Buchla Electronic Musical Instruments
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Buchla Electronic Musical Instruments is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, synthesizers and unique MIDI controllers. The company was originally founded as Buchla & Associates by synthesizer pioneer Don Buchla in 1963 in Berkeley, California.
Company origin 
Buchla's beginning in synthesizer design was the result of a San Francisco Tape Center commission by composers Ramon Sender and Morton Subotnick, along with a $500 grant from Rockefeller Foundation. Subotnick envisioned a voltage-controlled instrument that would allow musicians and composers to create sounds suited to their own specifications. Previously, one had to use either discrete audio generators, such as test oscillators—or musique concrète, recorded sounds from natural sources. Buchla designed the synthesizer in a modular fashion, combining separate components that each generated or modified a music event. Each box served a specific function:envelope generators, oscillators, filters, voltage controlled amplifiers, and analog sequencer modules. Utilizing the different modules, a composer could affected the pitch, timbre, amplitude, and spatial location of the sound. The instrument was controlled and played via an array of touch and pressure-sensitive surfaces.
The instrument was named the Buchla 100 series Modular Electronic Music System. Shortly thereafter, Subotnick completed his first major electronic work, Silver Apples Of The Moon. Buchla's synthesizer, was also used on Buffy Sainte Marie's influential 1969 album, Illuminations. Along with Robert Moog's Moog synthesizer, it helped revolutionize the way electronic music and sound is made.
Buchla 200 series (1970) 
The Buchla 200 series Electric Music Box replaced the previous model in 1970 and represented a significant advance in technology. Almost every parameter can be controlled from an external control voltage.
Computer controlled instruments 
- Buchla 300, 500, Touché (mid 1970s)
In the mid 1970s, Don Buchla began experimenting with digital designs and computer controlled systems. The results were the 500 series and the 300 series, both of which paired the new technology with existing 200 series modules to create hybrid analog/digital systems. The Touché was also the result of this research, .
- Buchla 400, 700, and MIDAS (1980s)
Buchla's unique synthesizer designs 
Buchla tends to not refer to his instruments as synthesizers, as he feels that name gives the impression of imitating existing sounds/instruments. His intent is to make instruments that create new sounds. This goal is evident in the omission of a standard musical keyboard on his early instruments, which instead used a series of touch plates that were not necessarily tied to equal-tempered tuning.
He also uses a different naming convention than most of the industry. For example, one of his modules is called a "Multiple Arbitrary Function Generator." These differences run deeper than nomenclature though. The Multiple Arbitrary Function Generator (or MARF) goes well beyond what a typical sequencer is capable of performing and is capable of acting as an envelope generator, LFO, CV selector, voltage quantizer or tracking generator. Another module that sometimes gets cited for its uniqueness is the Source of Uncertainty. The Source of Uncertainty provides many different flavors of randomness, from noise of different colors, to a LFO-like fluctuating random voltage, and a couple forms of triggered static random voltages, all under voltage control. The Source of Uncertainty goes well beyond a noise and random module in a typical synthesizer.
Note that Don Buchla and Robert Moog simultaneously invented the modular synthesizer in 1963—Moog in New York and Buchla in California. This is an apparent example of multiple discovery. While there had been previous synthesizer experiments, Moog's and Buchla's major development that made the synthesizer portable and flexible was using control voltages to manipulate the various circuit elements.
Buchla's instruments, such as the Music Easel (pictured), use a different method of timbre generation than Moog synthesizers. Moog units use oscillators with basic function generator type waveshapes and rely heavily on filtering with 24dB resonant low-pass filters, while Buchlas are geared toward complex oscillators using frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and dynamic waveshaping to produce other forms of timbre modulation. Many of Don Buchla's designs, including the Low-Pass Gates (later called Dynamic Managers) contain vactrols, photoresistive opto-isolator employed as voltage-controlled potentiometers, which contribute to a very "natural" Buchla sound.
MIDI controllers (late 1980s) 
- Buchla Thunder, Buchla Lightning, Marimba Lumina
By the late 1980s, Don Buchla had stopped creating instruments and shifted his focus to alternate MIDI controllers. His controller designs have included the Thunder, Lightning, and Marimba Lumina.
223e Tactile Input Port (front) with Buchla 200e (rear)
Earliest analog sequencers on Buchla 100 (array of knobs on the bottom)
Buchla 200e series (2004) 
Finally, in 2004, Don Buchla returned to designing full blown modular electronic instruments with the 200e, a hybrid system using digital microprocessors that uses the same size modules and signals as the 100 and 200 series systems. The 200e modules convert all signals to analog at the panel, appearing to the user like an analog system, with patch cables. Systems can be built using a combination of 100, 200 and 200e modules. The 200e modules connect through a digital communications buss, allowing the system to store the settings of the knobs and switches.
Buchla Electronic Musical Instruments 
At the January, 2012 NAMM show, Buchla & Associates announced new ownership, retaining Don Buchla as Chief Technology Officer and investment in the design, manufacturing, and marketing of Buchla products and the development of an expanded product line, and the company moving forward under the name Buchla Electronic Musical Instruments. One year later, Buchla Electronic Musical Instruments re-introduced the Buchla's Music Easel.
See also 
- Buchla & Associates homepage
- Buchla & Associates - Historical Systems Overview
- Buchla Current Model 200e page
- Buchla 200 Series Information/Photos
- Buchla 100 Modular Synthesizer @ Synthmuseum.com
- Buchla instrument collection @ Audities.org
- Mark Vail, Vintage Synthesizers, Miller Freeman Books, 1993, p. 97-99
- "The Electric Music Box - Buchla Series 200". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla 500 electronic musical instrument (photograph only)". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla Series 300 - digital control for 200 series module". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla Touche Introduction (front page)". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla 400 Product Information". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla 700 (front page)". Buchla and Associates.
- "Music Easel - Summary Description / December, 1973". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla Thunder". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla Lightning II". Buchla and Associates.
- "Marimba Lumina 2.5". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla Series 200e (front page)". Buchla and Associates.
- "Buchla Electronic Musical Instruments Debuts At Winter NAMM 2012", Keyboard Magazine, Jan 2012
- "NAMM 2013 Gino's Hits", Gino Robair, Electronic Musician, Jan 2013