Bruntál

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Coordinates: 49°59′N 17°27′E / 49.983°N 17.450°E / 49.983; 17.450
Bruntál
Town
Country Czech Republic
Region Moravian-Silesian
District Bruntál
Commune Bruntál
Elevation 409 m (1,342 ft)
Coordinates 49°59′N 17°27′E / 49.983°N 17.450°E / 49.983; 17.450
Area 29.34 km2 (11.33 sq mi)
Population 17,686
Density 603 / km2 (1,562 / sq mi)
Founded 1213
Mayor Petr Rys (ODS)
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 792 01
Location in the Czech Republic
Location in the Czech Republic
Location in the Moravian-Silesian Region
Location in the Moravian-Silesian Region
Wikimedia Commons: Bruntál
Statistics: statnisprava.cz
Website: www.mubruntal.cz

Bruntál (Czech pronunciation: [ˈbruntaːl]; German: Freudenthal in Schlesien, Polish: Bruntal, Latin: Vallis Gaudiorum, Vrudental) is a town located near the western boundary of Moravian-Silesian Region, in Czech Silesia. From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland. A suitable position in the middle of the Jeseníky Mountains provides an ample number of touristic opportunities to the town. The cultural importance of Bruntál lies in its possession of a Baroque castle and many historical buildings.

Geography[edit]

Bruntál is situated between the Hrubý Jeseník mountains and the rolling hills of the Nízký Jeseník mountains. The town lies in a valley surrounded by several hills (Uhlířský vrch, 672 m (2,205 ft); Vodárenský vrch, 599 m (1,965 ft); Zadní Zelený vrch, 563 m (1,847 ft); Kozinec, 639 m (2,096 ft)). The Black Creek (Černý potok) with its tributaries, the Oak Creek (Bukový potok), the Mare Creek (Kobylí potok), and the Waterworks Creek (Vodárenský potok), run through Bruntál. The Mare Pond (Kobylí rybník) is located in the middle of the town. The Oak Pond (Bukový rybník), with a surface area of 5 ha,[1] lies almost 1 km (0.6 mi) northwest of the town. A dam reservoir the Slezská Harta, 870 ha of sheet in size,[2] is located approximately 5 km (3 mi) southeast of the town. There are many residues resembling volcanic activity which took place in the Quaternary era. Uhlířský vrch (672 m (2,205 ft)), Venušina sopka (655 m (2,149 ft)), Velký Roudný (780 m (2,560 ft)), Malý Roudný (770 m (2,530 ft)) and others belong among extinct volcanos. These volcanoes are a part of the Slunečná Highlands (Slunečná vrchovina). The Slunečná Highlands is 16 km (10 mi) long and it lies southwards from Bruntál to Moravský Beroun, it includes the highest mountain of the Nízký Jeseník mountains, Mount Slunečná (800 m (2,600 ft)).

Geology[edit]

Bruntál belongs to the Czech Massif which is the main geologic structure in the Czech Republic. Bruntál lies in the Moravian-Silesian Unit which is a preplatform unit formed until the end of the Variscan orogeny (Hercynian orogeny). Bruntál is a part of the region consisting foremost of sedimentary rocks formed during the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous period. In terms of Czech geology, this geologic period is called kulm. The mentioned region stretches from Brno to Krnov.

The main geologic formations distributed across the town and its surroundings are turbidites. The most common rock in the area is slate. In the west of the town slate enriched by apatite and zircon can be found. In the east of the town lighter forms of slate occur. Fluvial sands and rubble together with deluvial sediments of clay and sand origin lie along the rivers and creeks. Eluvial sediments prevail in the west part of the town.

The most remarkable geologic site in the surroundings of the town is Uhlířský vrch. Originally, Uhlířský vrch was a stratovolcano (compositive volcano) formed by both explosive and effusive eruptions, thus it is composed of pyroclastic rocks. 40–80% of the mentioned pyroclastic rocks consist of lapilli, 10–50% consist of volcanic bombs, the rest is made from volcanic ash.[3] In addition, it is possible to perceive a frequent occurrence of metamorphic xenoliths dated back to the Mississippian Epoch of the Carboniferous period. The colors of the pyroclastic rocks vary from brown to yellow. The older effusive eruptions resulted in an occurrence of nepheline basalt and nephelinite. The effusive phase is approximately 2.4 ± 0.5 million years old[3] and therefore it dates back to the Pliocene (also called Pleiocene) and Pleistocene Epoch.

History[edit]

The only source referring to the founding of the town is the Uničov Charter issued by Czech king Přemysl I Otakar (1155–1230) in 1223. There it is stated that the town of Bruntál was the first town in Bohemia that had been granted Magdeburg Rights ten years before the issue of the charter. Possession of these rights shows the importance of the town because Magdeburg Rights are considered as one of the most remarkable set of Germanic medieval city laws. The reasons leading the king Přemysl I Otakar to pursuit a founding of a new town were twofold. The northern border of Moravia had faced many attempts of colonization under auspices of the Bishops of Breslau (Wrocław) so the necessity to prevent these actions was obvious. Also a discovery of ore deposits in the surroundings of Bruntál contributed to establishing the town. These facts have made historians assume Bruntál was founded by Vladislav Jindřich, the Margrave of Moravia, in 1213.

The mining of noble metals contributed to emerging of the town significantly, which was reflected by the first appearance of Bruntál coat of arms dated back to 1287. The town became a center of local crafts and trade. In addition, endowing with Magdeburg Rights Bruntál was the highest appellate jurisdiction for even Olomouc until 1352. Originally, Bruntál belonged to the domain of Moravian Margraves but in 1269 Bruntál was in part transferred into the possession of the Dukes of Opava and finally they took control over the whole Bruntál territory in 1318. Between 1385 and 1467 (1473) Bruntál was severally mortgaged and sold. Finally, the Lords of Vrbno gained Bruntál into their domain.

The first person of the House of Vrbno was John of Bruntál and Vrbno, reigning from 1576 to 1577. His heirs, who had not reached their legal age at the time of the death of their father, were given the domain of Bruntál in 1506 by the Princess Barbara of Opava, Ratiboř, and Krnov upon a condition of being a close ally to the Principality of Krnov. But the Lords of Vrbno preferred ties with the Principality of Opava and therefore they managed to gain an approval from Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1523 which granted an embodying of Bruntál domain into the Principality of Opava. The most important owner of Bruntál domain was Hynek The Older of Vrbno reigning from 1582 to 1596 who enjoyed a respect from the emperors Ferdinand I (1526–1564), Maximilian II (1564–1576), and Rudolf II (1576–1612). The last Lord of Vrbno was Hynek The Younger of Vrbno reigning from 1613 to 1614.

Intensive mining backed by the Lords of Würbenthal led to a founding of several neighbouring towns (e.g. Andělská Hora about 1550, Vrbno pod Pradědem in 1611). In addition, many kinds of industry took place at these times (e.g. smithery at Suchá Rudná in 1405 and Mezina in 1567, 7 timber mills in 1579). In May 1617 Bruntál was bought by the last Lord of Vrbno John IV of Vrbno, who joined the Uprising of the Estates and gained a rank of the Director in 1619. His close ties to the "Winter King" Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who was John's guest in February 1620, posed him into a very dangerous circumstances after the Battle of White Mountain in1620. He was forced to leave his Freudenthal possessions and escape from the country in 1620. The emperor Ferdinand II (1619–1637) confiscated the Bruntál domain and gave it to his brother Karl I of Austria (1619–1624) who was the Grand Master (Hochmeister) of the Teutonic Order.

The Freudenthal domain together with other properties of the Teutonic Order was under the direct administration of the Grand Master and therefore a lieutenancy was established in 1625. The Thirty Years' War damaged the town significantly and after that conflict, Freudenthal has never achieved its previous importance again. During the 18th century many disasters challenged the town (e.g. the plague in 1714 and 1739, the great fire in 1748 and 1764). Neverthenless, many new baroque buildings were built during this period. Other improvements took place in Freudenthal, a new post office was established in 1748. Development of industry could be perceived in Freudenthal during the 19th century. In terms of textile industry, Bruntál belonged to the most important towns in Silesia. In 1885, a public hospital was opened as the first in Czech Silesia. In addition, many new high schools were established during the second half of the 19th century. During Austro-Prussian War in 1866, Freudenthal was occupied by the Prussian Army and the Freudenthal Castle served as a hospital for soldiers.

According to the Austrian census of 1910 the town had 8,066 inhabitants, 7,965 of whom had permanent residence there. Census asked people for their native language, 7,939 (99.7%) were German-speaking. Jews were not allowed to declare Yiddish, most of them thus declared the German language as their native. Most populous religious groups were Roman Catholics with 7,725 (95.8%), followed by Protestants with 229 (2.8%) and the Jews with 97 (1.2%).[4]

Until 1918, FREUDENTHAL IN SCHLESIEN was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), in the district with the same name, one of the 8 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Austrian Silesia.[5] The name FREUDENTHAL was used until at least 1873.[6]

After the World War I, a German-led uprising took place in Bruntál but it was suppressed by the Czech Army in December 1918. Between 1919 and 1924, the possessions of the Teutonic Order in Bruntál were put under the state administration. Within the First Republic of Czechoslovakia, Bruntál belonged to the towns with significant preponderance of German inhabitants, only a very small Czech minority lived in Bruntál at that times. Not surprisingly, German nationalism gained many sympathizers among German inhabitants of Bruntál, which was reflected in an attempt for uprising in September 1938. After signing the Munich Agreement on September 29, 1938, Bruntál was occupied by German troops. Bruntál was liberated by the Soviet army (Red Army) on May 7, 1945. In 1946 the possessions of the Teutonic Order were confiscated in accordance with the Decree of the President Edvard Beneš and transferred to the Czechoslovak Republic. As was the case in most of the former Czechoslovakia, the German population was forcefully expelled.

Education[edit]

A wide arrange of educational facilities is available in Bruntál. Czech educational system distinguishes four basic levels of schools. A nursery school is an educational facility aimed at providing a care for children, who has turn at least 2 years, throughout a day. The second level of education (which is perceived as primary education) is represented by primary schools, where attendance is compulsory for children from their 6 (in certain cases 7) years until they turn 15 years. Various sorts of high schools present the third level of Czech educational system (which is perceived as secondary education). Individual schools placed in the mentioned category differs in their specialization one another. The supreme level of school system is a university (which is perceived as higher education).

According to the mentioned scheme, it is possible to distinguish schools located in Bruntál as follows. There are 6 nursery schools, 5 primary schools, and 6 high schools. In addition, the Business School Ostrava (a private-owned university style institution) has placed its consultation center into Bruntál. Therefore Bruntál inhabitants were given a chance to study a university in their own town. Moreover, a special school (in Czech terminology called Speciální škola) provides an education for Bruntál children with specific health difficulties (e.g. mentally affected children). There is also an art school in Bruntál. However, the Czech term Art School refers to a facility operating mostly on the levels of primary and secondary education, which is independent of both primary and high schools.

Another notable educational facility is the House of Children and Youth (in Czech terminology Dům dětí a mládeže). This facility is aimed at providing various leisure activities for children (6–15 years), young people (15–18), and adults of all ages. Understandably, attendance to this type of educational facility is entirely optional. The current sorts of activities offered by the House of Children and Youth vary from sports (belly dancing, volleyball, gymnastics, etc.) to fine arts (pottery, playing various musical instruments).

Primary Schools
Official Name Teacher Staff Number of Pupils External link
Bruntál Elementary School, Cihelní 6 29 489 http://www.zscihelni.cz
Bruntál Elementary School, Jesenická 10 44 691 http://www.1zsbr.cz/
Bruntál Elementary School, Okružní 38 33 479 http://www.zsbrok.cz
Bruntál Elementary School and City Eight-Year Grammar School, Školní 2 35 405 http://www.zsamog.bruntal.cz
AMOS Elementary School, o.p.s. 9 47 N/A
Secondary Schools
Official Name Foundation Teacher Staff Number of Students External link
Bruntál Grammar School, Dukelská 1 1946 27 344 http://www.gymbru.cz/
Bruntál High School of Industry, Kavalcova 1 1962 49 425 http://www.sps-br.cz/
Bruntál High School of Services, Dukelská 5 1945 59 N/A http://www.soubruntal.cz/skolal.html
Bruntál High School of Craft Industry, Krnovská 9 1958 N/A N/A http://www.zsamog.bruntal.cz
City Eight-Year Grammar School, Školní 2 1926 29 209 http://www.zsamog.bruntal.cz
Commercial Academy and High School of Agriculture, Žižkovo Náměstí 10 1960 29 335 http://www.oaz.cz/

The data included in both tables are valid as of the school year 2005/2006. The mentioned data were retrieved from the websites of the respected schools. The official English names of the schools were deliberately created by author, because any official English names of the mentioned educational facilities were not found.

People[edit]

plate of Therese Krones
  • Leo Gudas (born 1965, here), a Czech hockey player

Residents[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Bruntál is twinned with:

Twin towns
City Region/Country Beginning of Cooperation
Büdingen Flag of Germany.svg Hesse/Germany 1999
Castellarano Flag of Italy.svg Emilia-Romagna/Italy 2002
Opole[8] Flag of Poland.svg Opole Voivodship/Poland 1992
Plungė Flag of Lithuania.svg Samogitia/Lithuania 2005
Štúrovo Flag of Slovakia.svg Nitra region/Slovakia 2002

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Czech Fishing Union. 2006. Fishing Waters, Non-Salmonid Waters, Bukový rybník 1 A - MO Bruntál 5 ha http://crs-ova.fishnet.cz/index.php?path=reviry/view.php&typ=m&revir=471169. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
  2. ^ Povodí Odry, the State Public Enterprise. 1998. The Waterwork of Slezská Harta. http://www.pod.cz/harta.html. Retrieved June 28, 2009.
  3. ^ a b Zapletal, Jan. 1995. 38 - Uhlířský vrch u Bruntálu. In: Jiří Zimák, Jaromír Demek, Ilja Pek, and Jan Zapletal, The Guide for Geologic Excursions. Middle and Northern Moravia and Silesia [Průvodce ke geologickým exkurzím. Střední a severní Morava a Slezsko]. Olomouc: Vydavatelství Univerzity Palackého, s. 39. ISBN 80-7067-537-3.
  4. ^ Ludwig Patryn (ed): Die Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1910 in Schlesien, Troppau 1912.
  5. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  6. ^ Opening of FREUDENTHAL bei FRANKENMARKT in Upper Austria (Klein 1182).
  7. ^ a b c d e [citation needed]
  8. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

Sources[edit]

  • Czech Fishing Union. 2006. Fishing Waters, Non-Salmonid Waters, Bukový rybník 1 A - MO Bruntál 5 ha. [1] (accessed July 27, 2006)
  • Niesner, Tomáš. 2003. On History of Bruntál [Z historie města Bruntálu]. The Official Website of Bruntál Municipal Office, August 11, 2003 [cited July 23, 2006]. [2] (accessed July 26, 2006)
  • Povodí Odry, the State Public Enterprise. 1998. The Waterwork of Slezská Harta. [3][4] (accessed July 27, 2006)
  • Vencálek, Jaroslav et al. 1995. The Northern Moravia and the Czech Silesia [Severní Morava a České Slezsko]. Český Těšín: Olza.
  • Zapletal, Jan. 1995. 38 - Uhlířský vrch u Bruntálu. In: Jiří Zimák, Jaromír Demek, Ilja Pek, and Jan Zapletal, The Guide for Geologic Excursions. Middle and Northern Moravia and Silesia [Průvodce ke geologickým exkurzím. Střední a severní Morava a Slezsko]. Olomouc: Vydavatelství Univerzity Palackého, s. 39. ISBN 80-7067-537-3.

External links[edit]