Brooklyn, New Zealand

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Brooklyn
BrooklynWindTurbine.jpg
Basic information
Local authority Wellington City
Date established 1888
Population 3,855 (2006 [1])
Facilities
Surrounds
North Aro Valley
Northeast Mount Cook
Southeast Vogeltown
South Mornington
Southwest Kowhai Park

Brooklyn is a suburb of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Brooklyn is 3 km south of Wellington’s central business district on the eastern slopes of the hills above Happy Valley.

Nearby suburbs and areas include:

  • To the west:
    • Kowhai Park, Panorama Heights, Mitchelltown, Karori

Parks and Town Belt[edit]

Central Park[edit]

Central Park (named after the area of the same name in New York) separates Brooklyn from the city. Established in 1913 on Town Belt land, the park features a set of wrought-iron gates at its main entrance: the then Mayor, John Pearce Luke donated them in 1920.

During World War II, American forces established a military camp in the park between 1942 and 1944. In October 1942 building work started with an initial requirement to accommodate 416 men of the US Marine Corps. The partly built camp could accept some occupants by 22 November 1942, and by July 1943 it could accommodate 540 personnel.

The US Marines requested a further expansion of the camp, but the improving military situation precluded the expansion.

Tanera Park[edit]

Tanera Park lies to the north and north-west of Central Park on the opposite side of Ohiro Road. The park has sports facilities, including soccer, cricket, and artificial surfaces as well as changing-rooms.

In 1991 the Wellington City Council set aside some of the park as trial to help low-income families and community-organisations to grow their own vegetables. The gardens, currently including 33 plots, have become known as the Tanera Community Gardens; the Mokai Kainga Trust manages them.

Elliott Park[edit]

Elliott Park lies on the western side of Brooklyn, adjacent to Mitchell Street and Karepa Street. The park used to have a children's play-ground, however the play-ground has been removed by the Wellington City Council and not replaced. The park was donated by Mr Elliott who used to have his farm in this place. There are still also wild Pigs and goats that live on the bottom of the hills.

Town Belt[edit]

The first plan of Wellington, drawn in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, set aside large areas of open land for public use as the Town Belt. In 1873 the Town Belt was granted[who?] to the city of Wellington as public recreation grounds for Wellington residents; it then consisted of 1,061 acres (4.29 km2). The Wellington City Council continues to hold and manage the amenity.

However, the New Zealand Company did not just have public health in mind. The Company wanted to keep land prices high in the areas known in the plan as "town acres", thus ensuring more favourable returns for its investors (the owners of the "town acres"). The Company may[original research?] have also intended to set the social classes apart by dividing the town with planted areas, so that those who could not afford the expensive land would by default (planners hoped) form[clarification needed] a working-class labour force.

Both Central and Tanera Parks form part of the Wellington Town Belt.

Wind-turbine[edit]

The Brooklyn wind-turbine, with Matiu/Somes Island, Mount Victoria and the Miramar Peninsula in the background

The Electricity Corporation of New Zealand installed the Brooklyn wind-turbine on Pol Hill above north-western Brooklyn in March 1993 as part of a research project into wind-power generation. The Corporation chose the Brooklyn site due to Wellington's "higher than normal" wind patterns and to gain maximum exposure in the viewscapes of Wellingtonians. The turbine, visible from many parts of the city, stands 299 meters above sea level. It became the oldest operating wind-turbine in New Zealand [2]

Brooklyn has adopted the turbine as a local icon. When the City council re-sealed the foot-paths in central Brooklyn some years after the installation of the turbine, someone[who?] implanted ceramic tiles depicting the wind turbine into the foot-paths.

By present-day standards, and compared with other turbines now installed in New Zealand, for example those at Te Āpiti Wind Farm, the Brooklyn turbine classes as a relatively small machine:

  • nominal annual generation: 1 GWh
  • installed capacity: 0.23 MW
  • blade length: 13.5 metres
  • height: 31.5 metres
  • weight: 22.8 tonnes

Microprocessors monitor and control the turbine and stop the blades when wind speeds get too high and then restart them when more favourable conditions return. The power generated – enough for 60 to 80 homes - goes into the local network for general distribution.

Meridian Energy has managed the turbine since its formation as a company in 1999 with the deregulation of the New Zealand electricity market.

War memorial[edit]

The Brooklyn War Memorial

Brooklyn's World War I war memorial overlooks northern Brooklyn from the top of Sugarloaf Hill. It lists the names of the 48 Brooklyn soldiers who died in that war.

Soon after the war ended in 1918 a movement to build a memorial began, with the funds raised in two years. The Brooklyn Returned Services Association (RSA) chose as a monument a carved marble statue depicting a soldier with hat in hand, looking towards the harbour heads through which sailed the troopships bearing those who would not return. Colonel George Mitchell D.S.O. MP unveiled the memorial on 22 September 1922.

For around 16 years a board of trustees maintained the memorial, before passing it over to Wellington City Council. In 2003 a nine-month restoration took place, which involved re-securing the structure to the concrete pads that it stands on as well as cleaning, restoring plasterwork, removal of rust and replacing parts that had gone missing.

The inscription on the pedestal reads:

The motherland called and they went and these men died for their country.

The names of the soldiers read as follows:

W.H. Archer J.E. Armstrong H.L. Birkett F.A. Brill H.T. Brewer
R. Cochrane R. Crawford L.L. Davidson H.C. Doney W.C. Drummond
C.I.M. Dryden B.H. Driver F.H. Dunner B.F. Elliott W.S. Evenden
W.Mc. A. Calpraith C.P. Greeks R.S. Greeks C. Crindrod A. Hadley
C.M. Herzoc J.J.C. Herzoc A.F. Hill J.L. Howie H.M. Jones
D.M. Lawson J.R.R. Leys W.H. McKenzie C.E. Makeham J.C. Mill
A.C.H. Millar A.J. Wilson R. Mollinson A. Moore K.R. Murray
R. Newman W.C. Pickering C.H. Rose J.D. Rutherford J.D. Shaddick
R.A. Sinclair Arthur Smith Alex Smith E.P. Smith J. Teaze
J.B. Walter A. Watters F.S. Westwood

Pol Hill gun emplacements[edit]

The well-preserved Pol Hill anti-aircraft gun emplacements date from March 1942: built for the capital's defence in response to fears of Japanese air-raids or invasion. Once completed the battery had accommodation for 109 army personnel.

The battery stands slightly north of the wind turbine within Panorama Heights subdivision, on a site allocated as reserve land. The site backs on to the firebreak running around the Karori Wildlife Sanctuary.

Buildings[edit]

Architectural styles[edit]

Brooklyn features a number of different styles of buildings, although very few of the older cottage style remain. One of the oldest recorded in the general area stands in Nairn Street in the neighbouring suburb of Mount Cook. It dates from 1858, and hosts The Colonial Cottage Museum. Brooklyn itself contains examples of many building styles including:

  • Villa (Simple villas) - from c. 1895
  • Bay villa - from c. 1910
  • California bungalow - from c. 1920
  • State House - between 1930 and 1940
  • Bungalow - from c. 1960
Villa (Simple villas)[edit]

The Simple Villa, a style of home built from around 1895, often appears in the form of structures larger than the cottages and Victorian style properties built prior to this time. They generally consisted of a hallway with two rooms off each side and an indoor bathroom at the end. Often a "lean-to" attached to the back of the house would allow for a storage area that might include a wash-house. With the design of the property having the chimney within the house (as opposed to attached to an exterior side wall) fireplaces in the sitting room and kitchen could both use the same chimney — a configuration known as "back-to-back". Brooklynites built these homes from timber — with most of the period features (including architraves, skirting-boards, doors and windows) purchasable as standard items from timber merchants.

Buildings of special interest[edit]

  • The Sutch House, designed by Ernst Plischke and built between 1953 and 1956, stands on Todman Street). The house shows influences of the Austrian Neues Bauen (New Construction) movement to which Plischke had belonged in the 1930s. Wellington architect Alistair Luke restored the Sutch House during 2003. It later received the New [clarification needed] from the one that was owned and lived in by Ernst Plischke. In its day it ranked as one of New Zealand's most radical[peacock term] house designs. It remains one of the country’s most iconic[peacock term] residences with its modernist design and has won a New Zealand Institute of Architects Resene Award for Enduring Architecture.
  • Tower Studio (located on Karepa Street), a purpose-built five-level Tuscan tower, takes its inspiration from the towers of San Gimignano in Tuscany. It overlooks the native bush reserve in Brooklyn with an open belvedere offering 360° views.

History[edit]

Pre-European[edit]

In pre-European times, Māori knew the Brooklyn hills as Turanga-rere, translated as "the waving plumes of a war-party". One interpretation[citation needed] suggests this may refer to "all trees on the hills waving in the wind like hair adornments on warriors dancing the haka".[citation needed]

Brooklyn and the wider Wellington region then and now hosted a number of iwi, or tribes, all represented through a Charter of Understanding with Wellington Regional Council signed in July 2000:

European settlement[edit]

European settlement began in the area during the 1840s. In January 1842 the ship The London commanded by Captain Attwood set sail for its second voyage to Wellington from Gravesend in Kent. It carried 700 tons of cargo, 137 adults and 39 children. On 1 May 1842 the ship arrived in Wellington, with John and Louise Fitchett and their seven children amongst the passengers.

The young colony established a district of Ohiro (Owhiro) in the early 1840s from the land surrounding Port Nicholson (officially renamed Wellington Harbour in 1980). Settlers could access the new district only via the steep Ohiro Road from present-day Aro Street. The land became subdivided into many blocks. In 1852 John Fitchett purchased a number of these blocks and established a dairy farm called Ohiro Farm, known also as Fitchett’s Farm. A township named Fitchett Town formed in the 1860s; it gained its new name "Brooklyn" in 1888 when the then land-owners, Ashton B. Fitchett (son of John Fitchett d.1875) and R.B. Todman, offered the main subdivision for sale. The offer included 208 lots of Fitchett’s Farm next to Brooklyn.

In 1899, after the sale, a further subdivision took place, and the main roads of Mitchell and Todman Streets took form. These were then intersected with Reuben, Bruce, Laura and Charlotte Avenues, Tanera Crescent, Apuka Street and Sugar Loaf Road (the site of the War Memorial). In 1902 Brooklyn was extended further up the Brooklyn Hills when Ashton B. Fitchett sold additional lots of land. Both Karepa and Apuka Streets were extended onto this newly available land.

As Brooklyn became more populus[peacock term], Wellingtonians[who?] proposed a tramway. As the existing route to Brooklyn via Aro Street and Ohiro Road had excessively steep gradients, an easier tramway route was cut through the town belt by Central Park. Opened in 1906, this route later became today’s Brooklyn Road. The tramway closed in 1957, and the City - Brooklyn route is now served by numbers 7 and 8 buses. The number 7 (City - Brooklyn - Kingston) route is electrified as part of the Wellington City trolley bus service.

Brooklyn takes its name from the borough in New York City, which in turn recalls the Dutch city Breukelen. When a syndicate led by J.F.E. Wright (a Wellington Provincial Councillor between 1861 and 1863, and then for Karori and Makara between 1873 and 1876) subdivided Brooklyn, it named a number of its streets after former US Republican Presidents:

Demographics[edit]

Population: The 2006 Census of Population and Dwellings counted 3,855 people defined as “usually resident population”.

Male / female ratio: The 2001 census recorded a ratio of male to female of 1:1.104, or 47.5% male and 52.5% female. This compares to Wellington City and New Zealand with 1:1.067 and 1:1.050 respectively.

Age-profile: 16.4% of people in Brooklyn had an age of under 15 years, compared with 18.5% in Wellington City and 22.7% for all of New Zealand. 7.1% of people in Brooklyn were aged 65 years and over compared with 8.6% of Wellington City and 12.1% for all of New Zealand.

Ethnic Groups: In 2001 87.9% of people defined themselves as European compared with 81.7% and 80.1% for Wellington City and New Zealand respectively.

Employment: The unemployment rate for Brooklyn is 4.9% compared with 6.2% and 7.5% for Wellington City and New Zealand respectively. 32.1% of those resident in Brooklyn in 2001 defined themselves in the Professionals occupational group.

Facilities and amenities[edit]

Cinema[edit]

Brooklyn hosts the Penthouse Cinema, located on Ohiro Road just south of Cleveland Street. Constructed for the Ranish family in the art deco style, it opened on 15 June 1939 as the Vogue Theatre. The Ranish family ran the cinema until 1951, when the Vogue Company Limited took over. The Vogue Company turned the cinema into a television studio where TV commercials were shot. The building was renamed the Penthouse Cinema when it was bought by Merv and Carol Kisby in 1975. Since then additional screens have been added, as well as refurbishment of the interior in keeping with its original style.

Bars[edit]

  • The Brooklyn Bar and Bistro, Cleveland Street
  • The Cornerstore, Todman Street

Restaurants[edit]

  • The Golden Lotus Restaurant (Ohiro Road) serves Thai food.
  • Penthouse Cafe, located in the Penthouse Cinema on Ohiro Road, serves varied brunch/lunch and dinner menus.
  • The Cornerstore, Todman Street, bar and restaurant serving New Zealand cuisine and wines and beers.

Take-aways[edit]

  • Nan King Takeaways, Cleveland Street, variety of foods, including fish ’n' chips, Thai, Chinese, Indonesian.
  • Burger Wisconsin, Cleveland Street, burgers and fries.
  • Brooklyn Fish Supply, Cleveland Street, fish ’n’ chips; also sells fresh fish.
  • Khana Khazana, Cleveland Street, Indian tandoori cuisine.
  • Brooklyn Bites, Cleveland Street, Fresh lunch takeaway.

Library[edit]

Brooklyn has a branch library, opened on 16 February 1905 at 22 Harrison Street as the second branch library of the main Central Library. It opened with 350 books and for 9 hours per week; the Librarian lived in a flat at the rear of the building. In 1960 the library moved to the present building on the corner of Harrison and Cleveland Streets. The original entrance was in Harrison Street, but in 1992 this was closed and ramp access provided in Cleveland Street, enabling pushchairs to enter easily. The original building is now the Brooklyn Playcentre.

Schools[edit]

Brooklyn School[edit]

Brooklyn School, a co-ed state primary school at 58 Washington Ave, opened in November 1888 and caters for students from new entrants (five-year-olds) through to year eight (twelve-year-olds), and has 390-450 children on the roll each year. The current Principal is Liz Rhodes.[3]

St Bernard's School[edit]

St Bernard’s School, a co-ed Catholic school, occupies 40 Taft Street, a private cul-de-sac. The school started in 1935 when the Sisters of Mercy provided two sisters, Boniface and Fabian. It opened on 5 February of that year as St Anthony's School Brooklyn, in the church on Jefferson Street - the church itself opened in June 1911. At the time the school opened 44 Catholic children attended the local state school, 43 of whom transferred to St Anthony's on opening day. By the end of the year the roll had risen to 69.

The building remained as one large church hall, installing a temporary partition during the week to create a second classroom. On Fridays after school had finished the partition and desks were removed and replaced with pews for the Mass on Sunday, after which the desks and partition were put back ready for school on Monday morning.

In 1949 the then Parish Priest Father Paul Kane procured land at the present site on Taft Street. The parish re-located the church and had a new school built. However, in 1961 the parish and the school changed their name: the Priest who enacted this bore the name "Bernard". The Sisters of Mercy continued to run the school until 1973 when Doreen Barry became the first lay Principal.

Today, St Bernard’s School Brooklyn is known as an urban Catholic primary school close to the shops, buses and only five minutes from the city centre. The current Principal is Joan Woods.

Churches[edit]

  • St Bernard's Church (Catholic), Taft Street
  • Brooklyn Anglican Church
  • St Matthew's Joint Parish, 96 Washington Avenue. St Matthew's combined Anglican, Methodist and Presbyterian groups in the 1970s.
  • Reformed Church of Wellington, 36 Harrison Street
  • Wellington Korean Church, 184 Ohiro Road

Transport[edit]

Three bus routes serve Brooklyn:

  • No. 7: City - Kingston via Brooklyn Library (Mon-Sun)
  • No. 8: City - Kowhai Park via Brooklyn Library, off-peak only (Mon-Fri)
  • No. 29: "Southern Shopper" Hospital - Kingston - Brooklyn - Happy Valley - Island Bay (Mon-Sat)

Malaysian High Commission[edit]

The Malaysian High Commission occupies the corner of Washington Avenue and Brooklyn Road. It is the world's southernmost High Commission.

Notable Residents of Brooklyn, Past and Present[edit]

  • John Fitchett[disambiguation needed] arrived in Wellington in 1842 on the ship London and died in 1875. In 1899 his son A.B. Fitchett and R.B Todman decided to subdivide his land. A.B Fitchett imported the first milk separator into New Zealand.
  • Ann Pacey, one of New Zealand's jazz and theatre divas, appeared in many television programmes and movies including Pioneer Woman, and more recently[when?] she was a leading lady in the stage presentation of Chicago (playing Mama Morton) which toured throughout New Zealand.
  • John Henry Heaton arrived in New Zealand in 1856, aboard the Lord Ashley. Worked as a customs and shipping agent and was a member of the harbour board. He was elected Mayor of Melrose borough, which was incorporated in 1888.
  • Chris McLean has written histories and biographies, including Tararua: the Story of a Mountain Range and John Pascoe.
  • Eirlys Hunter, born in London in 1952, has written books for adults and children. Several of her books, including The Quake, Between Black & White and the Finn's Quest series can be found at the Brooklyn Library.
  • Architect Ernst Plischke (1903–1992) was born in Vienna and emigrated to New Zealand with his Jewish wife in 1939, to escape Hitler's Nazism.
  • Jane Thomson (1858–1944), mountaineer. The second woman to traverse Mount Cook, in 1916.
  • Shihad (once called Pacifier), originally from Wellington now in Melbourne, Australia. Their albums are available at the library. Shihad are Jon Toogood (vocals and guitar), Tom Larkin (drums), Karl K (bass) and Phil Knight (guitar and keyboards).
  • William Sutch (1907–1975) was a teacher, economist, writer and diplomat.
  • Ray Ching was born in Brooklyn, Wellington in 1939. His paintings were first seen in Auckland in 1966, as an exhibition of thirty watercolours and gouaches of birds, his preferred subject matter at that time. These early paintings established his reputation in New Zealand.

Politics[edit]

Local Authority Elections[edit]

Brooklyn forms part of the Lambton Ward for the Local Authority Elections that elect members to the Wellington City Council; a small area at the southern end of Brooklyn is part of the Southern Ward. The Council approved its ward system for the 2007 Local Authority Elections on 8 July 2006 . A number of other suburbs comprise Lambton Ward (all to the north of Brooklyn), as follows:

General Elections[edit]

For General Elections, most of Brooklyn forms part of Wellington Central and for Māori Electorate, Te Tai Tonga.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°18′22″S 174°45′47″E / 41.30611°S 174.76306°E / -41.30611; 174.76306