|Literal meaning||rough rice|
|Vietnamese alphabet||gạo lứt|
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,548 kJ (370 kcal)|
|- Sugars||0.85 g|
|- Dietary fiber||3.5 g|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.401 mg (35%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.093 mg (8%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||5.091 mg (34%)|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||1.493 mg (30%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.509 mg (39%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||20 μg (5%)|
|Calcium||23 mg (2%)|
|Iron||1.47 mg (11%)|
|Magnesium||143 mg (40%)|
|Manganese||3.743 mg (178%)|
|Phosphorus||333 mg (48%)|
|Potassium||223 mg (5%)|
|Sodium||7 mg (0%)|
|Zinc||2.02 mg (21%)|
|Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Brown rice (or "hulled rice"), unmilled or partly milled rice, is a kind of whole, natural grain. It has a mild nutty flavor, and is chewier and more nutritious than white rice, but goes rancid more quickly because the germ—which is removed to make white rice—contains fats that can spoil. Any rice, including long-grain, short-grain, or sticky rice, may be eaten as brown rice.
In much of Asia, brown rice is associated with poverty and wartime shortages, and in the past was rarely eaten except by the sick, the elderly and as a cure for constipation. This traditionally denigrated kind of rice is often now more expensive than common white rice, partly due to its relatively low supply and difficulty of storage and transport.
White rice comparison 
When only the outermost layer of a grain of rice (the husk) is removed, brown rice is produced. To produce white rice, the next layers underneath the husk (the bran layer and the germ) are removed, leaving mostly the starchy endosperm.
Several vitamins and dietary minerals are lost in this removal and the subsequent polishing process. A part of these missing nutrients, such as vitamin B1, vitamin B3, and iron are sometimes added back into the white rice making it "enriched", as food suppliers in the US are required to do by the Food and Drug Administration.[not in citation given]
One mineral not added back into white rice is magnesium; one cup (195 g) of cooked long grain brown rice contains 84 mg of magnesium while one cup of white rice contains 19 mg.
A nutritionally superior method of preparation using GABA rice or germinated brown rice (GBR) (also known as Hatsuga genmai in Japan), developed during the International Year of Rice, may be used. This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (34 °C or 93 °F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA.
Brown rice has a shelf life of approximately 6 months, but hermetic storage, refrigeration or freezing can significantly extend its lifetime. Freezing, even periodically, can also help control infestations of Indian meal moths.
Health effects 
See also 
- Genmaicha, a Japanese green tea combined with roasted brown rice
- Hyeonmi cha, a Korean tisane made from roasted brown rice
- Parboiled rice
- "Brown rice". WHFoods. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- "Enriched rice". Edocket.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Most, Marlene M; T; M; L (2005). "Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81 (1): 64–8. PMID 15640461. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- Ito, Shoichi and Ishikawa, Yukihiro (2004-02-12). "Marketing of Value-Add Rice Products in Japan: Germinated Brown Rice and Rice Bread". Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- "Storage". Usarice.com. Retrieved 2012-05-17.