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79-82 °C (hydrate)
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Bromopyruvic acid, or bromopyruvate, is a synthetic brominated derivative of pyruvic acid. It is being studied as a potential treatment for certain types of cancer. Initial studies in laboratory animals researchers at Johns Hopkins showed that bromopyruvic acid is effective at eliminating aggressive liver tumors.
According to the Warburg hypothesis, unlike normal tissues, which derive most of their energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by metabolizing either glucose or fatty acids for energy production in the mitochondria, aggressive cancers obtain much of their ATP by metabolizing glucose directly to lactic acid. The mechanism of action of bromopyruvic acid involves interruption of this latter process by the inhibition of the enzyme Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate-dehydrogenase.
The research group of J.F. Geschwind reported that intra-arterial delivery of bromopyruvic acid directly to the site of a tumor represents a new strategy for stopping the growth of liver cancer while minimizing toxic side-effects.
While pre-clinical studies have been promising, human clinical trials to study the effectiveness of bromopyruvic acid have not yet begun. Application for patent has already been submitted.
The first clinical use of 3-bromopyruvate to treat patients with late stage liver cancer was reported to have taken place in 2010 under a compassionate use proptocol, where a total of two patients received 3-bromopyruvate intraarterially. The patients were treated using a special patented formulation of 3-bromopyruvate invented by Ko, Pederson and Geschwind.
- Ko YH, Pedersen PL, Geschwind JF (2001). "Glucose catabolism in the rabbit VX2 tumor model for liver cancer: characterization and targeting hexokinase". Cancer Lett. 173 (1): 83–91. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00667-X. PMID 11578813.
- Pedersen PL (2007). "Warburg, me and Hexokinase 2: Multiple discoveries of key molecular events underlying one of cancers' most common phenotypes, the "Warburg Effect", i.e., elevated glycolysis in the presence of oxygen". Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 39 (3): 211–22. doi:10.1007/s10863-007-9094-x. PMID 17879147.
- Ganapathy-Kanniappan, S; Geschwind, JF (March 2012). "Human hepatocellular carcinoma in a mouse model: assessment of tumor response to percutaneous ablation by using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase antagonists.". Radiology 262 (3): 834–45. doi:10.1148/radiol.11111569.. PMID 22357885.
- Geschwind JF, et al. (2002). "Novel therapy for liver cancer: direct intraarterial injection of a potent inhibitor of ATP production". Cancer Res. 62 (14): 3909–13. PMID 12124317.
- Therapeutics for cancer using 3-bromopyruvate and other selective inhibitors of ATP production
- The cancer cell's "power plants" as promising therapeutic targets: An overview, by Peter Pederson
- Glycolytic enzyme inhibitors as novel anti-cancer drugs, James C.K. Lai et al., Idaho State, June 2007
- Pyruvate in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
- Energy Blocker Kills Big Tumors in Rats
- 3-Bromopyruvic Acid As a Potent Anticancer Agent Delivered Intraarterially