|Sir Bruce Keogh
|NHS Medical Director (England)|
12 November 2007
|Preceded by||No previous incumbents|
|Born||24 November 1954|
|Alma mater||Charing Cross Hospital Medical School|
|Occupation||National Medical Director|
|Profession||Professor of Cardiac Surgery
University College London
Sir Bruce Edward Keogh, KBE, FRCS, FRCP (born 24 November 1954) has been Medical Director of the National Health Service in England since 2007 and National Medical Director of the NHS Commissioning Board since 2012.
Keogh was born on 24 November 1954 in Harare, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), the son of Gerald and Marjorie Beatrice Keogh (née Craig). He attended the private Catholic boys school St George's College, Harare.
He earned a Bachelor of Science degree and MB BS degree from Charing Cross Hospital Medical School part of the University of London in 1977 and 1980 respectively, followed by the MD higher degree in 1989 for research into laser coronary angioplasty.
He served as Senior Lecturer/Consultant at the Hammersmith Hospital and the Royal Postgraduate Medical School from 1991-1995. He then moved to Birmingham where from 1997 - 2003 he was Associate Medical Director of University Hospital Birmingham before being appointed Professor of cardiac surgery at University College London and Director of Surgery at The Heart Hospital in 2004.
Keogh has been active on many medical and professional committees. He has been secretary and president of the Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Great Britain and Ireland, Secretary General of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and president of the Cardiothoracic Section of the Royal Society of Medicine and served on the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Board of Directors of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons in the US. He is perhaps best known for his work promoting the measurement, analysis and public disclosure of clinical outcomes, but he has also published scientific articles on coronary artery vasomotor tone, the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on gut blood flow and function, myocardial protection, surgery for patients with poor left ventricular function and the effects of social deprivation on cardiac surgical outcomes. He has co-authored a book on the Evidence for Cardiothoracic Surgery (2005) and another on Normal Surface Anatomy (1984).
Prior to becoming Medical Director of the National Health Service he served on the National Coronary Heart Disease Taskforce, the NHS Standing Medical Advisory Committee, and was chairman of the NHS Information Taskforce on Clinical Outcomes for the Department of Health. He has also served as Commissioner on the Commission for Health Improvement and the Healthcare Commission.
As Medical Director of the NHS (2007–13) he was a Director General in the Department of Health where he led the Medical Directorate which had oversight for clinical policy and strategy in the NHS. This included the more specific work of the National Clinical Directors and their associated strategies such as those for coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, renal disease and liver disease. The role also included oversight of the medicines supply chain in to the UK, policy relating to the pharmaceutical industry, drug pricing, prescriptions and the role of pharmacy in England and sponsorship of the work programmes of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). Through sponsorship of Medical Education England he had oversight of postgraduate education of doctors, dentists, pharmacists and clinical scientists.
In 2012 he was asked to investigate the safety of PIP breast implants, a product of fraudulent quality, but concluded that although they were more likely to rupture than other implants they did not pose significant health risk to women a finding endorsed by a subsequent European report  in 2013
Following the Lansley reforms of the NHS he was appointed National Medical Director in NHS England where he is responsible for promoting a focus on quality, clinical leadership and innovation. He was said by the Health Service Journal to be the sixth most powerful person in the English NHS in December 2013.
He has published several significant national reviews. In 2009 he led a national taskforce to improve neonatal services. In 2012 he co-chaired a review of medical and dental school intakes on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Council and the Department of Health.  In 2013 he published two significant reports - One on how to improve safety in the cosmetic intervention industry through a review of regulation  and another, widely known as the Keogh Review on the 14 Trusts with the highest mortality rates in England. He is currently leading a forum on how to move the NHS towards greater 7 day services.
Keogh was appointed as an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) in 2003. He subsequently became a British citizen, and as part of the Queen's Birthday Honours on 11 June 2005, his knighthood became substantive (back dated to 5 February 2004).
Keogh is an honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Royal College of General Practitioners, the Royal College of Anaesthetists, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, the American College of Surgeons and the British Society of Interventional Radiology. He has been a visiting professor at universities in Japan, China and North America. Closer to home he has been King James IV Professor  of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (2005) and Tudor Edwards lecturer (2007), and Hunterian Orator (2013) for the Royal College of Surgeons of England and Kinmonth Lecturer (2013) jointly for the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
He holds honorary medical doctorates from the universities of Birmingham and Sheffield and Doctorates of Science from the University of Toledo and Coventry University. He is a member of the Lunar Society, on the council of the British Heart Foundation and a vice patron of the Royal British Legion Poppy Factory. He was a judge for the inaugural 2010 Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine.
Keogh has been married to his wife, Ann, since they met at medical school. The couple have four sons, whose names are, in descending order of age, Robert, Christopher, William and Michael.
- "Prof Sir Bruce Keogh, KBE". People of Today. Debrett's. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "KEOGH, Prof. Sir Bruce (Edward)". Who's Who 2012. A & C Black. 2011.
- European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery website
- Society of Thoracic Surgeons website
- "HSJ100 2013 The annual list of the most influential people in health". Health Service Journal. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 11 June 2005. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- List of King James IV Professors
- The Poppy Factory website