Brum (TV series)

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Brum
Format Children's television series
Created by Rex Garrod
Developed by Ragdoll Productions for BBC Television
Starring Brum
Narrated by Toyah Willcox
Tom Wright
Country of origin United Kingdom
No. of episodes 65
Production
Executive producer(s) Tom Poole
Vic Finch
Running time 10-15 minutes
Production company(s) Ragdoll Productions
Hit Entertainment
Broadcast
Original channel CBBC
CBeebies
Original run 26 September 1991 (1991-09-26) – 4 November 2002 (2002-11-04)

Brum /ˈbrʌm/ is a British children's superhero rescue television series about the adventures of a radio controlled car of the same name. It was produced by Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment and first broadcast in 1991. It was initially directed, written and produced by Anne Wood, latterly directed and written by Vic Finch, Paul Leather, Emma Lindley, Morgan Hall, Brian Simmons, Nigel P Harris and others. It was initially narrated by Toyah Willcox and later by Tom Wright. The show was first aired on Children's BBC on BBC One (later on CBeebies) and also aired in the United States on Discovery Kids as part of the Ready Set Learn kids block on the channel that lasted from 1996 to 2010. The show has also aired on ABC, ABC1 and ABC2 in Australia.

The series[edit]

"Brum" at the Cotswold Motoring Museum in 2003

Brum has been written by a range of writers over the years. Anne Wood primarily wrote all the first series, whilst the second series was written by Tom Poole, Dirk Campbell, Andrew Davenport and Morgan Hall. The last two series were written by the existing Ragdoll team which included Alan Dapre, Vic Finch, Dylan Leslie Birch and Holly Elson. There were also episodes by writers and originators on Boohbah, Steve Dorrance and Will Miller.

The title character is a half-scale replica of a late-1920s Austin 7 "Chummy" convertible. He drives by himself (in reality by radio control) and can express himself in a number of ways including opening and closing his doors and bonnet, "bobbing" his suspension, flashing and swivelling his headlamps, rotating his starting crank, extending his turn signals, and using his horn.

The actors in Brum do not speak; mime and off-screen narration help propel the story. For this reason, it has been easy to prepare episodes for airing in other countries and Brum has been broadcast in many parts of the world and in many languages, including English, Italian, Dutch, Hebrew, Croatian, Arabic, Norwegian, German, Spanish, Chinese, Danish, Finnish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Portuguese, Thai, French, Hungarian, Catalan, Bulgarian and Japanese.

Each episode of Brum begins and ends in the same way - with Brum, sitting amongst the cars in a motor museum. When the museum owner's back is turned, he comes to life and heads out to go exploring in the "Big Town", but always returns to the museum at the end of each episode. The opening sequence and closing sequence was filmed at the Cotswold Motoring Museum in Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England. The model car used in filming is kept on display there when not in use.

Originally the programme was set in the city of Birmingham in England, hence the name: in addition to its onomatopoeic nature of a car engine revving, Brum is a common colloquial name for Birmingham and its inhabitants are known as Brummies. Later series make no mention of Birmingham, calling it the "Big Town", but Brum still continued to be filmed there and many Birmingham streets and landmarks can be seen in each episode, including Aston University.

The show's original title theme and music were composed by Kjartan Poskitt for the first two series. The incidental music for the most recent series was composed by Daniel Jones (but not that of the end credits) and is consistently scored for piano, bass guitar, drums and saxophone ensemble, although it varies stylistically from big-band swing to disco, classical, reggae, and music-hall styles. This consistency of sound gives a very convincing and appropriate sense of a small pit orchestra or circus band, and is very much part of the series.

"Brum" is no longer produced by Ragdoll Productions. Production ceased on 4 November 2002. Following Brum's redundancy from Ragdoll, the little car is now on display at the Cotswold Motoring Museum in Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England.

Brum was designed and built by Rex Garrod, and a very early prototype of Brum can be found in Rex's own series, Secret Life of Machines, dated about 1989.[1] A radio controlled toy model of Brum is also seen in the music video for "Fireflies", the worldwide number one hit by Owl City.

Brum's VHS and DVD Releases

Rescue and Other Stories

  • Rescue
  • Kite
  • Breakdown
  • Opera
  • Mower

Wheels and Other Stories

  • Seaside
  • Little Girl Lost
  • Wheels
  • Stilts
  • Removal Van

Brum and the Lost Kitten and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Lost Kitten
  • Brum and the Trophy
  • Brum and the Street Party
  • Brum and the Flood

Helicopter Rescue and Other Stories

  • Helicopter Rescue
  • Dancing In The Street
  • Skating
  • The Big Crane

Brum's Biggest Party Video

  • Brum and the Surprise Party
  • Brum and the Wedding
  • Brum and the Big Town Race
  • Brum and the Little Drummer Boy
  • Brum Goes Shopping
  • Brum and the Big Chase
  • Brum and the Helicopter

Airport and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Airport Adventure
  • Brum and the Naughty Dog
  • Brum and the Pizzeria
  • Brum and the Gymnast
  • Brum and the King of Thieves

Stunt Bike Rescue and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Stunt Bike Rescue
  • Brum and the Chasing Balloons
  • Brum and the Runaway Train
  • Brum and the Gorilla Caper
  • Brum and the Splash and Grab

Soccer Hero and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Soccer Hero
  • Brum and the Rampant Robot
  • Brum and the Mobile Phone
  • Brum and the Birthday Cake
  • Brum and the Splash and Grab

Runaway Statue and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Runaway Statue
  • Brum and the Bushes
  • Brum and the Chasing Balloons
  • Brum and the Skateboarding Bride
  • Brum and the Posh Dog

Kitten Rescue and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Kitten Rescue
  • Brum and the Golf Buggy
  • Brum and the Kidnapped Garden Gnome
  • Brum and the Stolen Necklace
  • Brum and the Runaway Rickshaw

Stopwatch Botch and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Stopwatch Botch
  • Brum and the Daring Gnome Rescue
  • Brum and the Shop Window Dummy
  • Brum and the Basketball Star
  • Brum and the Runaway Sofa

Snow Thieves and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Snow Thieves
  • Brum and the Golden Loo
  • Brum and the Music Box
  • Brum and the Pickpocket
  • Brum and the Runaway Ball
  • Brum and the Bowling Alley
  • Brum and the Pantomime Cow

Crazy Chair Chase and Other Stories

  • Brum and the Crazy Chair Chase
  • Brum and the Bank Robbers
  • Brum and the Mischievous Mouse
  • Brum and the Cream Balloon
  • Brum and the Paint Pandemonium

The Very Best Of Brum - 30 Episodes

  • Brum and the Airport Adventure
  • Brum and the Kitten Rescue
  • Brum and the Runaway Train
  • Brum and the Crazy Chair Chase
  • Brum and the Naughty Dog
  • Brum and the Stunt Bike Rescue
  • Brum and the Soccer Hero
  • Brum and the Cream Balloon
  • Brum and the Birthday Cake
  • Brum and the Snow Thieves
  • Brum and the Pickpocket
  • Brum and the Kidnapped Garden Gnome
  • Brum and the Chasing Balloons
  • Brum and the Rampant Robot
  • Brum and the Runaway Rickshaw
  • Brum and the Daring Gnome Rescue
  • Brum and the Golden Loo
  • Brum and the Splash and Grab
  • Brum and the Stolen Necklace
  • Brum and the Gymnast
  • Brum and the Music Box
  • Brum and the Golf Buggy
  • Brum and the Gorilla Caper
  • Brum and the Bowling Alley
  • Brum and the Skateboarding Bride
  • Brum and the Pizzeria
  • Brum and the Bank Robbers
  • Brum and the Runaway Ball
  • Brum and the Shop Window Dummy
  • Brum and the Mobile Phone

The Very Best Of Brum - Languages In Speaking and Subtitles including

  • English
  • Italian
  • Dutch
  • Hebrew
  • Croatian
  • Arabic
  • Norwegian
  • Danish
  • Finnish
  • Swedish
  • German
  • Spanish
  • Chinese
  • Polish
  • Japanese
  • Portuguese
  • Thai
  • Welsh
  • Catalan
  • French
  • Hungarian
  • Bulgarian

Characters[edit]

  • Museum Owner (Mike Cavanagh) - The owner of the car museum where Brum lives. He is the only human character who appears in every episode, and the only character who was apparently oblivious to Brum's sentience. Despite the fact he always finds the item(s) in Brum's seats at the end of each episode, he never questioned it and simply take said item(s) away.
    • Mike Cavanagh was the actual owner/curator of the museum in real life until he retired after selling the museum to the CSMA Club in 1999.
  • The Lollipop Lady (Shirley-Anne Bohm) - A lady who guides traffic along through the big town, allowing Brum to cross on pedestrian crossings as and when appropriate.
  • The Big Town Robber (Andrew Davenport) - A robber who is usually always up to mischief, such as when he stole the trophy for the big race. Brum is usually the one that foils his plans.
  • Mr and Mrs La-Di-Dah - A posh married couple who were regularly featured in season 2.
  • Mr and Mrs Doolally (Mark Barnsley + ) - A friendly if slightly absent minded couple who were regularly featured in season 2.
  • Vicky Spoon - A regular cast member of the second series, Vicky's Brum's special friend.
  • Micky Mender - a handyman, a regular cast member of the second series.
  • Granny Slippers (Linda Kerr Scott) — She wears slippers wherever she goes.
  • Mr Brillo (Rob Thirtle) — He loves gnomes. He lives next door to Granny Slippers and has currently been seen wearing a colourful waistcoat, black circle glasses, a tie and blue shirt. His favourite picture is the Gnoma Lisa. He has loads of gnomes in his garden.
  • Scruffy - Brum's friend, a dog who loves burying things.
  • Big Town Manager (John Woodford) — the manager of the town.
  • Mrs Posh (Iona Kennedy / Carole Davies) - A posh lady who lives in the town.
  • Traffic Policeman (Mark Powlett) - A 'knock-about' policeman. He owns a horse called Arrow.
  • Gorgeous Gordon (Enoch White) - A self-centered, full of himself hairdresser.
  • Bob & Job (Kevin McGreevy & Adam Schumacher) — The two comically clumsy men who wear green dungarees and yellow t-shirts and help the town in a Laurel and Hardy style slapstick way.
  • Rrenford Junior Fagan - A regular cast member of series 3, playing different characters.
  • Balloon Boy (Chris Meah)
  • Rob & Nick (Daniel Lloyd now known professionally as Dan Carey & Jason Segade) a bumbling pair of thieves also known as the big town baddies.
  • Policewoman (Lisa Allen)
  • Sally A woman in Big town who got her cake stolen by teenagers.

Episodes[edit]

Series 1: 1991[edit]

Rescue - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 26 September 1991
Brum comes to the aid of a girl whose balloons and ragdoll have flown away and got stuck on top of a very high building.
Kite - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 3 October 1991
A flyaway kite causes some trouble for Brum and a small boy on a windy day.
Scrapyard - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 10 October 1991
Brum has trouble after his battery goes flat and is taken to a car breaker's yard - but who will save him from being scrapped?
Opera - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 17 October 1991
Brum finds himself center stage at an opera and chased by a fierce viking.
Mower - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 24 October 1991
Brum tries to stop a mower from wreaking havoc in the park.
Seaside - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 31 October 1991
Brum goes to the seaside for the day with a family.
Little Girl Lost - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 7 November 1991
Brum helps a lost little girl to find her way home again.NOTE this is an episode where brum does save the day.
Wheels - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 14 November 1991
Brum helps a boy in a wheelchair when he competes in a go-karting race.
Stilts - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 21 November 1991
Brum meets a girl doing gymnastics and a stilt walker, and helps them to put on their show.
Removal Van - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 28 November 1991
Brum helps a family move into their new house, and ends up being removed himself.
Robbers - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 5 December 1991
Brum needs help from his two magician friends to foil a pair of bank robbers.
Runaway Pram - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 12 December 1991
Brum successfully stops a pram from running away - but can't understand why its owner isn't more concerned for their baby...
Safari Park - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 20 December 1991
Brum helps a nature photographer take pictures of different kinds of wild animals.

Series 2: 1994[edit]

Brum and the Helicopter - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 6 October 1994
When the Lollipop Lady finds herself a little higher off the ground than usual, Brum comes to the rescue with the help of a helicopter.
Brum and the Crane - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 13 October 1994
Brum learns how a crane works, and enlists its help to rescue a dog that has been wrongly imprisoned by the park keeper.
Brum is an Ice Skating Star - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 20 October 1994
Brum competes in an ice skating contest when a female skater's male partner sprains his ankle.
Brum and the Big Chase - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 27 October 1994
Brum and the Big Town residents are dancing on the streets of the city - unaware that they are being robbed.
Brum and the Wedding - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 3 November 1994
When a car taking a bride to her wedding breaks down, Brum becomes her new transport - in a very unlikely way.
Brum and the Big Town Race - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 10 November 1994
Brum puts his new-found sporting skills to use when the Big Town Robber steals the sports trophy.
Brum Goes Shopping - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 17 November 1994
Brum goes to a supermarket with the Doolallys and gets more than he bargained for.
Brum and the Very Windy Day - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 24 November 1994
A strong wind blows Mrs Doolally's washing away and Brum tries to catch it.
Brum and the Street Party - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 1 December 1994
Brum helps organise a street party for a roadsweeper friend who's down in the dumps.
Brum and the Naughty Kitten - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 8 December 1994
Brum and Mr Doolally are on the hunt for a lost kitten.
Brum and the Marching Band - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 15 December 1994
Brum helps the drummer in a marching band when he is late for a concert.
Brum and the Flood - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 22 December 1994
When rainy weather makes a vast puddle on the streets of the town, Brum ventures down into the sewer system to unblock the drains.
Brum Goes House Painting - [C] Ragdoll Production For BBC TV. Airdate 29 December 1994
Brum helps Painter Dave and Gary Doolally with redecorating Auntie Pat's house - but they make a huge mistake that only the firemen can put right.

Series 3: 2001[edit]

Brum and the Airport Adventure - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 3 September 2001 - from Airport
Thieves steal a celebrity's valuable jewellery at the airport and Brum tries to stop the cargo plane before they take off.
Brum and the Naughty Dog - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 10 September 2001 - from Airport
Scruffy the dog causes mayhem in the town by chasing after a flying hot dog and Brum tries to get him out of trouble.
Brum and the Pizzeria - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 17 September 2001 - from Airport
Brum comes to the rescue when the thieves were dressed as chefs steal a waiter's money belt.
Brum and the Gymnast - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 24 September 2001 - from Airport
Brum strives to stop a gymnast's hoop, which causes chaos as it bounces through the town
Brum and the King of Thieves - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 1 October 2001 - from Airport
The Shadow sneaks into the museum and steals the Big Town crown. Brum tries to return it back in time.
Brum and the Skateboarding Bride -Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 8 October 2001 - from Runaway Statue
A beautiful bride looks set to miss her wedding when she steps on a runaway skateboard. Brum tries to stop it before it is too late.
Brum - Chasing Balloons - Ragdoll Productions for HIT. Airdate 15 October 2001 - from Stunt Bike Rescue/Runaway Statue
The Big Town balloon seller has her goods stolen. Brum tries to catch the baddies before they float up into the sky.
Brum and the Stolen Necklace - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 22 October 2001 - from Kitten Rescue
Brum sets off in hot pursuit of a thief who has stolen Miss Lover's new necklace.
Brum and The Pantomime Cow - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 29 October 2001 - from Snow Thieves
Brum chases a pair of villains who are cleverly disguised as a pantomime cow.
Brum and the Runaway Train - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 5 November 2001 - from Stunt Bike Rescue
Brum speeds to the rescue of the Big Town mayor when he gets trapped on a funfair train ride. He stops the train before it runs off the rails by letting it crash into the bags full of trash.
Brum and The Birthday Cake - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 12 November 2001 - from Soccer Hero
Brum goes in hot pursuit of the naughty Cake Gang when they steal Sally's birthday treat.
Brum and the Mobile Phone - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 19 November 2001 - from Soccer Hero
Scruffy the Dog gets himself in hot water by mistaking a mobile phone for a bone.
Brum - Bushes On The Run - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 26 November 2001 - from Runaway Statue
When two thieves cleverly disguised as bushes rob the flower-seller, Brum sets off in hot pursuit
Brum and the Diamond Dog - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 3 December 2001 - from Runaway Statue
Brum helps Mrs Celebrity retrieve her puppy's stolen diamond collar.
Brum and The Runaway Statue - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 10 December 2001 - from Runaway Statue
Brum comes to the rescue when the new statue of the Mayoress rolls away just before its unveiling.
Brum and the Music Box - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 17 December 2001 - from Snow Thieves
Brum speeds to the rescue when a music box is stolen from a class of ballet dancers.
Brum and the Snow Thieves - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 25 December 2001 - from Snow Thieves
Brum sets off in hot pursuit of two thieves who have stolen the takings from the Big Town ski slope.

Series 4: 2002[edit]

Brum and the Kitten Rescue - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 1 April 2002 - from Kitten Rescue
Brum Rescues A Kitten
Brum and The Splash And Grab - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 8 April 2002 - from Stunt Bike Rescue/Soccer Hero
Brum witnesses two thieves stealing the trophy for the swimming gala and promptly gives chase.
Brum and the Golden Loo - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 15 April 2002 - from Snow Thieves
Two of the Big Town baddies steal a golden toilet from Mr and Mrs Bank Manager and Brum tries to stop them.
Brum and The Golf Buggy - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 22 April 2002 - from Kitten Rescue
Two Big Town baddies steal all the trophies from the local golf club and Brum tries to stop them again.
Brum and The Soccer Hero - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 29 April 2002 - from Soccer Hero
It's cup final day but the Big Town team are losing to cheating opposition, until Brum comes on as a substitute.
Brum and the Rampant Robot - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 13 May 2002 - from Soccer Hero
When a home-made robot malfunctions and runs riot through Big Town, Brum must stop it from causing mayhem
Brum and the Shop Window Dummy - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 14 May 2002 - from Stopwatch Botch
A woman tries to steal a dress from a Big Town shop window and ends up taking the mannequin as well. Brum tries to stop her.
Brum and the Bowling Alley - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 20 May 2002 - from Snow Thieves
Pickpocket Polly helps herself to a man's wallet at the bowling alley.
Brum and The Basketball Star - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 27 May 2002 - from Stopwatch Botch
The Big Town wheelchair basketball team almost lose their final game, until Brum saves the day.
Brum and The Gorilla Caper - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 10 June 2002 - from Stunt Bike Rescue
Brum races to the rescue when three dancers dressed as gorillas have their money stolen by the secretive Shadow.
Brum and The Runaway Sofa - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 16 June 2002 - from Stopwatch Botch
As usual, Brum speeds to the rescue when an abandoned sofa causes mayhem as it rolls through Big Town.
Brum and The Kidnapped Garden Gnome - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 24 June 2002 - from Kitten Rescue
Nick and Rob steal Mr Brillo's prize gnome to sell on their market stall. Brum tries to stop them and return it.
Brum and the Runaway Ball - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 1 July 2002 - from Snow Thieves
An ornamental stone ball falls from a van and thunders through Big Town, but Brum saves the day.

Series 5: 2002[edit]

Brum and The Stunt Bike Rescue - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 2 September 2002 - from Stunt Bike Rescue
Brum saves the day when Granny Slippers hurtles out of control through Big Town on a runaway stunt bike.
Brum and The Stopwatch Botch - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 9 September 2002 - from Stopwatch Botch
A stopwatch is stolen, but fortunately Brum is on hand to retrieve it by sending the thief into a spin.
Brum and the Cream Balloon - Ragdoll Productions for HIT. Airdate 16 September 2002 - from Crazy Chair Chase
A cream-filled balloon bounces through the streets, causing havoc wherever it goes - but Brum is on hand to save the day.
Brum and the Pickpocket - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 23 September 2002 - from Snow Thieves
Pickpocket Polly and Magic Paul arrive in town and escape with a bag full of loot. Brum tries to stop them.
Brum and The Daring Gnome Rescue - Ragdoll Productions for HIT. Airdate 30 September 2002 - from Stopwatch Botch
Brum zooms to the rescue when Mr Brillo's new garden gnome gets stuck up a flagpole.
Brum and The Mischievous Mouse - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 7 October 2002 - from Crazy Chair Chase
As usual, Brum races to the rescue when a girl's pet mouse escapes and runs riot around town.
Brum And The Bank Robbers - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 14 October 2002 - from Crazy Chair Chase
Brum retrieves a stolen safe from a river.
Brum and The Runaway Rickshaw - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 21 October 2002 - from Kitten Rescue
Mr Brillo is happily riding in a rickshaw as part of the Big Town parade. Brum speeds to the rescue when Mr Brillo's rickshaw loses its brakes, rolls away and crashes into the handrail on the edge of a high building and teeters perilously on it. Brum saves the day by pulling the rickshaw and Mr Brillo to safety.
Brum and the Paint Pandemonium - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 28 October 2002 - from Crazy Chair Chase
An artist's money is stolen and Brum races to the scene of the crime, where he makes a big impression.
Brum and the Crazy Chair Chase - Ragdoll Productions for HIT Entertainment. Airdate 4 November 2002 - from Crazy Chair Chase
Gorgeous Gordon's new barber's chair malfunctions, sending him whizzing through the town, but Brum saves the day by arranging a soft landing.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hunkin, Tim; Garrod, Rex (1990). "The Secret Life of the Radio". The Secret Life of Machines. Season 2. Episode 11. 10 minutes in. Channel 4.

External links[edit]