|— Community area —|
|Community Area 35 - Douglas|
|• Total||1.67 sq mi (4.33 km2)|
|• Density||11,000/sq mi ( 4,200/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP Codes||parts of 60609, 60616 and 60653|
|Median household income||$32,805|
|Source: U.S. Census, Record Information Services|
Douglas, located on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois is one of 77 well-defined Chicago community areas. The neighborhood is named for Stephen A. Douglas, an Illinois politician, whose estate included a tract of land given to the federal government. This tract later became the Civil War Union training and prison camp, Camp Douglas, located in what is now the eastern portion of the Douglas neighborhood. Another part of the Douglas estate at Cottage Grove and 35th, he gave to the Old University of Chicago. As part of the Chicago 2016 Olympic bid, the Olympic Village was planned to be located on a 37-acre (150,000 m2) truck parking lot south of McCormick Place that is mostly in the Douglas community area and partly in the Near South Side.
The Douglas community area stretches from 26th Street South to Pershing Road along the Lake Shore including parts of the Green Line along State Street and the Metra Electric and Amtrak passenger railroad tracks which run parallel to Lake Shore Drive. Burnham Park runs along its shoreline, containing 31st Street Beach. The community area also contains part of the neighborhood of Bronzeville, the historic center of African-American culture in the city.
Bronzeville is a neighborhood located in the Douglas and Grand Boulevard community areas on the South Side of the City of Chicago around the Illinois Institute of Technology and Illinois College of Optometry. It is accessible via the Green and Red Lines of the Chicago Transit Authority, as well as the Metra Electric District Main Line. In 2011 a new Metra station, Jones/Bronzeville Station, opened to serve the neighborhood on the Rock Island and planned SouthEast Service.
In the early 20th century, Bronzeville was known as the "Black Metropolis," one of the nation's most significant landmarks of African-American urban history. Between 1910 and 1920, during the peak of the "Great Migration," the population of the area increased dramatically when thousands of African-Americans fled the oppression of the south and emigrated to Chicago in search of industrial jobs. Many famous people were associated with the development of the area including: Andrew "Rube" Foster, founder of the Negro National Baseball League; Ida B. Wells, a civil rights activist, journalist and organizer of the NAACP; Margaret Taylor-Burroughs, noted artist, author, and one of the co-founders of the DuSable Museum of African American History; Bessie Coleman, the first African-American woman pilot; Gwendolyn Brooks, famous author and first African-American recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, actress Marla Gibbs, legendary singers Sam Cooke and Lou Rawls, and Louis Armstrong, the legendary trumpet player and bandleader who performed at many of the area's night clubs. The neighborhood contains the Chicago Landmark Black Metropolis-Bronzeville District.
47th Street was and remains the hub of the Bronzeville neighborhood and in recent years has started to regain some of the former glory of years gone by. Gone for good, however, is the Regal Theater (demolished in 1973), where many great performers took the stage.
From the 1940s and 1960s, a decision was made to replace parts of the "slums" with several straight miles of high-rise public housing projects, managed by the Chicago Housing Authority, essentially isolating and simultaneously concentrating the poor black population in this section of the city. The largest complex was Robert Taylor Homes. These were demolished in the late 1990s and early 21st century, with plans to redevelop the area with lower density housing.
Origins of the name 
The name itself was first used in 1930, by James J. Gentry, a local theater editor for the Chicago Bee publication. It refers to the brown skin color of African-Americans, who predominated in that area. It has become common usage throughout the decades.
Prairie Shores 
Originally a 5-building 1677-unit housing project erected in 1962 by Michael Reese Hospital, Prairie Shores is now simply a middle-class community. Along with the adjacent Lake Meadows development, this was the city's largest urban renewal project at the time of its inception in 1946 that included Illinois Institute of Technology, and Mercy Hospital. The development was funded under the Title I of the Housing Act of 1949, using US$6.2 million ($47.1 million today) of subsidies.
Groveland Park 
Of all the sections of Douglas originally developed by Stephen A. Douglas, only Groveland Park survives. Its homes are built around an oval-shaped park. Groveland Park is located between Cottage Grove Avenue, 33rd Street, 35th Street and the Metra Electric railroad tracks.
The following Chicago Public Schools campuses serve Bronzeville: Beethoven School, Phillips Academy High School, Bronzeville Scholastic Institute, Chicago Military Academy, Walter H. Dyett High School,and De La Salle High School are schools within this community.
Bronzeville is also home to the renowned Illinois Institute of Technology, which is famous for its engineering and architecture programs. It also is home to the VanderCook College of Music and the Illinois College of Optometry; in 2006 the Great Books liberal arts school Shimer College moved into the neighborhood.
- Paral, Rob. "Chicago Demographics Data". Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- Paral, Rob. "Chicago Census Data". Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- Hinz, Greg. "Plan for 2016 Olympics disclosed". Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 2, 2007. Text "2006-09-23" ignored (help)
- "Black Metropolis-Bronzeville District". City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division. 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- "Bronzeville Stories".
- Garvin, Alexander (2002). The American city: what works, what doesn't. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 167. ISBN 0-07-137367-5. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Paral, Rob. "Chicago Community Areas Historical Data". Chicago Community Areas Historical Data.
- Official City of Chicago Douglas Community Map
- Historic district
- Bronzeville History
- Bronzeville Politics and Housing
- Bronzeville travel guide from Wikivoyage
||Near South Side, Chicago|
|Armour Square, Chicago||Lake Michigan|
|Fuller Park, Chicago||Grand Boulevard, Chicago||Oakland, Chicago|