Buddhism by country

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The percentage of cultural/nominal adherents of combined Buddhism with its related religions (according to the highest estimates).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]
The percentage of practicing Buddhists (according to the lower estimates of the Pew Research Center).[8]

Estimates of the Buddhist population vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence is defined. The most widely accepted estimates range from 350 million to 550 million practicing Buddhists,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] making Buddhism the fourth-largest religion after Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism. According to other estimates the Buddhist population exceeds 1 billion.[18][19][20]

Methodology[edit]

Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are one, a painting in the litang style portraying three men laughing by a river stream, 12th century, Song Dynasty.

Estimating the number of Buddhists in the world, or in many countries, is difficult due to definitional issues as well as practical problems of enumeration. To begin with, the religious beliefs, practices, and identities of East Asians (who comprise the majority of the world's Buddhists by any measure) often blend Buddhism with other traditions including Confucianism, the Chinese folk religion, Daoism, Shinto, and Korean shamanism.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Some followers of Buddhism do not belong to structured congregations, or observe a definite ritual of adherence such as taking Refuge, making it difficult to accurately estimate the number of practitioners. An additional challenge is the hostility of several national governments (often Communist ones such as China, North Korea, and Vietnam) to religion generally or to Buddhism specifically. Government policies in these countries may encourage the under-reporting or non-reporting of religious adherence, resulting in official totals that may drastically underestimate the number of religious practitioners in these countries.[7][28][29]

By major branches, the numbers are as follows:

(1) Mahayana Buddhism, including East Asian Buddhism, with no fewer than practicing 500 million adherents (who have registered to state-sponsored Buddhist institutions), and possibly several times that many (again, depending on definitional issues). This is the predominant form of Buddhism practiced in China, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia, and Vietnam.[30]
(2) Theravada Buddhism, with no fewer than 125 million adherents. This is the predominant form of Buddhism practiced in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Burma.
(3) Vajrayana Buddhism, with approximately 20 million adherents. This form predominates in the greater Tibetan and Mongolian regions, as well as in the Himalayas. Besides the independent countries of Mongolia and Bhutan, and various territories within what is now western China, Vajrayana is traditional to certain regions of Russia (e.g. Kalmykia, Buryatia), India (e.g. Ladakh, Sikkim), and Nepal (e.g. Khumbu). Vajrayana, also known as Tantric Buddhism, is often conflated with Tibetan Buddhism, but this is imprecise, as Shingon and other forms of East Asian Buddhism also practice vajrayana.

At least 7 countries (Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Bhutan, and Mongolia) have unambiguous Buddhist majorities. Depending on how one calculates Chinese and other East Asian adherents, this figure might expand to include several more countries. In addition, Buddhism is the state religion of Cambodia and Bhutan, and receives prominent mention in the constitutions of Thailand and Sri Lanka.

In northern India and Nepal, the religion severely declined during the first millennium. This decline was likely due to the competitive and antagonistic relationship towards Buddhism from the influential Brahmin Hindu caste, and then perhaps the Islamic conquest of northern India. However, there is still some debate over the exact reasons for Buddhism’s decline. See the article Decline of Buddhism in India.

Ethnic Buddhism with local traditional religions
Chinese[31] Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion[32][33][34]
Japanese[31] Mahayana Buddhism with Shinto[35][36][37]
Korean[31] Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, and Korean shamanism[38][39][40][41]
Vietnamese[31] Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism,[42][43] and Dao Mau[44]
Mongolian Vajrayana Buddhism with Tengrism, and Mongolian shamanism[45]
Nepali Vajrayana Buddhism with Hinduism[46]
Jewish Buddhist Buddhism with Judaism

By Country[edit]

Buddhism by Country
Country/Territory Population (July 2013)[47]  % Buddhist Buddhist total
Afghanistan Afghanistan 31,108,077 <0.1%[48] 6,282[49]
Algeria Algeria 38,087,812 <0.1%[48] 5,320 - 16,670[49]
 American Samoa 54,719 0.3%[48] - 0.7%[50] 164 - 383
Angola Angola 18,565,269 <0.1%[48] 1,632 - 1,794[49]
Argentina Argentina 42,610,981 0.1%[48][51] 42,611
 Armenia 2,974,184 <0.1%[48] 309[49]
 Aruba 109,153 0.1%[48] - 0.3%[52] 109 - 327
Australia Australia 22,262,501 2.5%[53] 556,563
Austria Austria 8,221,646 0.1%[54] - 0.2%[48] 8,222 - 16,444
 Bahamas 319,031 <0.1%[48] 82[49]
Bahrain Bahrain 1,281,332 0.2%[55] - 2.5%[48] 2,563 - 32,033
Bangladesh Bangladesh 163,654,860 0.5%[48] - 0.7%[56] 818,274 - 1,145,584
 Barbados 288,725 <0.1%[48] 50[57][58] - 109[49]
 Belarus 9,625,888 <0.1%[59] 1,151[49]
Belgium Belgium 10,444,268 0.3%[48][60] - 1%[61] 31,332 - 104,443
Belize Belize 334,297 0.5%[48][62] 1,671
 Bermuda 69,467 0.5%[48] - 0.7% [63] 347 - 486
Bhutan Bhutan 725,296 75%[48][64] - 84%[65] 543,972 - 609,249
 Bolivia 10,461,053 <0.1%[66][67] 7,383 - 8,872[49]
Botswana Botswana 2,127,825 <0.1%[68] 1,120 - 1,231[49]
Brazil Brazil 201,009,622 0.130%[69] - 0.5%[70] 261,313 - 1,005,048
Brunei Brunei 415,717 8.6%[48] - 13%[71] - 16.8%[72] 35,752 - 54,043 - 69,840
Bulgaria Bulgaria 6,981,642 unknown[73] unknown
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 17,812,961 unknown[74] unknown
Burma Burma (Myanmar) 55,167,330 80%[48] - 90%[75][76] 44,133,864 - 49,650,597
Cambodia Cambodia 15,205,539 93%[77] - 97%[48][78] 14,141,151 - 14,749,373
Cameroon Cameroon 20,549,221 <0.1%[79] 353 - 1,106[49]
Canada Canada 34,568,211 1.1%[80] - 3.5%[81] 380,250 - 1,209,887
Chad Chad 11,193,452 <0.1%[48] 1,684 - 5,277[49]
 Chile 17,216,945 0.1%[48][82][83] 17,217
China China 1,349,585,838 20%[48][84] - 50%[85][86] 269,917,168 - 674,792,919
 Christmas Island 1,513 36%[87] - 55%[88] - 75%[89] 545 - 832 - 1135
 Colombia 45,745,783 0.02%[90][91][92] 9,149
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 75,507,308 <0.1%[93] 3,734[49]
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 4,492,689 <0.1%[48] 283[49]
Costa Rica Costa Rica 4,695,942 2.2%[94] 103,311
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire 22,400,835 <0.1%[95][96] 9,869[49]
Croatia Croatia 4,475,611 0.03%[48][97] 1,343
 Cuba 11,394,043 0.04%[98] - 0.3%[99] 4,558 - 27,614[49]
 Curaçao 146,836 0.5%[100] 734
 Cyprus 1,155,403 0.2%[48] - 0.6%[101] 2,311 - 6,932
Czech Republic Czech Republic 10,162,921 0.1%[48][102] - 0.3%[103][104] 10,163 – 30,489
Denmark Denmark 5,556,452 0.2%[48] - 0.5%[105][106] 11,113 - 27,782
 Dominica 73,286 0.1%[48][107] 73
 Dominican Republic 10,219,630 0.1%[48][108][109] 10,220
 East Timor 1,172,390 0.1%[110] - 0.4%[111] 1,172 - 4,690
 Ecuador 15,439,429 0.1%[48][112][113] - 0.2%[49] 15,439 - 30,878
Egypt Egypt 85,294,388 <0.1%[48] 1,687[49]
El Salvador El Salvador 6,108,590 0.1%[48][114][115] 6,108
 Estonia 1,266,375 0.1%[48][116][117] 1,266
Ethiopia Ethiopia 93,877,025 <0.1%[48] 1,327[49]
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) 3,140 0.2%[48][118] 6
 Federated States of Micronesia 106,104 0.4%[48] - 0.7%[119] 424 - 743
 Fiji 896,758 0.2%[120][121] 1,794
Finland Finland 5,266,114 0.1%[48][122][123] 5,266
France France 65,951,611 1.2%[124][61][125] - 1.5%[126] 791,419 - 1,002,464
 French Guiana 239,450 3.6%[127] 8,620
 French Polynesia 277,293 0.5%[128][129] 20,922
Germany Germany 81,147,265 0.35% [130] - 1.1%[124] 284,015 - 892,620
Ghana Ghana 22,931,299 <0.1%[131][132][133][134] 488 - 1,195[49]
Greece Greece 10,772,967 0.1%[48][135][136] 5,339 10,773 - 15,517[49]
 Guam 160,378 1.1%[48] - 2.2%[137] - 3%[138] 1,764 – 3,528 – 4,811
Guatemala Guatemala 14,373,472 0.1%[139][140][141] 14,372
Guinea Guinea 11,176,026 <0.1%[142][143] 8,983[49]
 Guyana 739,903 0.5%[144][145] 3,700
 Haiti 9,893,934 <0.1%[48] 258[49]
Honduras Honduras 8,448,465 0.1%[48][146] 8,448
Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,182,724 15%[48][147] - 90%[148][149] 1,077,409 - 6,464,452
 Hungary 9,939,470 0.1%[48][150][151] 9,939
Iceland Iceland 315,281 0.2%[152] - 0.4%[48] 631 - 1,261
India India 1,220,800,359 0.8%[153] - 3%[124][154] 9,766,403 – 36,624,011
Indonesia Indonesia 251,160,124 0.72%[48][155] - 1.7%[156] 1,808,353 - 4,269,722
Iran Iran 79,853,900 <0.1%[48] 444 - 1,391[49]
Iraq Iraq 31,858,481 <0.1%[48] 285 - 893[49]
 Ireland 4,775,982 0.2%[48][157] 9,552
Israel Israel 7,707,042 0.3%[48][158][159] 23,121
Italy Italy 61,482,297 0.2%[48][160][161] 122,965
 Jamaica 2,909,714 0.1%[162][163] - 0.3%[164] 2,910 - 8,729
Japan Japan 127,253,075 36%[48][165] - 70%[166] - 96%[124][167] 45,811,107 - 89,077,153 - 122,162,952
Jordan Jordan 6,482,081 0.4%[48] 25,928
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 17,736,896 0.2%[48][168] 35,474
Kenya Kenya 44,037,656 <0.1%[48][169][170] 1,276 - 3,221[49]
North Korea North Korea 24,720,407 1.5%[48] - 4.5%[171] - 13.8%[172][173] 370,806 - 1,112,418 - 3,411,416
South Korea South Korea 48,955,203 23%[48][174] - 50%[175][176] 11,259,697 - 24,477,602
Kuwait Kuwait 2,695,316 2.8%[48] - 3.8%[177] 75,469 - 102,422
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 5,548,042 0.35%[178] - 0.5% [179] 19,418 - 27,740
Laos Laos 6,695,166 67%[48][180][181] 4,485,761
 Latvia 2,178,443 0.01%[48][182][183] 2,178
Lebanon Lebanon 4,131,583 0.1%[184] - 2.1%[185][186] 4,132 - 86,763
Lesotho Lesotho 1,936,181 unknown[187] unknown
Liberia Liberia 3,989,703 unknown[188] unknown
Libya Libya 6,002,347 0.3%[48][189] 20,209 - 21,982[49]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 37,009 0.3%[190] 111
 Lithuania 3,515,858 <0.1%[48][191][192] 665[49]
 Luxembourg 514,862 unknown[193] unknown
Macau Macau 583,003 17%[48][194] - 50%[195] - 80%[196] 99,111 - 291,502 - 466,402
 Macedonia 2,087,171 unknown[197] unknown
Madagascar Madagascar 22,599,098 0.1%[198][199] 22,599
Malawi Malawi 16,777,547 unknown[200][201] unknown
Malaysia Malaysia 29,628,392 18%[48][202] - 21%[203] 5,333,111 - 6,221,962
Maldives Maldives 393,988 0.6%[48][204] 2,364
Mali Mali 15,968,882 unknown[205] unknown
 Malta 411,277 unknown[206][207] unknown
 Martinique 403,795 0.1%[48] 102 - 405[49]
Mauritius Mauritius 1,322,238 0.4% [208] - 1.5%[209] - 2%[210] 5,289 - 19,834 - 26,445
Mexico Mexico 116,220,947 0.016%[211][212] 18,595
Mongolia Mongolia 3,226,516 53%[213] - 72%[214] - 93%[45][215] 1,710,053 - 2,323,092 - 3,000,660
 Montenegro 653,474 unknown[216] unknown
Morocco Morocco 32,649,130 unknown[217] unknown
Mozambique Mozambique 24,096,669 <0.1%[48] 2,035 - 6,376[49]
Namibia Namibia 2,182,852 unknown[218] unknown
 Nauru 9,434 1.1%[48] - 8%[219] - 11.9%[220] 104 – 755 – 1,123
Nepal Nepal 30,430,267 9%[221] - 11%[48][222][223] 2,738,724 - 3,347,329
Netherlands Netherlands 16,805,037 0.1%[224] - 0.2%[48] - 1.2%[61][225] 17,000 - 33,610 – 201,660
 New Caledonia 264,022 0.6%[48][226] 1,584
 New Zealand 4,365,113 1.5%[48][227] - 2.5%[228] - 5%[229] 65,477 - 109,128 - 218,256
Nicaragua Nicaragua 5,788,531 0.1%[48][230] 5,789
Nigeria Nigeria 174,507,539 <0.1%[231][232] 8,458 - 13,133[49]
 Northern Mariana Islands 51,170 10.6%[48] - 15.6%[233] 5,424 - 7,983
Norway Norway 4,722,701 0.7%[48][234] - 1%[61] 33,059 - 47,227
Oman Oman 3,154,134 0.8%[48][235] 25,233
Pakistan Pakistan 193,238,868 <0.1%[236] 1,492[237] - 106,989 - 109,400[49]
 Palau 21,108 0.8%[48] - 1%[238] 169 - 211
State of Palestine Palestine 4,293,313 unknown[239] unknown
Panama Panama 3,559,408 0.5%[240] - 0.9%[241] - 2.1%[242] 17,797 - 32,035 - 74,748
 Papua New Guinea 6,431,902 0.2%[243] - 0.3%[244] 12,864 - 19,296
 Paraguay 6,623,252 0.2%[245][246] 13,257
 Peru 29,849,303 0.2%[48] - 0.3%[247][248] 59,699 - 89,548
Philippines Philippines 98,215,000[249] <0,1-2%[48][250][251] 1,964,300
Poland Poland 38,383,809 0.1%[48][252][253] 38,384
 Portugal 10,799,270 0.6%[48] - 0.8%[254] 64,796 - 86,394
 Puerto Rico 3,674,209 0.1%[255] - 0.3%[48] 3,674 - 11,023
Qatar Qatar 2,042,444 1.9%[256] - 3.1%[48] - 6%[257] 38,806 - 63,316 - 122,547
Réunion Réunion 839,500 0.2%[48][258] 1,679
 Romania 21,790,479 0.01%[259][260] 2,179
Russia Russia 142,500,482 0.7%[261] - 1.05%[262] - 1.4%[263] 1,000,000 – 1,500,000 – 2,000,000
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 26,939,583 0.3%[48][264] 70,000[265] - 80,819
Senegal Senegal 12,521,851 <0.1%[266][267] 1,679 - 2,057[49]
 Serbia 10,150,265 unknown[268][269] unknown
Seychelles Seychelles 90,846 0.1%[270][271] 91
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 5,612,685 unknown[272][273] unknown
Singapore Singapore 5,460,302 33%[274] - 44%[275] - 51%[276] 1,801,900 - 2,402,533 - 2,784,754
Slovakia Slovakia 5,488,339 0.1%[277][278] 5,488
Slovenia Slovenia 1,992,690 unknown[279] unknown
 Solomon Islands 597,248 0.3%[48][280] 1,792
South Africa South Africa 48,601,098 0.2%[48] - 0.3% - 0.4%[281] 97,202 - 159,220 - 194,809[49]
 Spain 47,370,542 0.1%[48][281] - 0.4% - 0.7% 47,370 - 200,000 - 300,000[282]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 21,675,648 70%[283][284] 15,172,954
Sudan Sudan 34,847,910 <0.1%[48] 982 - 3,076[49]
 Suriname 566,846 0.6%[48] - 0.9%[285] 3,401 – 5,102
Swaziland Swaziland 1,403,362 unknown[286] unknown
Sweden Sweden 9,119,423 0.4%[48][287] - 1%[61] 36,478 - 91,194
Switzerland Switzerland 7,996,026 0.3%[288] - 0.4%[48] - 1%[61] 23,988 - 31,984 - 79,960
Taiwan Taiwan 23,299,716 35%[289] – 80%[290] – 93%[291] 8,154,901 - 18,639,773 - 21,668,736
Tajikistan Tajikistan 7,910,041 <0.1%[292] 4,446[49]
Tanzania Tanzania 48,261,942 <0.1%[293] 10,157 - 33,856[49]
Thailand Thailand 67,448,120 93%[294] - 95%[295] 62,726,752 - 64,075,714
Togo Togo 7,154,237 unknown[296][297] unknown
 Tonga 106,322 0.1%[298] 106
Tunisia Tunisia 10,835,873 <0.1%[48] 79 - 247[49]
 Trinidad and Tobago 1,225,225 0.3%[48] - 0.7%[299] 3,676 - 8,577
Turkey Turkey 80,694,485 <0.1%[300] 35,416 - 48,148[49]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 5,113,040 <0.1%[48] 712[49]
 Tuvalu 10,698 0.1%[301] 11
Uganda Uganda 34,758,809 <0.1%[302][303] 2,005 - 6,283[49]
Ukraine Ukraine 44,573,205 0.1%[48][304] 44,573
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 5,473,972 2%[48][305] - 4%[306] 109,479 - 218,959
United Kingdom United Kingdom 63,395,574 0.4%[48][307] - 1.2%[124][61] 253,582 - 760,747
United States United States 316,668,567 0.7%[308] - 1.3%[48][309] - 2%[310] 2,216,680 - 4,116,691 - 6,333,371
 Uruguay 3,324,460 0.1%[311][312] 3,324
United States Virgin Islands US Virgin Islands 104,737 unknown[313] unknown
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 28,661,637 0.1%[314] - 0.2%[315] - 0.3%[316] 28,662 – 57,323 – 85,985
 Vanuatu 261,565 0.2%[317] - 0.3%[318] 523 - 785
Venezuela Venezuela 28,459,085 0.1%[319] - 0.2%[320] 28,459 - 56,918
Vietnam Vietnam 92,477,857 10%[321] - 55%[322] - 75%[323] 9,247,786 - 46,238,929 - 69,358,393
Yemen Yemen 25,408,288 <0.1%[48] 131[49]
Zambia Zambia 14,222,233 <0.1%[324] 3,927 - 12,304[49]
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 13,182,908 <0.1%[325][326][327] 189 - 591[49]
TOTAL 7,095,217,980 7.13%[328] - 16.15% 506,079,682 - 1,146,042,210[124][329][330]

Top 20 countries[edit]

Top 20 by practicing Buddhists on the left (lowest numbers) and by cultural/nominal adherents whom are strongly influenced by Buddhist practices with folk religions on the right (highest numbers) as of 2013.

Top 20 Buddhist countries/territories (by population)
Top 20 (lowest) Top 20 (highest)
Rank Country Practicing Buddhists Country Cultural Buddhists
1  China 269,917,168  China 674,792,919
2  Thailand 62,726,752  Japan 122,162,952
3  Japan 45,811,107  Vietnam 69,358,393
4 Burma Burma/Myanmar 44,133,864  Thailand 64,075,714
5  Sri Lanka 15,172,954 Burma Burma/Myanmar 49,650,597
6  Cambodia 14,141,151  India 36,624,011
7  South Korea 11,259,697  South Korea 24,477,602
8  India 9,766,403  Taiwan 21,668,736
9  Vietnam 9,247,786  Sri Lanka 15,172,954
10  Taiwan 8,154,901  Cambodia 14,749,373
11  Malaysia 5,333,111  Hong Kong 6,464,452
12  Laos 4,485,761  United States 6,333,371
13    Nepal 2,738,724  Malaysia 6,221,962
14  United States 2,216,680  Laos 4,485,761
15  Indonesia 1,808,353  Indonesia 4,269,722
16  Singapore 1,801,900  North Korea 3,411,416
17  Mongolia 1,710,053    Nepal 3,347,329
18  Hong Kong 1,077,409  Mongolia 3,000,660
19  Russia 1,000,000  Singapore 2,784,754
20  Bangladesh 818,274  Russia 2,000,000
Top 20 Buddhist countries/territories (by percentage)
Top 20 (lowest) Top 20 (highest)
Rank Country  % Practicing Buddhists Country  % Cultural Buddhists
1  Cambodia 93%  Cambodia 97%
2  Thailand 93%  Japan 96%
3 Burma Burma/Myanmar 80%  Thailand 95%
4  Bhutan 75%  Taiwan 93%
5  Sri Lanka 70%  Mongolia 93%
6  Laos 67% Burma Burma/Myanmar 90%
7  Mongolia 53%  Hong Kong 90%
8  Japan 36%  Bhutan 84%
9  Christmas Island 36%  Macau 80%
10  Taiwan 35%  Vietnam 75%
11  Singapore 33%  Christmas Island 75%
12  South Korea 23%  Sri Lanka 70%
13  China 20%  Laos 67%
14  Malaysia 18%  Singapore 51%
15  Macau 17%  China 50%
16  Hong Kong 15%  South Korea 50%
17  Northern Mariana Islands 10.6%  Malaysia 21%
18  Vietnam 10%  Brunei 16.8%
19    Nepal 9%  Northern Mariana Islands 15.6%
20  Brunei 8.6%  North Korea 13.8%

Remarks: Lower numbers/percentages are practicing adherents, or who those who have taken the Refuge. Higher numbers/percentages represent nominal or cultural Buddhists and practitioners of Buddhism alongside related faiths such as Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto, etc., as well as those who subscribe to Buddhism and its philosophies but stop short of any ceremonial or formal practice. Note that communist governments in China, North Korea, and Vietnam officially discourage religion, and lower estimates reflect those who have registered to state-sponsored Buddhist institutions.

See also[edit]

Other religions:

General:

External links[edit]

  • The US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2010[331]
  • CIA FactBook[332]
  • adherents.com[333]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Buddha Rising, Buddhism in the East, map - National Geographic Magazine". Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  2. ^ http://oproject.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/mapofwar.jpg
  3. ^ "History of Religion". Maps of War. 2006-11-12. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
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  5. ^ http://www.wadsworth.com/religion_d/special_features/popups/maps/matthews_world/images/w001.jpg
  6. ^ "Wads Worth - Religions in Asia". Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  7. ^ a b "The Range of Religious Freedom". Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  8. ^ "Pew Research Center Global Religious Landscape 2010". http://www.pewforum.org/. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  9. ^ "The World Factbook". Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape: Buddhists". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  11. ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 12, 34–37. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  12. ^ Harvey, Peter (2013). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521676748. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Keown, Damien (2005). Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195678703. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  14. ^ Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. x. ISBN 9780313384523. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
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  72. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Brunei (9.7% Buddhist + 5.2% Chinese Folk Religion + 1.9% Confucianist)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  119. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Federated States of Micronesia (0.4% Buddhist + 0.3 Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  165. ^ ""宗教的なもの" にひかれる日本人〜ISSP国際比較調査(宗教)から〜(in Japanese)". NHK 放送文化研究所 (NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute). Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
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  175. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – South Korea (24.8% Buddhist + 10.9% Confucianist + 14.7% Ethnoreligionist = 50.4% in total)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  186. ^ AllGov - Lebanon
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  189. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Libya". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. , AllGov - Libya
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  191. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Lithuania". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  193. ^ Soka Gakkai Luxembourg
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  197. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Macedonia". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  198. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Madagascar". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  199. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk - Madagascar
  200. ^ "Buddha In Africa" (Story Of Malawian Boy Raised In Chinese Orphanage & Trained In Martial Arts) Gets Development Boost
  201. ^ Amitofo Care Center, Malawi
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  203. ^ state.gov (19.8% Buddhist + 1.3% Taoism/Confucianism/Chinese Folk Religion
  204. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Belgium". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  205. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Mali". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  206. ^ Malta Buddhist Association.org
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  209. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Mauritius (0.2% Buddhist + 1.3% Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  212. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Mexico". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  214. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Mongolia (54.2% Buddhist + 0.6% Chinese Folk Religion + 18.6% Ethnoreligionist = 72.8% in total)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  217. ^ "List of Buddhist centers in Morocco". BuddhaNet. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  218. ^ "state.gov - Namibia". state.gov. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  219. ^ Adherents.com – Nauru
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  221. ^ 2011 Nepal Census Report
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  226. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – New Caledonia". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  229. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – New Zealand". U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  230. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Nicaragua". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  231. ^ Nigeria News - Being Buddhist
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  233. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Northern Mariana Islands (10.6% Buddhist + 4.9% Chinese Folk Religion + 0.1% Confucianist)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  234. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 - Norway". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
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  236. ^ state.gov - Pakistan
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  239. ^ "Buddhism in Palestine". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  240. ^ Adherents.com - Panama
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  242. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk – Panama
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  245. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Papua New Guinea". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  246. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk – Paraguay
  247. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Peru (0.2% Buddhist + 0.1% Chinese Folk Religion)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  248. ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk - Paraguay
  249. ^ Projected Population as of May 6, 2013, PH: Commission on Population, 6 May 2013 
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  251. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Philippines". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  252. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Poland". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  253. ^ BuddhaNet - List of Buddhist centers in Poland
  254. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Portugal (0.6% Buddhist + 0.2% Chinese)". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  255. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Puerto Rico". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  256. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Qatar". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  257. ^ state.gov - Qatar
  258. ^ "Religious Adherents, 2010 – Réunion". World Christian Database. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  259. ^ Primul centru de buddhism Tibetan din Romania s-a deschis la Mosoaia
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  266. ^ Vietnamese Continue Traditions in Senegal
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  270. ^ Seychelles Travel Guide - Religion
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  272. ^ SGI-Sierra Leone Hosts Buddhist Seminar
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  275. ^ state.gov - Singapore
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