Bronze mannikin

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Bronze mannikin
Lonchura cucullata 0006 - cropped.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Estrildidae
Genus: Lonchura
Species: L. cucullata
Binomial name
Lonchura cucullata
(Swainson, 1837)
Synonyms[2]

Spermestes cucullatus

The bronze mannikin or bronze munia (Lonchura cucullata) is a small passerine (i.e. perching) bird. This estrildid finch is an abundant resident breeding bird in much of Africa south of the Sahara Desert of dry savanna habitats. It has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 8,100,000 km².

Characteristics[edit]

The bronze mannikin is a tiny gregarious bird which feeds mainly on seeds. It frequents open country and cultivation, especially near water.

The nest is a large domed grass structure in a tree, into which 4-8 white eggs are laid. This species also builds communal roosting nests, used overnight and dismantled and rebuilt daily.

The bronze mannikin is 9–10 cm in length with a long black tail. The adult has a stubby grey bill, brown upperparts, a dark purple head and white underparts with dark flank markings. There is an iridescent green shoulder patch.

The sexes are similar, but immatures are plain brown above with buff head and underparts. This species has a number of calls including a rreep-rreeep in flight and a twittering when perched.

Phylogeny[edit]

It has been obtained by Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al.[3]

Origin[edit]

Origin and phylogeny has been obtained by Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al.[4] Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Lonchura cucullata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Lonchura cucullata on Avibase
  3. ^ Allende, Luis M; Rubio I; Ruíz-del-Valle V; Guillén J; Martínez-Laso J; Ernesto L; Varela P; Zamora J; Arnaiz-Villena A. (2001). "The Old World Sparrows (Genus Passer) Phylogeography and Their Relative Abundance of Nuclear mtDNA Pseudogenes". Journal of Molecular Evolution 53 (2): 144–154. doi:10.1007/s002390010202. 
  4. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Gomez-Prieto P; Reguera R; Parga-Lozano C; Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study". The Open Ornithology Journal 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029.