Brown County State Park
|Brown County State Park|
IUCN category V (protected landscape/seascape)
Hesitation Point, one of several vistas in the park
|U.S. state of Indiana showing the location of Brown County State Park|
|Location||Brown County, Indiana, USA|
|Nearest city||Bloomington, Indiana|
|Area||15,776 acres (6,384 ha)|
|Visitors||1,292,709 (in 2012-2013)|
|Governing body||Indiana Department of Natural Resources|
Brown County State Park is located in the United States in the center of the southern half of the state of Indiana. The park is the largest of 24 state parks in Indiana, and occupies 15,776 acres (63.84 km2)—making it one of the larger state parks in the United States. It is also Indiana's most visited state park, and has about 1.3 million visitors each year. Although Bloomington, Indiana, is the closest city, the park is closer to the small town of Nashville in Brown County. Brown County is named for General Jacob Brown, who fought in the War of 1812 and became Commanding General of the United States Army.
Brown County State Park opened to the public in 1929, and was dedicated in 1932 as a memorial to Indiana humorist Frank McKinney "Kin" Hubbard. Although Hubbard lived and worked in Indianapolis, he was a frequent visitor to Nashville and the surrounding woods. The park's Abe Martin Lodge is named after Hubbard's fictional backwoodsmen character used to convey Hubbard's humor and witticisms.
Brown County and its park are known for their scenic views of the hills of southern Indiana. Much of the park's infrastructure was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps during the 1930s, which adds to the rustic atmosphere. In addition to the park's lodge, cabins can be rented and campsites are available. The park has trails for hiking, biking and horseback riding. It also has two lakes for fishing and a wide variety of flora and fauna. The park's beauty attracts artists and photographers worldwide.
Brown County was created in 1836 from portions of several counties already in existence, and is named after General Jacob Brown, a hero of the War of 1812. Early settlers tried farming in Brown County's hilly woodlands, and therefore needed to clear the forests. Beginning in the 1840s and continuing for the rest of the century, most of Brown County's forests were cleared. At first, the largest trees were cut for lumber used in the construction industry. In later years, smaller trees were cleared for furniture wood, barrels, railroad ties, and firewood. The rugged land eventually became difficult to farm because of poor quality soil. A combination of poor farming practices and erosion caused by the removal of the tree cover caused the soil to be depleted of nutrients. Many farmers abandoned the area.
At least two men played major roles in the creation of Brown County State Park. Richard Lieber, an Indianapolis businessman who became the first director of the Indiana Department of Conservation, visited Brown County in 1910. Lieber was so impressed with the beauty of the land that he built a cabin near Nashville and suggested that a portion of the county should be set aside for a state park. Lieber eventually became known as "the father of Indiana's state parks", and the state opened 10 state parks (including Brown County) during his tenure as director of the Indiana Department of Conservation. Lieber was not the only one from Indianapolis that was impressed with Brown County. In 1923, the Order of Elks also expressed interest in establishing a state park in Brown County.
Lee Bright was a resident of the small Indiana town of Nashville in Brown County. During the 1920s, Bright believed that the way to restore the economic health of the region was through tourism from the creation of a state park. His idea proved difficult to accomplish, since Indiana law did not permit state funds to be used to purchase land for a state park. However, the law allowed funds to be used for a game preserve.[Note 1] Bright, working as an agent for the state of Indiana, purchased enough land to start a game reserve in Brown County.
Brown County's game preserve was created in late 1924.[Note 2] During November, 1924, the Indiana Department of Conservation appointed a game warden to manage the preserve. The new manager was a resident of Nashville, and familiar with the area. It was also announced that much of the land would be reforested. A total of 7,680 acres (31.1 km2) of Brown County land was designated for the propagation of wildlife. Plans were made to surround the reserve with wire fencing, and game wardens patrolled the area. Deer and small game were brought in to propagate. Additional acreage was added in 1927, bringing the size of the reserve to over 10,000 acres (40 km2). During the same year, an observation tower was constructed on Weed Patch Hill, the highest point in the area. Creation of an artificial lake began in 1928 with the construction of a dam. The lake was expected to be 10 acres (0.040 km2) to 15 acres (0.061 km2) in size. Initial plans were to stock the lake with game fish, and allow fishing after a two or three-year period. The body of water was completed by the Spring of 1929, and plans were announced to build a second (and larger) lake. By January 1929, the preserve was about 12,000 acres (49 km2) in size. Funds gained from selling hunting and fishing licenses had been used to acquire the additional land.
In 1927, the Indiana state legislature passed a law that allowed county commissioners to acquire land for the purpose of establishing a state park, and donate the land to the state conservation department. Three state parks were established after this legislation, and Brown County State Park became the fourth. In 1929, Brown County commissioners gave the state conservation department 1,129 acres (4.57 km2) of land adjacent to the Brown County Game Preserve for the creation of a state park. Four parks had been donated using other means before the legislation, meaning that Brown County State Park was the state's eighth state park.
In 1933, eleven Civilian Conservation Corps groups were established for Indiana's state forests, game preserves, and state parks. Each group had 200 workers involved in the construction of buildings, bridges, trails, roads, and water supplies. Among their projects was a large shelter in the Brown County game preserve. After training, workers from the Corps arrived in Brown County in 1934. The Corps began constructing much of the park's infrastructure that is still existence today. They also worked to reforest the area to prevent erosion by planting walnut, pine, and spruce trees. A second camp for the Civilian Conservation Corps opened in the park in 1938. The park's Trail 2 is one of the trails built by the Corps, and is called the CCC Trail.
Beginning in 1941, the Brown County Game Preserve and Brown County State Park were unified as a single state park. Since that time, two portions of the park have been designated as nature preserves—giving them additional protection from development. Ogle Hollow Nature Preserve consists of 41 acres (0.17 km2) in Ogle Hollow that contain the rare yellowwood tree. This preserve was established in 1970. The second preserve is named the Ten O'Clock Line Nature Preserve, and it is 3,349 acres (13.55 km2) in size. This preserve was designated in 2010, and is Indiana's largest. This preserve also contains yellowwood trees, and is the home of some of Indiana's deep forest species, such as the red bat, timber rattlesnake, and broad-winged hawk. The term "Ten O'Clock Line" refers to a treaty with the Miami Indians from the early 1800s.
Frank McKinney "Kin" Hubbard was an American humorist-cartoonist that lived from 1868 until 1930. His humor and witticisms were expressed through fictional backwoods characters that lived in Brown County, Indiana. Hubbard's work (usually a cartoon and a sentence or two) appeared every day on the back page of the Indianapolis News, and was syndicated in about 200 newspapers throughout the country. Hubbard was named to the Ohio Journalism Hall of Fame in 1939, and the Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame in 1967.
In 1932, Brown County State Park was dedicated in honor of Kin Hubbard. Abe Martin was the main character used by Hubbard, and Brown County State Park's Abe Martin Lodge is named in his honor. A picture of Hubbard hangs in the lounge of the lodge, and a collection of Hubbard memorabilia is located in a room nearby.
Brown County State Park is the largest of 24 state parks managed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. It is located in the central portion of the southern half of the state of Indiana, "just minutes" from the town of Nashville, Indiana. The park occupies 15,543 acres (6,290 ha) in Brown County. It has three entrances, which are adjacent to state roads 46 and 135. The northern entrance is close to the Abe Martin Lodge, Saddle Barn, tennis courts and a swimming pool. Large trucks and recreational vehicles must use the western entrance, and horseman campers (only) must use the southeast entrance. Interstate 65's Columbus exit is about 13 mi (21 km) miles east of the park. Indiana University and the city of Bloomington, Indiana, are less than 20 mi (32 km) away.
Brown County is nationally known for its outdoor scenery and dramatic views from southern Indiana hilltops. Brown County State Park affords a number of vistas that overlook miles of wide swaths of deciduous forest that display a large array of colors in the fall. Peak visitation is in the fall during the leaf-changing season. Springtime is also a good time to visit, as dogwood, redbud, and serviceberry trees are in bloom. About 1.3 million guests come to the park each year, including visitors from "all over the world".[Note 3]
Brown County State Park is sometimes called "the Little Smokies" because of similarities with the Smokey Mountains. A wide variety of activities are available at the park, including camping, fishing, biking, hiking, and seasonal horseback riding. Many of these activities are available all year. In addition to campgrounds, cabins and lodging at the Abe Martin Lodge are available. The park also has a nature center and a nature preserve. Within the park boundaries are two manmade lakes: Ogle Lake at 17 acres (0.069 km2) in size, and Strahl Lake covering 7 acres (0.028 km2). The park contains nine mountain biking trails that total to 25 miles (40 km). Four of the bike trails are rated as beginner trails, two are considered intermediate, and two advanced. An additional trail, 4.1 miles (6.6 km) in length, is rated expert. A total of slightly over 9 miles (14 km) of hiking trails range from easy to rugged terrain. The park also has over 20 miles (32 km) of roads and 70 miles (110 km) of bridle trails. For those wishing to observe from a high vantage point, the third highest point in Indiana is located on Trail 10 near a 100 feet (30 m) high fire tower. This point, known as Weed Patch Hill, has an elevation of 1,056 feet (322 m). When settlers first arrived at this hill, they found only a patch of weeds—a tornado had destroyed the trees. Thus, the hill became known as "Weed Patch Hill". Hesitation Point is another good vantage point for scenic views.
Brown County State Park is the home of a wide variety of trees. The most important tree in the park is the yellowwood (Cladrastis lutea). This tree typically does not grow further north than central Kentucky, and has been designated as a state threatened species in Indiana. Other trees found in the park include at least four types of oak (black, chestnut, red, and white) and three types of hickory (bitternut, pignut, and shagbark). The park also contains at least two types of maple trees: black and sugar. Patches of paw paw trees can be found throughout the park, and these trees produce an edible fruit. In areas with good moist soil, the black walnut tree grows, and this tree is an excellent source of wood for lumber or furniture. Among other trees growing in the park are the American beech, basswood, black cherry, black gum, and red elm. Also the sassafras, sycamore, white ash. The park also contains at least eight kinds of ferns and 20 types of wildflowers, including bloodroot and wild geranium.
Mammals typically found in Brown County State Park include white-tailed deer, opossum, eastern gray squirrels, and chipmunks. The larger sycamore trees are sometimes the home of raccoons and flying squirrels. Red bats live in the park's Ten O'Clock Line nature preserve. Other (non-mammal) animals include the American toad, the eastern box turtle, the spotted salamander, and the red back salamander. At least two types of snakes live in the park: the timber rattler and the copperhead. The two lakes contain bass and bluegill.
The park has a variety of birds, with good viewing areas along the trails, near the two lakes, and at the Nature Center. The hooded warbler, pileated woodpecker, and ruffed grouse all nest in the park. Goldfinches and cardinals can be seen at feeders near the Nature Center. In addition to the pileated woodpecker, the Acadian flycatcher, eastern wood pewee, white-breasted nuthatch, wood thrush, and yellow-billed cuckoo can all be observed in the Ogle Hollow Nature Preserve portion of the park. Owls and woodpeckers are known to occupy sycamore trees. The cerulean warbler, whippoorwill, and broad-winged hawk all live in the Ten O'Clock Nature Preserve. Wild turkeys can be seen (and heard) along the park's Trail 10, known as the Fire Tower Trail. Other bird species in the park include the blue jay, the crow, the junco, the white-breasted nuthatch, and the robin.
Glaciers from the most recent ice ages did not reach south enough to flatten the land in Brown County. However, glacier meltwater helped deepen gullies in the region, and made hills steeper. Brown County State Park's Weed Patch Hill is the highest point in the area, at 1,058 feet (322 m) above sea level. The region is part of the Knobstone Escarpment land form, which consists of steep hills and valleys located between northern Brown County and the Ohio River. The rocks in this area contain significant amounts of silica, and were part of a large delta system over 330 million years ago. Brown County's minerals are part of the Borden Group, and are mostly siltstone. Limestone, dolostone, and chert are the Borden Group's secondary minerals.
The Brown County area has a humid subtropical climate, classified as "Cfa" in the Köppen climate classification system. Precipitation is somewhat evenly distributed throughout the year, and temperatures can be relatively high. The record high temperature for county seat Nashville is 110 °F (43 °C), which occurred in 1936. The record low of −21 °F (−29 °C) was recorded in 1985. May is the month with the most precipitation, and February has the least.
|Climate data for Nashville, Indiana (in Brown County)|
|Record high °F (°C)||78
|Average high °F (°C)||37
|Average low °F (°C)||20
|Record low °F (°C)||−21
|Precipitation inches (mm)||3.06
|Source: The Weather Channel|
Recreation and facilities
Places to Stay
The park’s Abe Martin Lodge, built in 1932, has 30 guest rooms, two lobbies, a gift shop, and a full-service restaurant. An annex to the lodge has 54 more rooms. An indoor water park was added recently. Rental cabins are also available nearby. Each of 20 two-story family cabins can accommodate up to 8 people, and 56 rustic cabins are also available. Campers have the choice of two classes of campgrounds—all with restrooms and showers. The Class A campgrounds have electrical hook-ups, while the Class B do not. A horseman’s campground is also available with one portion having electrical hook-ups, showers, and toilets—while the other portion is more primitive.
In addition to sight seeing and birdwatching; mountain biking, fishing, hiking and horse riding are all popular activities at Brown County State park. The park has over 25 miles (40 km) of mountain bike trails, including trails endorsed by the International Mountain Bicycling Association and Bike Magazine. Four beginner trails have lengths of 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to 3.5 miles (5.6 km). The expert trail is 4.1 miles (6.6 km) long.
Fishing is available at two lakes to holders of a state fishing license. Bass and bluegill are stocked at Ogle Lake and the smaller Strahl Lake. Rowboats and electric trolling motors are permitted on Ogle Lake to holders of an Indiana Department of Natural Resources lake permit. Boats are not allowed on Strahl Lake. Licenses and permits are available at the park office, and bait is available at the park's country store.
The park has 12 hiking trails that total to over 18 miles (29 km). These trails can be used to access various places of interest in the park, such as the two lakes, the Ogle Hollow Nature Preserve, Hesitation Point, and lookout towers. The CCC Trail is a moderate trail of 2 miles (3.2 km) built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. This trail "crosses over impressive stone bridges, stairways, and retaining walls and passes by the Lower Shelter and the North Lookout Tower, both CCC projects".
Horseback riding is one of the fastest growing forms of recreation. Brown County State Park has over 20 horse trails, and 11 are wide enough that riders can ride two abreast. These trails range from 0.3 miles (0.48 km) to nearly 12 miles (19 km) in length. Horseback riders have their own entrance to the park, located in the park's southeast corner, which leads to the horsemen's campground—also in the southeast portion of the park. In addition to the facilities typical of the park's regular and primitive campgrounds, hitch rails are available. A maximum of six horses per campsite is allowed, and horse permits are mandatory. On the other side of the park, a saddle barn is open from late March through October. Trail rides with a guide, pony rides, and hayrides are available. The barn is located on the north side of the park, not far from the Abe Martin Lodge.
Winter sports include cross-country skiing, sledding, and ice fishing. Cross-country skiing can be done in open fields within the park. However, the park does not maintain any trails specifically for skiing, and does not conduct any ski rentals. Some hills suitable for sledding are located not far from the park's swimming pool. Ice fishing is allowed at both lakes for those with a state fishing license. Roads to the lakes are closed when they become unsafe due to ice or snow.
The park has other indoor and outdoor facilities. A country store is open during the warm season with food, firewood, souvenirs, and bait for fishing. The nature center has a bird observation window and nature exhibits. The country store and nature center are located in the southern portion of the park. A swimming pool and tennis courts are located on the north side near the Abe Martin Lodge. The Olympic-size swimming pool is open from Memorial Day to no later than Labor Day. At least 10 picnic areas are located on park grounds, with tables and grills. Playgrounds and toilet facilities are often located nearby. Picnic shelters can be reserved for fees that vary by shelter.
Notes and references
- The terms "reserve" and "preserve" were used interchangeably by newspapers to describe the state's land in Brown County. For example, the Kokomo Tribune used "reserve" in 1925, while the Tipton Tribune called it a game "preserve" in 1927.
- A timeline web page for the Indiana Department of Natural Resources says that in 1924, "Brown County State Game Preserve was opened to the public..." and "a ranger is assigned". However, the Department of Natural Resources did not control any game preserves at the end of its fiscal year 1924 (September 30, 1924), and controlled only 4,473 acres (1,810 ha) in the entire state. In November 1924, a game warden was appointed custodian of the preserve. The game reserve was announced in newspapers in 1925.
- The Indiana Department of Natural Resources estimates 1,292,709 visitors for fiscal year 2013. Estimates for fiscal year 2012 and 2011 are 1,353,282 and 1,282,080, respectively. Brown County State Park was the most visited Indiana state park in all three years.
- "Brief History of Brown County". Brown County (Indiana) Historical Society. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
- "History of Brown County State Park". Brown County State Park. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- Werner 2012, p. 160
- "Brown County State Park". Indianapolis Star. 1923-09-22. p. 14.
- "Game Reserve for State in Brown County". Kokomo Tribune. 1925-05-01. p. 3.
Wild Game and Fowl to be Propagated with Wardens Always on Guard
- "Brown County Dam Rises". Tipton Tribune. 1928-08-17. p. 2.
Artificial Lake to be Formed in State Game Preserve
- "DNR Historical Timeline". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
- "Adds Much Acreage to State Parks". Hammond Lake County Times. 1928-03-22. p. 15.
- "Custodian Named for Game Preserve". Washington Herald. 1924-11-10. p. 2.
- "Game Preserve in Brown Co.". Logansport Press. 1925-05-08. p. 12.
7,689 Acres for Propagation of Game
- "Brown County to Have Immense Game Reserve". Linton Daily Citizen. 1925-06-08. p. 3.
7,600 Acres of Hilly and Wooded Ground Held as Reservation for Wild Game Life
- Kokomo Tribune. 1927-11-04. p. 4.
- "Erect Tower on Weed Patch Hill in Brown County". Linton Daily Citizen. 1927-07-05. p. 3.
- "New Lake Complete". Kokomo Tribune. 1929-04-18. p. 15.
Artificial Body of Water in State Reserve Ready to be Stocked
- "Tract of Land in Brown County Will Become State Park". Logansport Pharos Tribune. 1929-01-11. p. 2.
- "Conservation Work". Tipton Tribune. 1933-09-04. p. 4.
- Werner 2012, p. 161
- National Geographic Society 2011, p. 180
- "Ogle Hollow Nature Preserve (map and guide)". Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Department of Nature Preserves. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
- "Brown County Park acreage designated as nature preserve". Brown County Democrat. 2014-09-28.
- Geary 2007, p. 38
- "Frank McKinny (Kin) Hubbard 1967". Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- "State Park Dedication Held Sunday". Logansport Pharos Tribune. 1932-05-23. p. 2.
Touching Tribute to the Memory of Kin Hubbard is Paid at Services
- Hubbard & Hawes 1995, p. Preface
- "Parks & Reservoirs". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- "Abe Martin Lodge". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
- Keller & Keller Keller, p. 41
- "Brown County State Park (property map)". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Wissing 1999, pp. 57–58
- Wissing 1999, p. 57
- "Statistics". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-09-04.
- "Brown County State Park". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- "Hiking Trails & Activities". Brown County State Park. Retrieved 2014-09-09.
- Werner 2012, p. 165
- Werner 2012, p. 171
- "Brown County State Park". Nutty Birder. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- National Geographic Society 2011, p. 182
- Werner 2012, p. 167
- "Brown County State Park". Brown County State Park. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- "Geologic units in Brown county, Indiana". Indiana Geological Survey. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- "Surficial Geology - Landscapes of Indiana". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- "Borden Group". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- "Nashville, Indiana". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- "Nashville, IN". The Weather Channel. 2014. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
- "Abe Martin Lodge Family Cabins". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
- "Summer–Winter Information Brown County State Park". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- "Brown County Mountain Bike Trails". Hoosier Mountain Bike Association. Retrieved 2014-10-15.
- "Brown County State Park Horse Trail Map". Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2014-10-19.
- Cited works
- Geary, James (2007). Geary's guide to the world's great aphorists. New York, NY: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-59691-788-0. OCLC 871068693.
- Hubbard, Kin; Hawes, David S. (1995). The best of Kin Hubbard: Abe Martin's sayings and wisecracks, Abe's neighbors, his almanack, comic drawings. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-25321-007-4. OCLC 36532640.
- Keller, Charles E.; Keller, Shirley A.; Keller, Timothy C. (1986). Indiana birds and their haunts: a checklist and finding guide. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-25320-382-3. OCLC 12971563.
- National Geographic Society (2011). Guide to state parks in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN 978-1-42620-889-8. OCLC 785724548.
- Werner, Nick (2012). Best Hike Near Indianapolis. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. ISBN 978-0-76279-496-6. OCLC 841493778.
- Wissing, Douglas (1999). Scenic Driving Indiana. Falcon Creek Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-56044-906-5. OCLC 248503778.
- Brown County State Park Video by Indiana Department of Natural Resources
- Brown County Leaf Cam
- Indiana Department of Natural Resources' official Web page
- Town of Nashville
- Brown County Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Brown County Chamber of Commerce
- Brown County Mountain Biking Information
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