Bronze Star Medal
|Bronze Star Medal|
|Awarded by the United States of America|
|Type||Military medal (Decoration)|
|Awarded for||"Heroic or meritorious achievement or service"|
|Clasps||Army – "V" Device
Navy and Marine Corps – Combat "V"
Air Force – "V" Device
Coast Guard – Combat "V"
|Established||Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944 (Superseded by E.O. 11046, 24 August 1962).|
|First awarded||4 February 1944 (Retroactive through 7 December 1941).|
|Last awarded||Currently awarded|
|Next (higher)||Army – Soldier's Medal
Navy-Marine Corps – Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Air Force – Airman's Medal
Coast Guard – Coast Guard Medal
|Next (lower)||Purple Heart|
Service ribbon (above) – Reverse side of star (below)
The Bronze Star Medal is the fourth-highest individual military award and the ninth-highest by order of precedence in the US Military. It may be awarded for acts of heroism, acts of merit, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When awarded for acts of heroism, the medal is awarded with the "V" device.
The medal is sometimes referred to as the Bronze Star. Foreign soldiers, as well as officers from the other federal uniformed services are also eligible to receive the decoration when serving with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944 (superseded by Executive Order 11046, 24 August 1962, as amended by Executive Order 13286, 28 February 2003). The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight—
- (a) while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States;
- (b) while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or
- (c) while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party.
The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star. The acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must nevertheless have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction. The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat who are receiving imminent danger pay.
The Bronze Star Medal (without the "V" device) may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph.
Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may also be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal (without Combat "V" device) for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater.
The Bronze Star Medal was conceived by Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder in 1943, who believed it would aid morale if there was a medal which could be awarded by captains of companies or batteries to deserving people serving under them. Reeder felt another medal was needed to be a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, and proposed that the new award be called the "Ground Medal".
The fact that the ground troops, Infantry in particular, lead miserable lives of extreme discomfort and are the ones who must close in personal combat with the enemy, makes the maintenance of their morale of great importance. The award of the Air Medal has had an adverse reaction on the ground troops, particularly the Infantry Riflemen who are now suffering the heaviest losses, air or ground, in the Army, and enduring the greatest hardships.
The Air Medal had been adopted two years earlier to raise airmen's morale. President Roosevelt authorised the Bronze Star Medal by Executive Order 9419 dated 4 February 1944, retroactive to 7 December 1941. This authorisation was announced in War Department Bulletin No. 3, dated 10 February 1944.
The Executive Order was amended by President John F. Kennedy, per Executive Order 11046 dated 24 August 1962, to expand the authorisation to include those serving with friendly forces. This allowed for awards where US service members might be involved in an armed conflict where the United States was not a belligerent. At the time of the Executive Order, for example, the US was not a belligerent in Vietnam, so US advisers serving with the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces would not have been eligible for the award.
Since the award criteria state that the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to "any person...while serving in any capacity in or with" the US Armed Forces, awards to members of foreign armed services serving with the United States are permitted. Thus, a number of Allied soldiers received the Bronze Star Medal in World War II, as well as U.N. soldiers in the Korean War, Vietnamese and allied forces in the Vietnam War, and coalition forces in recent military operations such as the Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom and the Iraq War. A number of Bronze Star Medals with the "V" device were awarded to veterans of the Battle of Mogadishu.
- World War II infantry award
As a result of a study conducted in 1947, the policy was implemented that authorised the retroactive award of the Bronze Star Medal (without the "V" device) to all soldiers who had received the Combat Infantryman Badge or the Combat Medical Badge during World War II. The basis for doing this was that the badges were awarded only to soldiers who had borne the hardships which resulted in General Marshall's support of the Bronze Star Medal. Both badges required a recommendation by the commander and a citation in orders.
The Bronze Star Medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches (38 mm) in circumscribing diameter. In the center thereof is a 3⁄16 inch (4.8 mm) diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse has the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" and a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved. The star is suspended from the suspension ribbon by a rectangular shaped metal loop with the corners rounded. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch (0.79 mm) white 67101; 9⁄16 inch (14 mm) scarlet 67111; 1⁄32 inch (0.79 mm) white; center stripe 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) ultramarine blue 67118; 1⁄32 inch (0.79 mm) white; 9⁄16 inch (14 mm) scarlet; and 1⁄32 inch (0.79 mm) white.
The "V" device may be authorised for wear on specific decorations awarded to any service member. In the Army and Air Force the device denotes that a specific individual decoration resulted from an act of combat heroism. In the Navy and Marine Corps, the Combat "V" may be authorised for wear to denote valor or being exposed to personal hazard involving direct participation in combat operations. Only one "V" device may be worn on the suspension and service ribbon of specific medals and or specific unit award ribbons depending on each service branch's regulations for use of the device.
The Bronze Star Medal with "V" device is the United States military's fourth highest decoration for valor.
- Spiro Agnew, Vice President of the United States.
- Kristin Beck, a former United States Navy SEAL who gained public attention in 2013 when she came out as a trans woman
- Rudy Boesch, US Navy SEAL Master Chief Petty Officer and Survivor contestant.
- Edward Brooke, US Senator.
- Sudip Bose, US Army medic
- William Derwood Cann, Jr., mayor of Monroe, Louisiana.
- Edward M. Carmouche, Louisiana Democratic Party chairman and attorney in Lake Charles, earned three Bronze Stars in World War II.
- Ramon Colon-Lopez, US Air Force Chief Master Sergeant, for valor.
- Tom Cotton, US Representative.
- John Connally, Governor of Texas, Secretary of the Navy and Secretary of the Treasury.
- Cordelia E Cook, first woman to receive this military award.
- Chuck Daigh, American racing driver.
- Gray Davis, Governor of California (1999–2003)
- Bob Dole, US Senator and presidential nominee.
- Dominick Dunne, author and producer; father of Dominique Dunne, Griffin Dunne and Alexander Dunne.
- Charles Durning, actor.
- Dale Dye, American actor.
- Martin H. Foery, US Army general.
- Henry Fonda, actor.
- Marshall Fredericks, sculptor.
- Joseph L. Galloway, war correspondent and author.
- Salvatore Giunta, US Army soldier and Medal of Honor recipient.
- David Hackworth, highly decorated US Army colonel and critic of US military policy.
- Oren W. Haglund, Production manager of eleven ABC/Warner Brothers television series from 1955 to 1961.
- Ernest Hemingway, legendary author.
- John Kerry, US Senator and Secretary of State.
- Ron Kovic, anti-war activist and author.
- Bill Koll, Olympian.
- Chris Kyle, US Navy SEAL.
- Jessica Lynch, US Army soldier and POW in Iraq.
- John L. Loos, American historian.
- Sandy MacGregor, Australian Army officer who was the first to explore the Cu Chi tunnels.
- Donald Malarkey, US Army sergeant who fought in World War II.
- Victor Maghakian, one of the most decorated American soldiers of World War II.
- John McCain, US Navy captain, Vietnam POW, US Senator and presidential nominee.
- Timothy McVeigh, US Army sergeant, Oklahoma City bomber.
- Hal Moore, US Army general.
- Audie Murphy, US Army soldier, World War II Medal of Honor recipient and actor.
- María Inés Ortiz, US Army captain and first nurse killed since the Vietnam War.
- Leroy Petry, US Army soldier and Medal of Honor recipient.
- Colin Powell, US Army general and former US Secretary of State.
- Rod Serling, television writer and producer of The Twilight Zone.
- Lloyd Shapley, 2012 Nobel laureate in economics.
- James Peyton Smith, member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1964 to 1972
- Wayne Smith, member of the Texas House of Representatives from Baytown since 2003; veteran of Vietnam War.
- W. E. "Pete" Snelson, member of both houses of the Texas State Legislature from 1961 to 1983
- Oliver Stone, American director.
- Joseph Wapner, judge on The People's Court.
- Dennis Wheatley, British writer and novelist
- Richard Winters, US Army officer who fought in World War II.
- Max Wolff, Brazilian Army sergeant who fought in World War II.
- Chuck Yeager, US Air Force general and test pilot; first American to break the sound barrier.
US Air Force criteria controversy
In 2012, two female airmen were allegedly subjected to cyber-bullying after receiving Bronze Star Medals for meritorious non-combat service. The two airmen, who had received the medals in March 2012, had been finance NCOICs in medical units deployed to the War in Afghanistan. The awards sparked a debate as to whether or not the Air Force was awarding too many medals to its members, and whether the Bronze Star should be awarded for non-combat service. This prompted the Air Force to take down stories of the two posted to the internet, and to clarify its criteria for awarding medals. The Air Force contended that meritorious service awards of the Bronze Star outnumber valor awards, and that it views awards on a case-by-case basis to maintain the integrity of the award.
This is not the first time that the USAF has come under fire in the past for offering this award. The Department of Defense investigated the award of the Bronze Star Medal (BSM) by the USAF to some 185 individuals after operations in Kosovo in 1999. All but 25 were awarded to officers, and only 1 in 10 of those awarded were actually in the combat zone. Five were awarded to officers that never left Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri. During this campaign, the Navy had awarded 69 BSMs, and the Army with 5,000 troops in neighbouring Albania (considered part of the combat zone) awarded none. In the end, there was a Pentagon review and decision by Congress to stop the awarding of Bronze Stars to personnel outside the combat zone.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bronze Star Medal.|
- "Australian officer awarded US Bronze Star". The Age. AAP. 16 March 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- "PHS Officer Awarded Bronze Star for Year Long Deployment in Afghanistan". Commissioned Officers Association of the USPHS Inc. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 12 December 2009.
- 32 CFR Ch. V (7–1–08 Edition) 578.16 Bronze Star Medal Archived March 14, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Meritorious Service Medal Archived November 8, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Reeder, Colonel Red. Born at Reveille. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce (1966), page 218.
- Institute of Heraldry: Bronze Star Medal Archived November 1, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Air Force Personnel Center information on the Bronze Star Archived October 22, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- The OMSA Medal Database - Bronze Star - OMSA Archived January 12, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
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- "Wayne Smith's Biography". votesmart.org. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved March 26, 2014.
- "W. E. "Pete" Snelson (1923-2014)". The Odessa American. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Schogol, Jeff (16 April 2012). "Tech. sgts. take heat after receiving medals". Air Force Times.[dead link]
- Lyle, Amaani (24 April 2012). "Air Force officials clarify Bronze Star approval process". US Air Force. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Pentagon reviewing Bronze Star awards - News - Stripes Archived October 29, 2013 at the Wayback Machine