|Meaning||7th century Old English word "brun" or the Old Norse personal name "Bruni".|
|Region of origin||Scotland, England, Germany|
Brown is an English-language surname in origin chiefly descriptive of a person with brown hair, complexion or clothing. It is one of the most common family names in English-speaking countries. It is the fourth most common surname in the United Kingdom with a higher frequency in Scotland where it is second most common, particularly clustered in southern Scotland. According to the 1990 United States Census, Brown is the fifth most common family name in the United States at 0.621% of the sample population, essentially identical in frequency to Jones.
Etymology and history of the surname
Most occurrences of the name are derived from a nickname concerning the complexion of an individual, the colour of their hair or the clothing worn. This nickname is derived from the Old English brun, brūn; Middle English brun, broun; or Old French brun. The root word is also sometimes found in Old English and Old Norse bynames, such as the Old Norse Brúnn; however these names were not common after the Norman Conquest (in 1066). In some cases, the Old English personal name Brun may be a short form of one of several compound names, such as Brungar and Brunwine. Early recordings of the English name/surname are: Brun, Brunus in 1066; Conan filius Brun in 1209; Richard Brun, le Brun le mercer in 1111–38; William le Brun in 1169; William Brun 1182–1205; Hugh Bron in 1274; Agnes Broun in 1296; and John le Browne in 1318. Another of the earliest recorded Browns is John Brown of Stamford, Lincolnshire in 1312. In Scotland, The People of Medieval Scotland academic project surveys over 8600 extant records from between the years 1093 to 1314 and lists 26 Brouns and 14 Browns on its database
The name also originates independently in the United States, as an Anglicization of other surnames, such as the German Braun, or other surnames with similar meanings. It can also arise as a translation from the Gaelic Donn ("brown"). The Mac A Brehon clan of County Donegal have anglicized as Brown or Browne since about 1800. In Scottish Gaelic, the name Brown is translated Mac-a-Bhruithainn (pronounced "mac-avroon") from the root word "Bruithainn", which is roughly pronounced "bro-an" and is similar to the word for judge (just as in the Irish). Its sound is very similar to the Scots surname Broun/Broon/Brown, which are all pronounced similarly.
The German cognates are associated with the much more common Continental personal name Bruno, which was borne by the Dukes of Saxony, among others, from the Tenth century or before. It was also the name of several medieval German and Italian saints, such as Saint Bruno of Cologne (1030–1101), founder of the Carthusian Order.
Other forms in English or other languages
- English: Browne
- Scottish: Broun
- Czech: Hnědý
- Dutch: Bruin, De Bruyn
- Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Brun, Bruun
- Estonian: Pruun
- French: Lebrun, LeBrun, Le Brun
- German: Braun
- Hungarian: Barna
- Italian: Bruna, Bruno, Bruni, LaBruna, La Bruna, LoBruno
- Lithuanian: Rudas
- Slovak: Hnedý
- Spanish: Marrón
Other names meaning "brown"
- Gaelic: Dunn
- Italian: Marrone, Moro, Mori, Mora, Moretti
- Portuguese: Castanho, Moreno
- Spanish: Castaño, Moreno, Pardo
- British surnames - origin
- British surnames
- Map if Brown surname distribution of frequency by county in the 1881 census http://gbnames.publicprofiler.org/Map2.aspx?name=BROWN&year=1881&altyear=1998&country=GB&type=name
- United States Census Bureau (9 May 1995). s:1990 Census Name Files dist.all.last (1-100). Retrieved on 25 February 2008.
- Reaney, P. H.; Wilson, R. M. (2006). A Dictionary of English Surnames (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-99355-1.
- "Brown Name Meaning and History". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
- Brown Genealogy Society
- results of search for individuals named "Broun" http://db.poms.ac.uk/search/search?basic_search_type=people&query=Broun&ordering=&years=1093-1314&show_all=false
- "Dunn Name Meaning and History". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Irish Surname Search:(Mac) Breheny, Judge". Goireland.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15.