Bryansk

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Bryansk (English)
Брянск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Петровская гора 2013.jpg
View to historical center from new district
Map of Russia - Bryansk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Bryansk Oblast in Russia
Bryansk is located in Bryansk Oblast
Bryansk
Bryansk
Location of Bryansk in Bryansk Oblast
Coordinates: 53°15′N 34°22′E / 53.250°N 34.367°E / 53.250; 34.367Coordinates: 53°15′N 34°22′E / 53.250°N 34.367°E / 53.250; 34.367
Coat of Arms of Bryansk (1781).png
Flag of Bryansk.png
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day September 17[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of January 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Bryansk Oblast[2]
Administratively subordinated to Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug (city of oblast significance)[2]
Administrative center of Bryansk Oblast,[1] Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug,[2] Bryansky District[1]
Municipal status (as of August 2012)
Urban okrug Bryansk Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Bryansk Urban Okrug,[3] Bryansky Municipal District[3]
Head[citation needed] Alexander Kovalyov[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 230 km2 (89 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census) 415,721 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 41st
Density 1,807 /km2 (4,680 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded 985[7] or 1146[8]
Postal code(s)[9] 241000
Dialing code(s) +7 4832[citation needed]
Official website
Bryansk on WikiCommons

Bryansk (Russian: Брянск; IPA: [brʲænsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located 379 kilometers (235 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: 415,721 (2010 Census);[4] 431,526 (2002 Census);[10] 452,160 (1989 Census).[11]

History[edit]

View of May Day at Gagarin Boulevard in 1920

The first written mention of Bryansk was in 1146, in the Hypatian Codex, as Debryansk (appears variously as Дъбряньск, Дьбряньск, and in other spellings).[8] Its name is derived from "дъбръ", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland", or "dense woodland";[12][13] the area was known for its dense woods, of which very little remains today. Local authorities and archaeologists, however, believe that the town had existed as early as 985[7] as a fortified settlement on the right bank of the Desna River.

Bryansk remained poorly attested until the Mongol invasion of Rus'. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids. After Mikhail of Chernigov was murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the Principality of Smolensk.

Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Švitrigaila, and Yury of Smolensk.

The Grand Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles. During the Time of Troubles, it was occupied by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1610 and remained at Polish hands as part of Smolensk Voivodeship until the Truce of Deulino in 1634. Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into Kiev Governorate, but Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the economy of Bryansk, which had become a regional trading center, was based on the Svenskaya fair, the largest in European Russia. The fair was held annually under the auspices of the Svensky Monastery. After cannon and ammunition started to be manufactured there for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783, Bryansk evolved from a regional market town into an important industrial center for metallurgy and textiles. The city's population exceeded 30,000 by 1917.[14]

In the late 1730s in Bryansk organized large shipyard, the first state-owned enterprise, and from 1785 begins to act Bryansk Arsenal. At the beginning of the 19th century it was the largest, after the Tula, weapons factories of the country. During the War of 1812, every fourth gun and rifle in every fourth Russian army had its stigma. In the middle of the 19th century, especially in the second half, Bryansk began to grow rapidly. In 1850, the city had 30 industrial establishments. For 20 years, from 1840 to 1860, the population increased from Bryansk eight to twelve thousand people, and bye 1890, there were about 21 thousand inhabitants. This increase was associated with the development of capitalism in Russia, and in particular since the beginning of the country's railway construction.[15]

In 1918, the Belarusian People's Republic claimed Bryansk, but the town was taken by Bolshevik forces in 1919. On the eve of 1927 in large scale construction received. Erected the first high-rise residential buildings for the workers, Council House, theater. Population of Bryansk and Bezhitsa by this time reached 77,000 people at more than 20 thousand more than were residents here after the Civil War. In the first five years of a large scale construction began Bryansk power plant, the power base for the further growth of the industry of the city. In 1931, were put two turbo generators. and simultaneously being reconstructed plants.

During World War II, Bryansk was occupied by the Germans (from October 6, 1941 to September 17, 1943) and the city was heavily damaged by fighting. About 60,000 Soviet partisans were active in and around Bryansk, inflicting heavy losses on the German army. In 1944, soon after its liberation, Bryansk became the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast.

1950s the city's machine industry was completely rebuilt: annual investment increased by three, and the volume of production has doubled. It was re-established and the urban economy has been running programs to build the pipeline. In the late 50s economic system of Bryansk has been reorganized based on a territorial basis. The result was an administrative and economic regions: Bryansk industrial Northwestern District, south - eastern region, central and western industrial area.[16]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Bryansk is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Bryansky District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[2] As an administrative division, it is, together with three work settlements, incorporated separately as Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug is incorporated as Bryansk Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

Today's Bryansk is an important center for steel and machinery manufacturing, and is home to many large factories. The main industries are machine building, metalworking, chemical, electrical equipment, electronics, wood, textile and food industries, locomotives, diesel engines, freight cars, motor graders, pavers and other road equipment, agricultural equipment, construction materials, and garments.

Transportation[edit]

Bryansk-I, May 2010

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Bryansk and Moscow.[17] The city has railway stations: Bryansk Orlovsky and Bryansk-Lgovskiy (Bryansk Bryansk -I and -II, respectively), Ordzhonikidzegrad; Street Bus Station and Peresvet Bezhitsa bus station. 14 kilometers west of the city lies the Bryansk International Airport.

Passenger traffic carried by bus (more than 1,400 cars on 54 permanent urban routes), trolley on 10 regular routes, uses (36 routes), as well as commuter trains and railcars. The cost of public transport (trolley buses) is 12 rubles, and buses, 14 rubles (as of May 2013).

Trolleybus[edit]

Bryansk has an extensive system. First flight was December 5, 1960. Operation of the system is carried by municipal unitary enterprise "Bryansk trolleybus management" (Russian: Брянское троллейбусное управление).

In the early 1950s, Bryansk increased rapidly in size. Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of June 2, 1956 the city was annexed to Bezhitsa Bryansk and became Bezhitsk area. This event led to the need for a completely new approach to the organization of the public transport system. Postwar project of rebuilding the city originally planned to establish in Bryansk tram depot on 32 cars.[18]

In 1957, on the outskirts of the Soviet District began building a trolleybus depot for 50 cars (the current depot number 1), to provide infrastructure, build the first traction substation. Great help in the construction of assisted companies in other cities. 550 catenary poles came from Tula. Equipment and Materials supplied from Zaporozhye, the Urals, from Moscow and Tashkent. Moscow specialists participated in the commissioning of equipment, trained staff. Director trolleybus depot became the hero of the Soviet Union AV Sidorov. Subsequently, the depot has been named number one in his honor.

In 1960 the opening of the October Bridge over the Desna River, linking the railway station with the Soviet area. Trolleybus route number 1 "trolleybus depot - Station Bryansk-I» runs through the new bridge. The park consists of five machines of MTB-82D. In 1961 the construction of another concrete bridge over the Desna was completed, "Black Bridge" linking Sovietsky and Fokinskiy raions. This bridge runs through the route number 2 "Station Bryansk-I - Meat Processing Plant."

In 1966, after the construction of dams across the cruets and opening Pershamajski bridge linking the area with the Soviet Bezhitsk was opened route number 3 "trolleybus depot - Lenin Avenue - turn Gorodischenskiy - Stalzavod" plying between the Soviet and Bezhitsk areas.

Notable people[edit]

Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev, shot put athlete Svetlana Krivelyova, sculptor and architect Naum Gabo, and classical pianist Valentina Igoshina were born in Bryansk. Bulgarian communist leader Stanke Dimitrov (Marek) died in an aviation accident near the city. The writer Leonid Dobychin spent most of his adult years there.

Climate[edit]

Bryansk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb).

Climate data for Bryansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
9.9
(49.8)
18.7
(65.7)
26.0
(78.8)
32.2
(90)
34.0
(93.2)
37.2
(99)
38.4
(101.1)
29.6
(85.3)
24.8
(76.6)
16.1
(61)
9.9
(49.8)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.7
(36.9)
12.0
(53.6)
19.0
(66.2)
22.0
(71.6)
23.9
(75)
22.6
(72.7)
16.5
(61.7)
9.7
(49.5)
1.8
(35.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.1
(21)
−6.1
(21)
−0.9
(30.4)
7.2
(45)
13.7
(56.7)
17.0
(62.6)
19.0
(66.2)
17.5
(63.5)
11.9
(53.4)
6.0
(42.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
6.1
(43)
Average low °C (°F) −8.5
(16.7)
−9.1
(15.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
3.0
(37.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.3
(54.1)
14.3
(57.7)
12.9
(55.2)
7.9
(46.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.5
(27.5)
−7.2
(19)
2.6
(36.7)
Record low °C (°F) −35.0
(−31)
−33.9
(−29)
−27.8
(−18)
−12.8
(9)
−3.4
(25.9)
−1.1
(30)
3.9
(39)
0.0
(32)
−5.0
(23)
−13.0
(8.6)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−33.0
(−27.4)
−35.0
(−31)
Precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
41
(1.61)
37
(1.46)
42
(1.65)
54
(2.13)
76
(2.99)
84
(3.31)
68
(2.68)
63
(2.48)
57
(2.24)
53
(2.09)
50
(1.97)
671
(26.42)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[19]

Culture and education[edit]

Bryansk has two universities, three theaters, and a technical academy.

International relations[edit]

Monument of Kurgan Bessmertiya

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Bryansk is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #13-Z
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #69-Z
  3. ^ a b c Law #3-Z
  4. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 56. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ a b Hypatian Codex
  9. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  10. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ Черных П. Я.: Историко-этимологический словарь современного русского языка. Москва, Русский язык-Медиа, 2004
  13. ^ Смолицкая Г. П.: Топонимический словарь Центральной России. Москва, Армада-пресс, 2002
  14. ^ История Брянска
  15. ^ История Брянска
  16. ^ История города
  17. ^ Train Station in Bryansk (Russian)
  18. ^ Летопись брянского троллейбуса
  19. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 

Sources[edit]

  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №13-З от 5 июня 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Брянской области», в ред. Закона №4-З от 5 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Брянской области». Опубликован: "Брянский рабочий", №119, 24 июня 1997 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #13-Z of June 5, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #4-Z of February 5, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Bryansk Oblast. ).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №69-З от 2 ноября 2012 г. «Об образовании городских административных округов, поселковых административных округов, сельских административных округов, установлении границ, наименований и административных центров административных округов в Брянской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2013 г. Опубликован: Информационный бюллетень "Официальная Брянщина", №16, 6 ноября 2012 г.. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #69-Z of November 2, 2002 On the Establishment of Urban Administrative Okrugs, Settlement Administrative Okrugs, Rural Administrative Okrugs, on Establishing Borders, Names, and Administrative Centers of the Administrative Okrugs of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2013.).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №3-З от 9 марта 2005 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований статусом статусом городского округа, муниципального района, городского поселения, сельского поселения и установлении границ муниципальных образований в Брянской области», в ред. Закона №4-З от 5 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Брянской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Брянская неделя", №13, 8 апреля 2005 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #3-Z of March 9, 2005 On Granting the Municipal Formations the Status of Urban Okrug, Municipal District, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement and on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #4-Z of February 5, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

External links[edit]