A brougham (pronounced "broom" or "brohm") was a light, four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage built in the 19th century.[note 1] It was named after Scottish jurist Lord Brougham, who had this type of carriage built to his specification by London coachbuilder Robinson & Cook in 1838 or 1839. It had an enclosed body with two doors, like the rear section of a coach; it sat two, sometimes with an extra pair of fold-away seats in the front corners, and with a box seat in front for the driver and a footman or passenger. Unlike a coach, the carriage had a glazed front window, so that the occupants could see forward. The forewheels were capable of turning sharply. A variant, called a brougham-landaulet, had a top collapsible from the rear doors backward.[note 2]
Three features specific to the Brougham were:
- the sharply squared end of the roof at the back,
- the body line curving forward at the base of the enclosure, and
- low entry to the enclosure, using only one outside step below the door.
In 19th-century London, broughams previously owned and used as private carriages were commonly sold off for use as hackney carriages, often displaying painted-over traces of the previous owner's coat of arms on the carriage doors.
The special characteristics of the brougham bear a distinct similarity to the London Public Carriage Office's "Conditions of Fitness" for a vehicle intending to be licenced as a taxi cab.
Pronunciation of this word is correct as two syllables, \ˈbrü:(-ə)m, ˈbrō:(-ə)m\, but can be pronounced as one syllable, although this is considered "Americanized" or "slang."
- Brougham (car body), inspired by the brougham carriage
- Clarence (carriage), larger version of the Brougham
- Landaulet, car body style inspired by the landaulet carriage
- Types of carriages
- Haajanen, Lennart W. (2003). "1Brougham". Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles. Illustrations by Bertil Nydén; foreword by Karl Ludvigsen. Jefferson, NC USA: McFarland. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-7864-1276-3. LCCN 2002014546.
- Stratton, Ezra (1878). World on Wheels. New York: Bloom. ISBN 0-405-09006-4. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
- 1871 Advertisement for William Kilross & Sons and Kinross Brougham Illustrations and text
- 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Brougham - Wikisource
- CAAOnline: Carriage Tour Carriage Association of America. Illustration and text
- Horse Drawn Brougham, The Henry Ford. Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan. Photo and text.
- The Long Island Museum of American Art, History & Carriages, Stony Brook, New York: Collection Database. Search brougham; illustrations and text.
- Victorian Brougham carriage and The Victorian Brougham at the Institute of Texan Cultures TTM web. Texas Transportation Museum, San Antonio. Photos
- Articles about Horse-drawn Carriages