedule 2 of the Queensland Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987.[35]

Nationally, the drug is listed under Schedule 9 (Prohibited) of the Poisons Standard. Accordingly, the drug is prohibited in all states and territories.[citation needed]

Finland[edit]

As of 12 March 2012, Bromo-DragonFLY is an illegal designer drug.[36]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Bromo-DragonFLY". Forendex. USA: Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  2. ^ https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/bromo_dragonfly/bromo_dragonfly.shtml
  3. ^ a b c "Erowid Bromo-DragonFly Vault : Dosage". 
  4. ^ Parker MA, Marona-Lewicka D, Lucaites VL, Nelson DL, Nichols DE (December 1998). "A novel (benzodifuranyl)aminoalkane with extremely potent activity at the 5-HT2A receptor". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 41 (26): 5148–9. doi:10.1021/jm9803525. PMID 9857084. 
  5. ^ Corazza O, Schifano F, Farre M, Deluca P, Davey Z, Torrens M, Demetrovics Z, Di Furia L, Flesland L, Siemann H, Skutle A, Van Der Kreeft P, Scherbaum N. Designer drugs on the internet: a phenomenon out-of-control? the emergence of hallucinogenic drug Bromo-Dragonfly. Current Clinical Pharmacology. 2011 May;6(2):125-9. PMID 21592070
  6. ^ Kajsa Hallberg (2007-04-03). "Man i 20-årsåldern dog av drogen Dragonfly". expressen.se (in Swedish) (AB Kvällstidningen Expressen). Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  7. ^ Ritzau (2008-08-24). "Nyt stof har slået dansker ihjel". jp.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  8. ^ Andreasen MF, Telving R, Birkler RI, Schumacher B, Johannsen M. (January 2009). "A fatal poisoning involving Bromo-Dragonfly". Forensic Science International 183 (1-3): 91–6. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.11.001. PMID 19091499. 
  9. ^ Siukonen, Timo (2012-12-14). "Kassisurman päätekijälle 11,5 vuoden vankeustuomio taposta". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  10. ^ "Erowid 2C-B-Fly Vault: Death Report". 
  11. ^ Bromo-dragonfly – livsfarlig missbruksdrog (Swedish)
  12. ^ Thorlacius K, Borna C, Personne M. Bromo-dragon fly--life-threatening drug. Can cause tissue necrosis as demonstrated by the first described case. (Swedish). Lakartidningen. 2008 Apr 16-22;105(16):1199-200. PMID 18522262
  13. ^ George, Sallie (2008-03-27). "England | Surrey | 'I nearly died from taking £5 hit'". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  14. ^ Wood DM, Looker JJ, Shaikh L, Button J, Puchnarewicz M, Davies S, Lidder S, Ramsey J, Holt DW, Dargan PI (December 2009). "Delayed onset of seizures and toxicity associated with recreational use of Bromo-dragonFLY". Journal of Medical Toxicology 5 (4): 226–9. doi:10.1007/bf03178273. PMID 19876858. 
  15. ^ "| Danish man died after trip on Chinese drug". Jp.dk. Retrieved 2010-02-08. 
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ "CDSA Schedule I: Amphetamines". (English)
  18. ^ http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/definitions.php?structure=C.  Missing or empty |title= (help)(English)
  19. ^ http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/news-nouv/nr-cp/2012/doc_32759.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)(English)
  20. ^ http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/HC/Status/A-2012-00096.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ George, Sallie (2008-03-27). "'I nearly died from taking £5 hit'". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 2013-11-28. 
  22. ^ Psychonaut Webmapping Research Group. "Bromo-Dragonfly Report". http://www.psychonautproject.eu/. Institute of Psychiatry, London. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  23. ^ http://www.erowid.org/ask/ask.php?ID=3103
  24. ^ Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. "Consideration of the Novel Psychoactive Substances (‘Legal Highs’)". UK Home Office. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  25. ^ UK Home Office. "UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 > 1971 c. 38 > SCHEDULE 2". Retrieved 2013-11-28. 
  26. ^ http://www.lakemedelsverket.se/upload/lvfs/LVFS_2007-14.pdf
  27. ^ http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/sfs/20070600.pdf
  28. ^ "Amendment of Executive Order on Euphoriant Substances". Danish Medicines Agency. 2007. 
  29. ^ "List of narcotic drugs according to Norwegian law". 
  30. ^ "Statens Legemiddelverk about derivates and Bromo-DragonFLY". 
  31. ^ "Modified Romanian law 143/2000 on January 10, 2010.". Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Queensland Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987". 
  33. ^ Design drugs (Finnish)

References[edit]

External links[edit]