The Brown University Seal
|Latin: Universitas Brunensis|
|Motto||In Deo Speramus (Latin)|
|Motto in English||In God We Hope|
|Endowment||US$ 2.86 billion (2013)|
|Chancellor||Thomas J. Tisch|
|President||Christina Hull Paxson|
|Academic staff||713 full-time
196 Physical Sciences
156 Social Sciences
|Other students||460 (medical)|
|Location||Providence, RI, US
143 acres (579,000 m²)
|Athletics||NCAA Division I – Ivy League, ECAC Hockey, EARC/EAWRC|
|Sports||37 varsity teams|
|Mascot||Bruno the Bear|
Founded in 1764 as "The College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations," Brown is the seventh oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges established before the American Revolution. The University comprises The College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health, and the School of Professional Studies (which includes the IE Brown Executive MBA program). Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International Studies. The Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions.
The undergraduate acceptance rate (8.6 percent for the class of 2018) is among the country's most selective. At its foundation in 1764, Brown was the first college in America to assert in its charter that "Sectarian differences of opinions, shall not make any Part of the Public and Classical Instruction." Its engineering program, established in 1847, was the first in what is now known as the Ivy League. Brown's present-day defining characteristic is the New Curriculum—sometimes referred to in education theory as the Brown Curriculum—which was adopted by faculty vote in 1969 after a period of student lobbying. The New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus," and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971 Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, which had been founded in 1891, was fully merged into the university.
Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, the second largest city in New England. The University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of ancient buildings. On the western edge of the campus, Benefit Street contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States". The University buildings surrounding its oldest greens display the full palette of college architecture over a century and a half—Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Ruskinian Gothic, Venetian Gothic, Richardsonian Romanesque, and Beaux-Arts.
The school colors are seal brown, cardinal red, and white. The school mascot, chosen in 1904, is the brown bear or Kodiak bear and is named "Bruno." Two large statues of Bruno—on the College Green and at the sports complex—are frequent subjects of tourist photography. The latter statue, a colossal fourteen feet tall, is the work of famed British animal sculptor Nick Bibby and was installed in November 2013. People associated with the University are known as Brunonians.
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Academics
- 3.1 Presidents
- 3.2 The College
- 3.3 Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program
- 3.4 Alpert Medical School
- 3.5 Writing programs
- 3.6 Author prizewinners
- 3.7 Computer science
- 3.8 The School of Engineering
- 3.9 The Marine Biological Laboratory
- 3.10 The Pembroke Center
- 3.11 The Watson Institute for International Studies
- 3.12 Sustainability
- 3.13 Admission and financial aid
- 4 Student life
- 5 Notable people
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Foundation and the Charter
"Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Mathematics, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired. That for this End ... it will be necessary to procure a place for the erecting, & to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors."
The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of the Second Congregation Church and future president of Yale, William Ellery, Jr., future signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Josias Lyndon, future governor of the colony. Stiles and Ellery would two years later be co-authors of the Charter of the College. The editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."
In 1762 there is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles:
"The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter. ... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; I heartily wish you Success therein."
The Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches also had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination, the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams. The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges—the Congregationalists had Harvard and Yale, the Episcopalians had the College of William and Mary and King's College (later Columbia), and the Presbyterians had the College of New Jersey (later Princeton). Writing in 1784, Isaac Backus, historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia:
"The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists; ... Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work."
Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would underrepresent the Baptists. A revised Charter, written by Stiles and Ellery, was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764 the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Governor Stephen Hopkins was chosen chancellor, former and future governor Samuel Ward was vice chancellor, John Tillinghast treasurer, and physician Thomas Eyres secretary. The Charter stipulated that the Board of Trustees comprise 22 Baptists, five Quakers, five Episcopalians, and four Congregationalists. Of the 12 Fellows, eight should be Baptists—including the College president—"and the rest indifferently of any or all Denominations."
The Charter was not, as is sometimes supposed, the grant of King George III, but rather an Act of the colonial General Assembly. In two particulars the Charter may be said to be a uniquely progressive document. First, where other colleges had curricular strictures against opposing doctrines, Brown's Charter asserted that "Sectarian differences of opinions, shall not make any Part of the Public and Classical Instruction." Second, according to University historian Walter Bronson, "the instrument governing Brown University recognized more broadly and fundamentally than any other the principle of denominational cooperation." The oft-repeated statement that Brown's Charter alone prohibited a religious test for College membership is inaccurate; other college charters were also liberal in that particular.
James Manning was sworn in as the College's first president in 1765 and served until 1791. In 1770 the College moved from Warren, Rhode Island, to the crest of College Hill overlooking Providence. Solomon Drowne, a freshman in the class of 1773, wrote in his diary on March 26, 1770, "This day the Committee for settling the spot for the College, met at the New-Brick School House, when it was determined it should be set on ye Hill opposite Mr. John Jenkes; up the Presbyterian Lane." Presbyterian Lane is the present College Street. The eight-acre site, in two parcels, had been purchase by the Corporation for £219, mainly from Moses Brown and John Brown, the parcels having "formed a part of the original home lots of their ancestor, Chad Brown, and of George Rickard, who bought them from the Indians." University Hall—known until 1823 as "The College Edifice"—was modelled on Nassau Hall at the College of New Jersey. Its construction was managed by the firm of Nicholas Brown and Company, which spent £2844 in the first year building the College Edifice and the adjacent President's House.
The Brown family
The Brown family—Nicholas Brown, his son Nicholas Brown, Junior, class of 1786, John Brown, Joseph Brown, and Moses Brown—were instrumental in moving the College to Providence and securing its endowment. Joseph became a professor of natural philosophy at the College, John served as its treasurer from 1775 to 1796, and Nicholas, Junior, succeeded his uncle as treasurer from 1796 to 1825.
On September 8, 1803, the Corporation voted, "That the donation of $5000 Dollars, if made to this College within one Year from the late Commencement, shall entitle the donor to name the College." In a letter dated September 6, 1804, that appeal was answered by College treasurer Nicholas Brown, Junior, and the Corporation honored its promise: "In gratitude to Mr. Brown, the Corporation at the same meeting voted, 'That this College be called and known in all future time by the Name of Brown University'." Over the years, the benefactions of Nicholas Brown, Junior, would total nearly $160,000, an enormous sum for that period, and included the buildings Hope College and Manning Hall, built 1821-22 and 1834-35.
It is sometimes erroneously supposed that Brown University was "named after" John Brown, whose commercial activity included the transportation of African slaves. In fact, Brown University was named for Nicholas Brown, Junior—philanthropist, progressive, founder of the Providence Athenaeum, co-founder of Butler Hospital, and, crucially, an abolitionist. Under the guidance of his uncle Moses Brown, one of the leading abolitionists of his day, Nicholas Brown, Junior, became a financier of the movement. (The opposing attitudes to the slave trade within the Brown family—from John Brown's unapologetic participation, to Moses and Nicholas Brown's activist opposition—are described in Ricardo Howell, "Slavery, the Brown Family of Providence and Brown University" (2001, published online at Brown.edu), and in Charles Rappleye, Sons of Providence: The Brown Brothers, the Slave Trade, and the American Revolution (New York, 2006)).
The American Revolution
In the fall of 1776, with British vessels patrolling Narragansett Bay, the College library was moved out of Providence for safekeeping. On December 7, 1776, six thousand British and Hessian troops under the command of Sir Peter Parker sailed into Newport harbor. In a letter written after the war, College president Manning said:
"The royal Army landed on Rhode Island & took possession of the same: This brought their Camp in plain View from the College with the naked Eye; upon which the Country flew to Arms & marched for Providence, there, unprovided with Barracks they marched into the College & dispossessed the Students, about 40 in Number."
"In the claim for damages presented by the Corporation to the Unted States government," says the University historian, "it is stated that the American troops used it for barracks and hospital from December 10, 1776, to April 20, 1780, and that the French troops used it for a hospital from June 26, 1780, to May 27, 1782." The French troops were those of the Comte de Rochambeau.
The New Curriculum
In 1850, Brown President Francis Wayland wrote: "The various courses should be so arranged that, insofar as practicable, every student might study what he chose, all that he chose, and nothing but what he chose." Adopted in 1969, the New Curriculum is a milestone in the University's history and is seen as the realization of Wayland's vision.
The curriculum was the result of a paper written by Ira Magaziner and Elliot Maxwell titled "Draft of a Working Paper for Education at Brown University." The paper came out of a year-long Group Independent Study Project (GISP) involving 80 students and 15 professors. The GISP was inspired by student-initiated experimental schools, especially San Francisco State College, and sought ways to "put students at the center of their education" and "teach students how to think rather than just teaching facts."
The paper made concrete proposals for the new curriculum, including interdisciplinary freshman-year courses that would introduce "modes of thought," with instruction from faculty brought together from different disciplines. The aim was to transform the traditional survey course—often experienced passively by first-year students—into a more engaging process, an investigation of the intellectual and philosophical connections between disciplines. A grading option of Satisfactory/No Credit would be introduced to encourage students to try courses outside their grade-point comfort zone. In practice, this grading innovation of the New Curriculum—sometimes misunderstood and mischaracterized—has been its most successful component, responsible, in the decades since its adoption, for uncounted career-changing decisions—studio art swapped for neuroscience, biology swapped for anthropology, mathematics swapped for playwriting (and Pulitzer Prizes).
In the spring of 1969, following student rallies in support of reform, University president Ray Heffner appointed the Special Committee on Curricular Philosophy, tasked with developing specific reforms. The resulting report, called the Maeder Report after its committee chair, was presented to the faculty, which voted the New Curriculum into existence on May 7, 1969. Its key features included:
- Modes of Thought courses for first-year students
- The introduction of interdisciplinary courses
- The abandonment of "general education" distribution requirements
- The Satisfactory/No Credit grading option
- The ABC/No Credit grading system, which eliminated pluses, minuses, and D's; a grade of "No Credit" would not appear on external transcripts.
The Modes of Thought course, a key component in the original conception of the New Curriculum, was early on discontinued, but all of the other elements are still in place. In 2006 the reintroduction of plus/minus grading was broached by persons concerned about grade inflation. After a canvassing of alumni, faculty, and students, including the original authors of the Magaziner-Maxwell Report, the idea was rejected by the College Curriculum Council.
Brown is the largest institutional landowner in Providence, with properties on College Hill and in the Jewelry District. The College Hill campus was built contemporarily with the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century precincts that surround it, so that University buildings blend with the architectural fabric of the city. The only indicator of "campus" is a brick and wrought-iron fence on Prospect, George, and Waterman streets, enclosing the College Green and Front Green. The character of Brown's urban campus is, then, European organic rather than American landscaped.
The main campus, comprising 235 buildings and 143 acres (0.58 km2), is on College Hill in Providence's East Side. It is reached from downtown principally by three extremely steep streets—College, Waterman, and Angell—which run through the Benefit Street historic district and the campus of the Rhode Island School of Design. College Street, culminating with Van Wickle Gates at the top of the hill, is especially beautiful, and is the setting for the Convocation and Commencement processions.
Van Wickle Gates
The Van Wickle Gates, dedicated on June 18, 1901, have a pair of smaller side gates that are open year round, and a large central gate that is opened two days a year for Convocation and Commencement. At Convocation the gate opens inward to admit the procession of new students. At Commencement the gate opens outward for the procession of graduates. A Brown superstition is that students who walk through the central gate a second time prematurely will not graduate, although walking backwards is said to cancel the hex. Members of the Brown University Band famously flout the superstition by walking through the gate three times too many, as they annually play their role in the Commencement parade.
The core green spaces of the main campus are the Front (or "Quiet") Green, the College (or "Main") Green, and the Ruth J. Simmons Quadrangle (until 2012 called Lincoln Field). The old buildings on these three greens are the most photographed.
Adjacent to this older campus are, to the south, academic buildings and residential quadrangles, including Wriston, Keeney, and Gregorian quadrangles; to the east, Sciences Park occupying two city blocks; to the north, connected to Simmons Quadrangle by The Walk, academic and residential precincts, including the life sciences complex and the Pembroke Campus; and to the west, on the slope of College Hill, academic buildings, including List Art Center and the Hay and Rockefeller libraries. Also on the slope of College Hill, contiguous with Brown, is the campus of the Rhode Island School of Design.
John Hay Library
The John Hay Library is the second oldest library on campus. It was named for John Hay (class of 1858, private secretary to Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State under two Presidents) at the request of his friend Andrew Carnegie, who contributed half of the $300,000 cost of the building. Constructed with Vermont white marble, the library was dedicated on November 10, 1910 and had an estimated collection of 300,000 volumes. It is now the repository of Brown University archives, rare books and manuscripts, and special collections. Noteworthy among the latter are the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection (described as "the foremost American collection of material devoted to the history and iconography of soldiers and soldiering"), the Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays (described as "the largest and most comprehensive collection of its kind in any research library"), the Lownes Collection of the History of Science (described as "one of the three most important private collections of books of science in America"), and (for popularity of requests) the papers of H.P. Lovecraft. The Hay Library is home to one of the broadest collections of incunabula (15th-century printed books) in the Americas, as well as such rarities as the manuscript of Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and a Shakespeare First Folio. There are also three books bound in human skin.
John Carter Brown Library
The John Carter Brown Library, founded in 1846, is administered separately from the University, but has been located on the Main Green of the campus since 1904. It is generally regarded as the world's leading collection of primary historical sources pertaining to the Americas before 1825. It houses a very large percentage of the titles published before that date about the discovery, settlement, history, and natural history of the New World. The "JCB", as it is known, published the 29-volume Bibliotheca Americana, a principal bibliography in the field. Typical of its noteworthy holdings is the best preserved of the eleven surviving copies of the Bay Psalm Book the earliest extant book printed in British North America and the most expensive printed book in the world. There is also a very fine Shakespeare First Folio, added to the collection by John Carter Brown's widow (a Shakespeare enthusiast) on the grounds that it includes The Tempest, a play set in the New World. The JCB holdings comprise more than 50,000 early titles and about 16,000 modern books, as well as prints, manuscripts, maps, and other items in the library's specialty.
The exhibition galleries of the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Brown's teaching museum, are located in Manning Hall on the campus's main green. Its one million artifacts, available for research and educational purposes, are located at its Collections Research Center in Bristol, RI. The museum's goal is to inspire creative and critical thinking about culture by fostering interdisciplinary understanding of the material world. It provides opportunities for faculty and students to work with collections and the public, teaching through objects and programs in classrooms and exhibitions. The museum sponsors lectures and events in all areas of anthropology, and also runs an extensive program of outreach to local schools.
The "Walk" connects Pembroke Campus to the main campus. It is a succession of green spaces extending from Ruth Simmons Quadrangle (Lincoln Field) in the south to the Pembroke College monument on Meeting Street in the north. It is bordered by departmental buildings and the Granoff Center for the Creative Arts. A focal point of The Walk will be the Maya Lin-designed water-circulating topographical sculpture of Narragansett Bay, to be installed in 2014 next to the Institute for the Study of Environment and Society.
The Women's College in Brown University, known as Pembroke College, was founded in October 1891. When it merged with Brown in 1971, the Pembroke Campus was absorbed into the Brown campus. The Pembroke campus is centered on a quadrangle that fronts on Meeting Street, where a garden and monument—with scale-model of the quadrangle in bronze—compose the formal entry to the campus. The Pembroke campus is one of the most pleasing spaces at Brown, with noteworthy examples of Victorian and Georgian architecture. The west side of the quadrangle comprises Pembroke Hall (1897), Smith-Buonanno Hall (1907, formerly Pembroke Gymnasium), and Metcalf Hall (1919); the east side comprises Alumnae Hall (1927) and Miller Hall (1910); the quadrangle culminates on the north with Andrews Hall (1947) and its terrace and garden. Pembroke Hall, originally a classroom building and library, now houses the Cogut Center for the Humanities.
East Campus, centered on Hope and Charlesfield streets, was originally the site of Bryant University. In 1969, as Bryant was preparing to move to Smithfield, Rhode Island, Brown bought their Providence campus for $5 million. This expanded the Brown campus by 10 acres (40,000 m2) and 26 buildings, included several historic houses, notably the Isaac Gifford Ladd house, built 1850 (now Brown's Orwig Music Library), and the Robert Taft House, built 1895 (now King House). The area was named East Campus in 1971.
Thayer Street runs through Brown's main campus, north to south, and is College Hill's reduced-scale counterpart to Harvard Square or Berkeley's Telegraph Avenue. Restaurants, cafes, bistros, tavernas, pubs, bookstores, second-hand shops, and the like abound. Tourists, people-watchers, buskers, and students from Providence's six colleges make the scene. Half a mile south of campus is Thayer Street's hipper cousin, Wickenden Street. More picturesque and with older architecture, it features galleries, pubs, specialty shops, artist-supply stores, and a regionally famous coffee shop that doubles as a film set (for Woody Allen and others).
Brown Stadium, built in 1925 and home to the football team, is located approximately a mile to the northeast of the main campus. Marston Boathouse, the home of the crew teams, lies on the Blackstone/Seekonk River, to the southeast of campus. Brown's Warren Alpert Medical School is situated in the historic Jewelry District of Providence, near the medical campus of Brown's teaching hospitals, Rhode Island Hospital, Women and Infants Hospital, and Hasbro Children's Hospital. Other University research facilities in the Jewelry District include the Laboratories for Molecular Medicine.
Brown's School of Public Health occupies a landmark modernist building overlooking Memorial Park on the Providence Riverwalk. Brown also owns 376-acre (1.52 km2) the Mount Hope Grant in Bristol, Rhode Island, an important Native American and King Philip's War site. Brown's Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology Collection Research Center, particularly strong in Native American items, is located in the Mount Hope Grant.
Brown's current president Christina Hull Paxson took office in 2012. She had previously been dean of the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University and a past-chair of Princeton's economics department. In 2014 and 2015 Paxson will preside during the year-long celebration of the 250th anniversary of Brown's founding. Her immediate predecessor as president was Ruth J. Simmons, the first African American president of an Ivy League institution. Simmons will remain at Brown as a professor of Comparative Literature and Africana Studies.
Founded in 1764, the College is the oldest school of Brown University. About 6,400 undergraduate students are currently enrolled in the College, and 79 concentrations (majors) are offered. Completed concentrations of undergraduates by area are social sciences 42 percent, humanities 26 percent, life sciences 17 percent, and physical sciences 14 percent. The concentrations with the greatest number of students are Biology, History, and International Relations. Brown is one of the few schools in the United States with an undergraduate concentration (major) in Egyptology. Undergraduates can also design an independent concentration if the existing programs do not align with their curricular focus.
35 percent of undergraduates pursue graduate or professional study immediately, 60 percent within 5 years, and 80 percent within 10 years. For the Class of 1998, 75 percent of all graduates have since enrolled in a graduate or professional degree program. The degrees acquired were doctoral 22 percent, master's 35 percent, medicine 28 percent, and law 14 percent.
The highest fields of employment for graduates of the College are business 36 percent, education 19 percent, health/medical 6 percent, arts 6 percent, government 6 percent, and communications/media 5 percent.
The language of the College Charter has been interpreted as discouraging the establishment professional schools. Brown and Princeton are the only Ivy League colleges with neither business school nor law school. Brown recently developed an Executive MBA program in conjunction with one of the leading Business Schools in Europe; IE Business School in Madrid. In this partnership, Brown provides traditional coursework while IE provides most of the business-related subjects.
Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program
Brown's near neighbor on College Hill is the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), America's top-ranked art college. Brown and RISD students can cross-register at the two institutions, with Brown students permitted to take as many as four courses at RISD that count towards a Brown degree. The two institutions partner to provide various student-life services and the two student bodies compose a synergy in the College Hill cultural scene. The Dual Degree Program, among the most selective in the country, accepts about 15 students each year from more than 700 applicants.
The Graduate School
Established in 1887, the Graduate School has around 2,000 students studying over 50 disciplines. 20 different master's degrees are offered as well as Ph.D. degrees in over 40 subjects ranging from applied mathematics to public policy. Overall, admission to the Graduate School is most competitive with an acceptance rate of about 18 percent.
Alpert Medical School
The University's medical program started in 1811, but the school was suspended by President Wayland in 1827 after the program's faculty declined to live on campus (a new requirement under Wayland). In 1975, the first M.D. degrees from the new Program in Medicine were awarded to a graduating class of 58 students. In 1991, the school was officially renamed the Brown University School of Medicine, then renamed once more to Brown Medical School in October 2000. In January 2007, Warren Alpert donated $100 million to Brown Medical School, in recognition of which its name was changed to the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.
In 2014 U.S. News & World Report ranked Brown's medical school the 5th most selective in the country, with an acceptance rate of 2.9 percent. U.S. News ranks it 29th for research and 28th in primary care.
The medical school is known especially for its eight-year Program in Liberal Medical Education (PLME), inaugurated in 1984 and one of the most selective programs in the nation. Each year, approximately 60 high school students matriculate into the PLME out of an applicant pool of about 1,600. Since 1976, the Early Identification Program (EIP) has encouraged Rhode Island residents to pursue careers in medicine by recruiting sophomores from Providence College, Rhode Island College, the University of Rhode Island, and Tougaloo College. In 2004, the school once again began to accept applications from premedical students at other colleges and universities via AMCAS like most other medical schools. The medical school also offers combined degree programs leading to the M.D./Ph.D., M.D./M.P.H. and M.D./M.P.P. degrees.
Theatre and playwriting
Brown's theatre and playwriting programs are among of the best-regarded in the country. Since 2003 seven different Brown graduates have either won (four times) or been nominated for (five times) the Pulitzer Prize—including winners Lynn Nottage '86, Ayad Akhtar '93, Nilo Cruz '94, and Quiara Alegría Hudes '04; and nominees Sarah Ruhl '97 (twice), Gina Gionfriddo '97 (twice), and Stephen Karam '02. In American Theater magazine's 2009 ranking of the most-produced American plays, Brown graduates occupied four of the top five places—Peter Nachtrieb '97, Rachel Sheinkin '89, Sarah Ruhl '97, and Stephen Karam '02.
The undergraduate concentration (major) encompasses programs in theatre history, performance theory, playwriting, dramaturgy, acting, directing, dance, speech, and technical production. Applications for doctoral and masters degree programs are made through the University Graduate School. Masters degrees in acting and directing are pursued in conjunction with the Rep MFA program, which partners with one of the country's great regional theatres, Trinity Repertory Company, home of the last longstanding resident acting company in the country. Trinity Rep's present artistic director Curt Columbus succeeded Oskar Eustis in 2006, when Eustis was chosen to lead New York's Public Theater.
The many performance spaces available to Brown students include the Chace and Dowling theaters at Trinity Rep; the McCormack Family, Lee Strasberg, Rites and Reason, Ashamu Dance, Stuart, and Leeds theatres in University departments; the Upstairs Space and Downstairs Space belonging to the wholly student-run Production Workshop; and Alumnae Hall, used by Brown University Gilbert & Sullivan and by Brown Opera Productions. Production design courses utilize the John Street Studio of Eugene Lee, three-time Tony Award-winner.
Writing at Brown—fiction, non-fiction, poetry, playwriting, screenwriting, electronic writing, mixed media, and the undergraduate writing proficiency requirement—is catered for by various centers and degree programs, and a faculty that has long included nationally and internationally known authors. The undergraduate concentration (major) in literary arts offers courses in fiction, poetry, screenwriting, literary hypermedia, and translation. Graduate programs include the fiction and poetry MFA writing programs in the literary arts department, and the MFA playwriting program in the theatre arts and performance studies department. The non-fiction writing program is offered in the English department. Screenwriting and cinema narrativity courses are offered in the departments of literary arts and modern culture and media. The undergraduate writing proficiency requirement is supported by the Writing Center.
Alumni authors take their degrees across the spectrum of degree concentrations, but a gauge of the strength of writing at Brown is the number of major national writing prizes won. To note only winners since the year 2000: Pulitzer Prize for Fiction-winners Jeffrey Eugenides '82 (2003) and Marilynne Robinson '66 (2005); British Orange Prize-winners Marilynne Robinson '66 (2009) and Madeline Miller '00 (2012); Pulitzer Prize for Drama-winners Nilo Cruz '94 (2003), Lynn Nottage '86 (2009), Quiara Alegría Hudes '04 (2012), and Ayad Akhtar '93 (2013); Pulitzer Prize for Journalism-winners James Risen '77 (twice, 2002, 2006), Mark Maremont '80 (twice, 2003, 2007), Gareth Cook '91 (2005), Peter Kovacs '77 (2006), Stephanie Grace '86 (2006), Mary Swerczek '98 (2006), Jane B. Spencer '99 (2006), Usha Lee McFarling '89 (2007), James Bandler '89 (2007), Amy Goldstein '75 (2009), and David Rohde '90 (twice, 1996, 2009).
Teaching of computer science began at Brown in 1956 when an IBM machine was installed and computing courses were offered through the departments of Economics and Applied Mathematics. In January 1958 an IBM650 was added, the only one of its type between Hartford and Boston. In 1960 Brown's first computer building, designed by Philip Johnson, was opened on George Street and an IBM7070 computer installed the next year. It was given full Departmental status in 1979. In 2009, IBM and Brown announced the installation of a supercomputer (by teraflops standards), the most powerful in the southeastern New England region.
The Hypertext Editing Systems, HES and FRESS, were invented in the 1960s at Brown by Andries van Dam, Ted Nelson, and Bob Wallace, with Nelson coining the word hypertext. Van Dam's students were instrumental in the origin of the XML, XSLT, and related Web standards. Brown alumni who have distinguished themselves in the computer sciences and industry are listed in the Notable people section, below. They include a principal architect of the Macintosh Operating System, a principal architect of the Intel 80386 microprocessor line, the Microsoft Windows 95 project chief, a CEO of Apple, the current head of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the inaugural chair of the Computing Community Consortium, and design chiefs at Pixar and Industrial Light & Magic, protegees of graphics guru Andries van Dam. The character "Andy" in the animated film Toy Story is taken to be an homage to Van Dam from his students employed at Pixar. Van Dam denies this, but a copy of his book (Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice) appears on Andy's bookshelf in the film. Brown computer science graduate and Heroes actor Masi Oka '97, was an animator at Industrial Light & Magic.
The department today is home to The CAVE. This project is a virtual reality room used for everything from three-dimensional drawing classes to tours of the circulatory system for medical students. In 2000 students from Brown's Technology House converted the south face of the Sciences Library into a Tetris game, the first high-rise-building Tetris ever attempted. Code named La Bastille, the game used a personal computer running Linux, a radio-frequency video game controller, eleven circuit boards, a 12-story data network, and over 10,000 Christmas lights.
The Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World
The Joukowsky Institute pursues fieldwork and excavations, regional surveys, and academic study of the archaeology and art of the ancient Mediterranean, Egypt, and Western Asia from the Levant to the Caucasus. The Institute has a very active fieldwork profile, with faculty-led excavations and regional surveys presently in Petra, Jordan, in West-Central Turkey, at Abydos in Egypt, and in Sudan, Italy, Mexico, Guatemala, Montserrat in the West Indies, and Providence, Rhode Island.
The Institute's faculty includes cross-appointments from the departments of Egyptology, Assyriology, Classics, Anthropology, and History of Art and Architecture. Faculty research and publication areas include Greek and Roman art and architecture, landscape archaeology, urban and religious architecture of the Levant, Roman provincial studies, the Aegean Bronze Age, and the archaeology of the Caucasus. The Institute offers visiting teaching appointments and postdoctoral fellowships which have, in recent years, included Near Eastern Archaeology and Art, Classical Archaeology and Art, Islamic Archaeology and Art, and Archaeology and Media Studies.
The School of Engineering
Established in 1847, Brown's engineering program is the oldest in the Ivy League and the third oldest civilian engineering program in the country, preceded only by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1824) and Union College (1845). In 1916 the departments of electrical, mechanical, and civil engineering were merged into a Division of Engineering, and in 2010 the division was elevated to a School of Engineering.
Engineering at Brown is especially interdisciplinary. The School is organized without the traditional departments or boundaries found at most schools, and follows a model of connectivity between disciplines—including biology, medicine, physics, chemistry, computer science, the humanities and the social sciences. The School practices an innovative clustering of faculties in which engineers team with non-engineers to bring a convergence of ideas.
The Marine Biological Laboratory
The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is an independent research institution established in 1882 at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The laboratory is linked to 54 current or past Nobel Laureates who have been research or teaching faculty. Since 2005 the MBL and Brown have collaborated in a Ph.D. program in biological and environmental sciences that combines faculty at both institutions, including the faculties of the Ecosystems Center, the Bay Paul Center, the Program in Cellular Dynamics, and the Marine Resources Center.
The Pembroke Center
The Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women] was established at Brown in 1981 by Joan Wallach Scott as a research center on gender. It was named for Pembroke College, the former women's coordinate college at Brown, and is affiliated with Brown's Sarah Doyle Women's Center. It supports the undergraduate concentration in Gender and Sexuality Studies, post-doctoral research fellowships, the annual Pembroke Seminar, and other academic programs. The Center also manages various collections, archives, and resources, including the Elizabeth Weed Feminist Theory Papers and the Christine Dunlap Farnham Archive.
The Watson Institute for International Studies
The Watson Institute for International Studies is a center for the analysis of international issues at Brown University. Its original benefactor was Thomas Watson, Jr., former Ambassador to the Soviet Union and president of IBM.
Brown has committed to "minimize its energy use, reduce negative environmental impacts and promote environmental stewardship." The Energy and Environmental Advisory Committee has developed a set of ambitious goals for the university to reduce its carbon emissions and eventually achieve carbon neutrality. The "Brown is Green]"website collects information about Brown's progress toward greenhouse gas emissions reductions and related campus initiatives, such as student groups, courses, and research. Brown's grade of A-minus was the top one issued in the 2009 report of the Sustainable Endowments Institute (no A-grade was issued). Brown has a number of active environmental leadership groups on campus. These groups have begun a number of campus-wide environmental initiatives—including promoting the reduction of supply and demand of bottled water and investigating a composting program.
Admission and financial aid
Brown is among the most selective universities in the country. For the undergraduate class of 2018, Brown received 30,432 applicants, of whom 2,619 were accepted, for an acceptance rate of 8.6 percent. Additionally, for the academic year 2013-14 there were 1,769 applicants from other colleges who wished to transfer to Brown, of whom 6 percent were accepted. According to the university, of applicants who were either salutatorian or valedictorian, 15 and 18 percent respectively were accepted. In the enrolled class of 2017, 94 percent were in the top tenth of their high school class. In 2013 the Graduate School accepted 17 percent of 9,215 applicants. In 2014, U.S. News ranked Brown's Warren Alpert Medical School the 5th most selective in the country, with an acceptance rate of 2.9 percent.
Brown admission policy is stipulated need-blind for all domestic applicants. Brown's financial aid basics] website, in August 2014, stated: "For families (including both parents) with a total income below $60,000, and assets less than $100,000, no parent contribution is calculated towards the Expected Family Contribution (EFC). For families with total income below $100,000, the loan component of the financial aid award is replaced with additional scholarship." In 2013-14, the program awarded need-based scholarships worth $95 million. The average need-based award for the class of 2017 was $43,427.
Brown is a member of the Ivy League athletic conference, which is categorized as a Division I (top level) conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The Brown Bears are the third largest university sports program in the United States, sponsoring 38 varsity intercollegiate teams (Harvard sponsors 42 and Princeton 39). Brown's athletic program is one of the U.S. News & World Report top 20—the "College Sports Honor Roll"—based on breadth of program and athletes' graduation rates. Brown's newest varsity team is women's rugby, promoted from club-sport status in 2014.
Brown women's rowing has won 7 national titles in the last 14 years. Brown men's rowing perennially finishes in the top 5 in the nation, most recently winning silver, bronze, and silver in the national championship races of 2012, 2013, and 2014. The men's and women's crews have also won championship trophies at the Henley Royal Regatta and the Henley Women's Regatta. Brown's men's soccer is consistently ranked in the top 20 and has won 18 Ivy League titles overall; recent soccer graduates play professionally in MLS and overseas. Brown football, under its most successful coach historically, Phil Estes, won Ivy League championships in 1999, 2005, and 2008. (Brown football's reemergence is credited to its 1976 Ivy League championship team, "The Magnificent Andersons," so named for its coach, John Anderson.) High-profile alumni of the football program include Houston Texans head coach Bill O'Brien; Penn State football coach Joe Paterno, Heisman Trophy namesake John W. Heisman, and Pollard Award namesake Fritz Pollard. The Men's Lacrosse team also has a long and storied history. Brown women's gymnastics won the Ivy League tournament in 2013 and 2014. Brown varsity equestrian has won the Ivy League championship several times. Brown also supports competitive intercollegiate club sports, including sailing and ultimate frisbee. The men's ultimate team, Brownian Motion, has twice won the national championship, in 2000 and 2005.
Residential and Greek societies
About 12 percent of Brown students are in fraternities and sororities. There are 11 residential Greek houses: six fraternities (Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Phi, Delta Tau, Phi Kappa Psi, Sigma Chi, and Theta Delta Chi; three sororities (Alpha Chi Omega, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Kappa Delta), one co-ed house (Zeta Delta Xi), and one co-ed literary society (Alpha Delta Phi). Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity was present on campus from 1906 to 1939, but was unable to reactivate after WWII due to wartime losses. All recognized Greek-letter organizations are located on campus in Wriston Quadrangle in University-owned housing. They are overseen by the Greek Council.
An alternative to Greek-letter organizations are the program houses organized by themes. As with Greek houses, the residents of program houses select their new members, usually at the start of the Spring semester. Examples of program houses are St. Anthony Hall (located in King House), Buxton International House, the Machado French/Hispanic House, Technology House, Harambee (African culture) House, Social Action House and Interfaith House.
Currently, there are three student cooperative houses at Brown. Two of them, Watermyn and Finlandia on Waterman Street, are owned by the Brown Association for Cooperative Housing (BACH), an non-profit corporation owned by its members. The third co-op, West House, is located in a Brown-owned house on Brown Street. The three organizations run a vegetarian co-op for the larger community.
Societies and clubs
The earliest societies at Brown were devoted to oration and debate. The Pronouncing Society is mentioned in the diary of the above-mentioned Solomon Drowne, who was voted its president in 1771. It seems to have disappeared during the Revolutionary War. We next hear of the Misokosmian Society, founded in 1794 and renamed the Philermenian Society in 1798. This was effectively a secret society with membership limited to 45. It met fortnightly to hear speeches and debate and thrived until the Civil War; in 1821 its library held 1594 volumes. In 1799 a chapter of the Philandrian Society, also secret, was established at the College. In 1806 the United Brothers was formed as an egalitarian alternative to the Philermenian Society. "These two great rivals," says the University historian, "divided the student body between them for many years, surviving into the days of President Sears. A tincture of political controversy sharpened their rivalry, the older society inclining to the aristocratic Federals, the younger to the Republicans, the democrats of that day. ... The students continuing to increase in number, they outran the constitutional limits of both societies, and a third, the Franklin Society, was established in 1824; it never had the vitality of the other two, however, and died after ten years." Other nineteenth century clubs and societies, too numerous to treat here, are described in Bronson's history of the University.
The Cammarian Club—founded in 1893 and taking its name from the Latin for lobster, its members' favorite dinner food—was at first a semi-secret society which "tapped" 15 seniors each year. In 1915, self-perpetuating membership gave way to popular election by the student body, and thenceforward the Club served as the de facto undergraduate student government. In 1971, unaccountably, it voted the name Cammarian Club out of existence, thereby amputating its tradition and longevity. The successor and present-day organization is the generically-named Undergraduate Council of Students.
Societas Domi Pacificae, known colloquially as "Pacifica House," is a present-day, self-described secret society, which nonetheless publishes a website and an email address. It claims a continuous line of descent from the Franklin Society of 1824, citing a supposed intermediary "Franklin Society" traceable in the nineteenth century. But the intermediary turns out to be, on closer inspection, the well-known Providence Franklin Society, a civic organization unconnected to Brown whose origins and activity are well-documented. It was founded in 1821 by merchants William Grinnell and Joseph Balch, Jr., and chartered by the General Assembly in January 1823. The "Pacifica House" account of this (conflated) Franklin Society cites published mentions of it in 1859, 1876, and 1883. But the first of these (Rhees 1859, see footnote infra) is merely a sketch of the 1824 Brown organization; the second (Stockwell 1876) is a reference-book article on the Providence Franklin Society itself; and the third is the Providence Franklin Society's own publication, which the "Pacifica House" reference mis-ascribes to "Franklin Society," dropping the word "Providence."
There are over 300 registered student organizations on campus with diverse interests. The Student Activities Fair, during the orientation program, provides first-year students the opportunity to become acquainted with the wide range of organizations. A sample of organizations includes:
Brown ranked 7th in the country (between Princeton and Columbia) in a study of high school seniors' revealed preferences for matriculation conducted by economists at Harvard, Wharton, and Boston University, and published in 2005 by the National Bureau of Economic Research. The 2008 Center for College Affordability and Productivity (CCAP) ranked Brown 5th in the country among national universities."
Brown ranked 5th in the country (behind Yale, Princeton, Harvard, and Stanford) in Newsweek/The Daily Beast's "America's Brainiac Schools"—based on the number of prestigious scholarships won (adjusted for student body size), including the Rhodes Scholarship, the Truman Scholarship, the Marshall Scholarship, the Gates Scholarship (since 2001), and the Fulbright scholarship (since 1993). Also factored in are standardized test scores, admissions rates, and students in the top 10 percent of their high school class.
The Forbes magazine annual ranking of "America's Top Colleges 2014"—which differs from the U.S. News by putting research universities and liberal arts colleges in a single sequence—ranked Brown 13th overall and 8th among research universities.
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Forbes also ranked Brown 7th in the country (between Caltech and Princeton) among "America's Most Entrepreneurial Universities." The Forbes ranking was based on an "entrepreneurial ratio" of alumni and students who were business owners compared with alumni and student body population.
As it had in 2007 and 2010, the 2011 Princeton Review email poll of college students ranked Brown 1st in the country for "Happiest Students." Brown is 3rd in the country (tied with Stanford) in the number of students awarded Fulbright grants, according to the October 2010 ranking compiled by the Chronicle of Higher Education.
Brown undergraduate alumni are currently governors of 4 out of the 50 states: Bobby Jindal '91 of Louisiana, Maggie Hassan '80 of New Hampshire, Jack Markell '82 of Delaware, and Lincoln Chafee '75 of Rhode Island.
Father of American public school education Horace Mann (1819), Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes (1881), philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. (1897), U.S. Secretary of State John Hay (1852), U.S. Secretary of State and Attorney General Richard Olney (1856), "Lafayette of the Greek Revolution" and its historian Samuel Gridley Howe (1821).
Prominent alums in business and finance include Chair of the Federal Reserve Janet Yellen '67, World Bank President Jim Yong Kim '82, Bank of America CEO Brian Moynihan '81, CNN founder and America's Cup yachtsman Ted Turner '60, and magazine editor John F. Kennedy, Jr. '83. Others include Tiffany & Co CEO Walter Hoving '20, McKinsey & Co. co-founder Marvin Bower '25, Trans World Airlines chairman Charles C. Tillinghast, Jr. '32, IBM chairman and CEO Thomas Watson, Jr. '37, Chase Manhattan Bank CEO Willard C. Butcher '48, NASDAQ's first CEO Gordon Macklin '50, Citibank chairman William R. Rhodes '57, Apple Inc. CEO John Sculley '61, financier and "car czar" Steven Rattner '74, Providence Equity Partners founder Jonathan M. Nelson '77, real estate tycoon Barry Sternlicht '82, and Facebook CFO David Ebersman '91.
Important figures in the history of education include civil libertarian and Amherst College president Alexander Meiklejohn, first president of the University of South Carolina Jonathan Maxcy (1787), Bates College founder Oren B. Cheney (1836), longest-serving University of Michigan president (1871–1909) James Burrill Angell (1849), University of California president (1899–1919) Benjamin Ide Wheeler (1875), and Morehouse College's first African-American president John Hope (1894)
Alumni in the computer sciences and industry include Apple Macintosh and Mac OS designer Andy Hertzfeld '75, architect of Intel 386, 486, and Pentium microprocessors John H. Crawford '75, first Microsoft Windows project chief Brad Silverberg, Apple Computer CEO (1983–1993) John Sculley '61, MIT computer science chair John Guttag '71, University of Washington computer science chair Ed Lazowska '72, inventor of the first silicon transistor Gordon Kidd Teal '31.
Alumni in the arts and media include actress Laura Linney '86, actor John Krasinski '01, Modern Family actress Julie Bowen '91, Harry Potter films actress Emma Watson '14, editor in chief of The Onion Cole Bolton '04, MSNBC program hosts Chris Hayes '01 and Alex Wagner '99, NPR program host Ira Glass '82, About a Boy actor David Walton '01, singer-composer Mary Chapin Carpenter '81, CSI: NY actor Hill Harper, musicians Damian Kulash '98 and Dhani Harrison '02, film directors Todd Haynes '85, Doug Liman '88, and Davis Guggenheim '86, and director-actor Tim Blake Nelson '86, New Yorker humorist and Marx Brothers screenwriter S.J. Perelman '25, novelists Nathanael West '24, Jeffrey Eugenides '83, Rick Moody '83, Edwidge Danticat (MFA '93), Marilynne Robinson '66, and Amity Gaige '95, playwrights Sarah Ruhl '97, Lynn Nottage '86, Richard Foreman '59, Alfred Uhry '58, and Nilo Cruz (MFA '94), actress Jo Beth Williams '70, composer Duncan Sheik '92, singer Lisa Loeb '90, Rockefeller Center and Tribune Tower architect Raymond Hood (1902), composer and synthesizer pioneer Wendy Carlos '62, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist James Risen '77, composer Rusty Magee, political pundit Mara Liasson, 20th Century Fox Film Group president Tom Rothman '76, Black Entertainment Television chairman and CEO Debra L. Lee '76, HBO Sports president Ross Greenburg '77, MTV Films and Nick Movies president Scott Aversano '91, CNN US News Operations president Jonathan Klein '80, Bravo TV president Lauren Zalaznick '84.
Other notable alumni include NASA head during first seven Apollo missions Thomas O. Paine '42, chief scientist NASA Mars and lunar programs James B. Garvin '78, Governor of Wyoming Territory and Governor of Nebraska John Milton Thayer (1841), Governor of Rhode Island Augustus Bourn (1855), diplomat Richard Holbrooke '62, sportscaster Chris Berman '77, Houston Texans head coach Bill O'Brien '92, former Penn State football coach Joe Paterno '50, Heisman Trophy namesake John W. Heisman '91, Pollard Award namesake, Pro Football Hall of Fame member and first black All-American and NFL head coach Fritz Pollard '19, National Security Council counter-terrorism director RP Eddy '94, presidential advisor Ira Magaziner '69, founder of The Gratitude Network and The Intersection event Randy Haykin '85. Also royals and nobles such as Prince Rahim Aga Khan, Prince Faisal bin Al Hussein, Princess Leila Pahlavi of Iran '92, Prince Nikolaos of Greece and Denmark, Prince Nikita Romanov, Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark, Prince Jaime of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of San Jaime and Count of Bardi, Prince Ra'ad bin Zeid, Lady Gabriella Windsor, Prince Alexander von Fürstenberg and Countess Cosima von Bülow Pavoncelli.
Nobel Laureates Craig Mello '82 and Jerry White '87, Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm co-originator John Wilder Tukey '36, Gurney Professor of History and Political Science at Harvard Adam Ulam '44, physicist Lewis E. Little '62, Lasker Award winning biologist and founder of microbial pathogenesis Stanley Falkow (PhD '59), MIT neuroscience department chair Mark F. Bear (B.A. '78, Ph.D '84), Penn psychologist, Lasker Award winner and cognitive therapy originator Aaron Beck '50, John Bates Clark Medal winning MIT economist Jerry A. Hausman '68, University of Chicago School of Law dean Daniel Fischel, Chicago Booth economist Randall Kroszner '84, Stanford Law School dean Larry Kramer (legal scholar), '80, and Arthur L. Horwich.
Notable past or current faculty have included Nobel Laureates Lars Onsager, George Stigler, Vernon L. Smith, George Snell and Leon Cooper, Fields Medal winning mathematician David Mumford, mathematician Ulf Grenander, Pulitzer Prize–winning historian Gordon S. Wood, Sakurai Prize winning physicist Gerald Guralnik for co-elucidation of the Higgs mechanism, award-winning physicist John M. Kosterlitz of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, computer scientist and inventor of hypertext Andries van Dam, computer scientist Robert Sedgewick, prominent engineers Daniel C. Drucker, L. Ben Freund, and Mayo D. Hersey, BrainGate inventor John Donoghue (Ph.D 79'), neuroscientist Mark F. Bear (B.A '78, Ph.D '82), biologist and prominent advocate of biological evolution Kenneth R. Miller, first president of the American Sociological Association Lester Frank Ward, economists Hyman Minsky, Peter MacAvoy, who was a former member of the US Council of Economic Advisers, William Poole (economist), Ross Levine, Oded Galor and Peter Howitt (economist), former Prime Minister of Italy and former EU chief Romano Prodi, former President of Brazil Fernando Cardoso, former President of Chile Ricardo Lagos, writers Carlos Fuentes, Chinua Achebe, Robert Coover, Robert Creeley and Keith Waldrop, former Presidents of the American Philosophical Association Jaegwon Kim and Ernest Sosa, philosophers Curt Ducasse, Roderick Chisholm, and Martha Nussbaum, linguist Hans Kurath, political scientist James Morone and Senior Fellow Sergei Khrushchev.
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- List of Brown University statues
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