Buckeye was named for the buckeye bushes in Buckeye Creek. The town was in existence before April 11, 1855, when a Christian church was then built. Reverend JN Pendegast, the pastor of the Christian Church in nearby Woodland, reported the news in 1858 that a church had indeed been built in Buckeye. The local post office was established on May 17, 1855, and named after the town. JO Maxwell was the postmaster between 1857-1860 and transferred the post office to his store named Buckeye Store which he built in 1857.
In 1870 the area had a post office, a Masonic Hall, a saloon, a hotel, two stores, a blacksmith, a shoemaker's shop, a boarding house, and the Buckeye School, which was located on County Roads 31 and 90A. The town thrived until the Vaca Valley Railroad was built two miles west of the town, bypassing it in 1875. The denizens subsequently moved to the newly founded town of Winters or Madison, and the post office was closed. The residents even divided the Christian Church building materials between the two cities they were migrating to. In 1879 the only thing left of the town was the school they had built and two farmers who had stayed behind.
The Vaca Valley Railroad reached the current site of Winters in 1875, and the town of Winters was then established. The Vaca Valley and Clear Lake Railroad didn't go within two miles of Buckeye until 1877, when it progressed North from Winters to the brand new townsite of Madison.