Buddhism in Burma

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Buddhism in Burma (also known as Myanmar) is predominantly of the Theravada tradition, practised by 89% of the country's population[1][2] It is the most religious Buddhist country in terms of the proportion of monks in the population and proportion of income spent on religion.[3] Adherents are most likely found among the dominant ethnic Bamar (or Burmans), Shan, Rakhine (Arakanese), Mon, Karen, and Chinese who are well integrated into Burmese society. Monks, collectively known as the Sangha, are venerated members of Burmese society. Among many ethnic groups in Myanmar, including the Bamar and Shan, Theravada Buddhism is practiced in conjunction with nat worship, which involves the placation of spirits who can intercede in worldly affairs.

With regard to the Daily Routines as Buddhists in Myanmar, there are two most popular practices: merit-making and vipassana (Insight Meditation). The weizza path is the least popular (an esoteric form somewhat linked to Buddhist aspiration that involves the occult).[4] Merit-making is the most common path undertaken by Burmese Buddhists. This path involves the observance of the Five Precepts and accumulation of good merit through charity and good deeds (dana) in order to obtain a favorable rebirth. The vipassana path, which has gained ground since the early 1900s, is a form of insight meditation believed to lead to enlightenment. The weizza path, is an esoteric system of occult practices (such as recitation of spells, samatha meditation, and alchemy) and believed to lead to life as a weizza (also spelt weikza), a semi-immortal and supernatural being who awaits the appearance of the future Buddha, Maitreya (Arimeitaya).[5]

History[edit]

18th-century Burmese depiction of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva (Lokanātha)
Illustration of a Burmese Buddhist monk (1795)

The history of Buddhism in Burma probably extends more than two thousand years to the Buddha's Time.[citation needed] The Sasana Vamsa, written by Pinyasami in 1834, summarises much of the history of Buddhism in Burma. According to the Mahavamsa, a Pali chronicle of fifth century Sri Lanka, the Emperor Asoka sent two Buddhist Monks, Sona and Uttara, to Suvannabhumi. Many historians[which?] recorded that Sohn Uttar Sthavira (one of the royal monks) to Ashoka the Great came to Suvarnabhumi around 228 BC with other monks and sacred texts, including books. Some scholars associate Suvarnabhumi with Burma.[citation needed]

An inscription of the Ikshvaku Dynasty of the Andhra region, of about the 3rd century CE, refers to the conversion of the Kiratas to Buddhism. (Kiratas were thought to be the Tibeto-Burma peoples of Burma). Early Chinese texts of about the same date speak of a "Kingdom of Liu-Yang," where all people worshiped the Buddha and there were several thousand sramanas. This kingdom has been identified with a region somewhere in central Burma. A series of epigraphic records in Pali, Sanskrit, Pyu and Mon datable in the 6th and 7th centuries, has been recovered from Central and Lower Burma (Prome and Rangoon). From the 11th to 13th centuries, the kings and queens of Pagan dynasty built countless numbers of stupas and temples.

The Ari Buddhism era included the worship of bodhisattvas and nagas, and also was known for corrupt monks.[citation needed]

Theravada Buddhism was implanted at Pagan for the first time as early as the 11th century by Burmese King Anawratha (1044-1077 AD).[6] In year 1057, Anawratha sent an army to conquer the Mon city of Thaton in order to obtain theTipitaka Buddhist canon. He was converted by a Mon monk called Shin Arahan, to Theravada Buddhism. Shin Arahan's advice led to acquiring thirty sets of Pali scriptures from the Mon King Manuhal by force. Inscriptional evidence of a Theravada Bhikkhuni nunnery was noted in 1279. Mon culture, from that point, came to be largely assimilated into the Bamar culture based in Bagan. Despite attempts at reform, certain features of Ari Buddhism and traditional nat worship continued, such as reverence for the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Lawka nat). Successive kings of Bagan continued to build large numbers of monuments, temples, and pagodas in honour of Buddhism. Burmese rule at Bagan continued until the invasion of the Mongols in 1287. Towards the end of the 13th century, Buddhism declined due to the invading Tartars. In 14th century, another forest lineage was imported from Sri Lanka to Ayudhaya, the Thai capital. A new ordination line is also imported into Burma.

The Shan, meanwhile, established themselves as rulers throughout the region now known as Burma. Thihathu, a Shan king, established rule in Bagan, by patronising and building many monasteries and pagodas.

The Mon kingdoms, often ruled by Shan chieftains, fostered Theravada Buddhism in the 14th century. Wareru, who became king of Mottama (a Mon city kingdom), patronised Buddhism, and established a code of law (Dhammathat) compiled by Buddhist monks. King Dhammazedi, formerly a Mon monk, established rule in the late 15th century at Innwa and unified the Sangha in Mon territories. He also standardised ordination of monks set out in the Kalyani Inscriptions. Dhammazedi moved the capital back to Hanthawaddy (Bago). His mother-in-law Queen Shin Sawbu of Pegu was also a great patron of Buddhism. She is credited for expanding and gilding the Shwedagon Pagoda giving her own weight in gold.

The Bamars or the residents of upper Burma, who had fled to Taungoo before the invading Shan, established a kingdom there under the reigns of Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung who conquered and unified most of modern Burma. These monarchs also embraced Mon culture and patronised Theravada Buddhism.

Mandalay's Kuthodaw Pagoda, which houses marble slabs containing all of the Tipitaka scriptures, was constructed during the reign of King Mindon.

In the reigns of succeeding kings, the Taungoo kingdom became increasingly volatile and was overthrown by the Mon. In the mid- 18th century, King Alaungpaya defeated the Mon, expanded the Bamar kingdoms, and established the Konbaung dynasty. Under the rule of King Bodawpaya, a son of Alaungpaya, a unified sect of monks (Thudhamma) was created within the kingdom. Bodawpaya restored ties with Sri Lanka started by Anawrahta, allowing for mutual influence in religious affairs. In the reigns of the Konbaung kings that followed, both secular and religious literary works were created.[7] King Mindon Min moved his capital to Mandalay. After Lower Burma had been conquered by the British, Christianity began to gain acceptance. Many monks from Lower Burma had resettled in Mandalay, but by decree of Mindon Min, they returned to serve the Buddhist laypeople. However, schisms arose among the Sangha, which were resolved during the Fifth Buddhist Synod, held in Mandalay in 1871.

The Fifth Council was convened at Mandalay in Myanmar on the first waning day of Tazaungmone, 1232 Myanmar Era, 2415 B.E (November, 1871). The scriptures inscribed on palm-leaves could not last for a long time. Besides there might be many variations in rewriting the scriptures from copy to copy. Therefore, the scriptures were inscribed on marble slabs in order to dispel these disadvantages.

Two thousand and four hundred bhikkhus led by Venerable Jagarabhivamsa Thera (Tipitakadhara Mahadhammarajadhirajaguru) of Dakkhinarama Monastery, Mandalay, convened, to recite and approve the scriptures. King Mindon initiated and supported the Fifth Great Council to the end. The scriptures were first inscribed on seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs ) in the precinct of Lokamarajina Pagoda at the foot of Mandalay Hill. From 1860 to 1868, the Tipitaka was engraved on 729 marble slabs and assembled in the Kuthodaw Pagoda. It took seven years, six months and fourteen days to finish this work. Then the bhikkhus recited to approve the inscriptions for five months and three days. In 1871, a new hti (the gold umbrella that crowns a stupa) encrusted with jewels from the crown was also donated by Mindon Min for the Shwedagon now in British Burma. After the Fifth Great Council. the Pali Texts were translated into Myanmar language, and the Doctrinal Order was promulgated to the whole country for purpose of purification and propagation of the Buddha's Teachings.

In February 2012, 1000 Buddhist monks and followers gathered for the 18th annual Shwegyin Nikaya Conference at the compound of Dhammaduta Zetawon Tawya Monastery in Hmawbi Township, Yangon Region.

During the British administration of Lower and Upper Burma, also known as Burma Proper, government policies were secular which meant monks were not protected by law. Nor was Buddhism patronised by the colonial government. This resulted in tensions between the colonized Buddhists and their European rulers. There was much opposition (including by the Irish monk U Dhammaloka) to the efforts by Christian missionaries to convert the Burmese people, Bamar, Shan, Mon, Rakhine and plains Karen, with one exception - the hill tribes. Today, Christianity is most commonly practised by the Chin, Kachin, and the Kayin. Notwithstanding traditional avoidance of political activity, monks often participated in politics and in the struggle for independence.

Since 1948 when the country gained its independence from Great Britain, both civil and military governments have supported Theravada Buddhism. The 1947 Constitution states, "The State recognizes the special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union." The Ministry of Religious Affairs, created in 1948, was responsible for administering Buddhist affairs in Burma. In 1954, the prime minister, U Nu, convened the Sixth Buddhist Synod at Kaba Aye Pagoda in Rangoon (Yangon), which was attended by 2,500 monks, and established the World Buddhist University.

During the military rule of Ne Win (1962–1988), he attempted to reform Burma under the Burmese Way to Socialism which contained elements of Buddhism. In the 8888 Uprising, many monks participated and were killed by Tatmadaw soldiers. The succeeding military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) patronized Buddhism, although persecution of Buddhists contrary to the regime, as well as persons of other religions, namely Islam and Christianity, continues.

Traditions[edit]

Monks throughout Burma make alms rounds around the community in the early morning.

The culture of Burma is deemed synonymous with its Buddhism. There are many Burmese festivals all through the year, most of them related to Buddhism.[8] The Burmese New Year, Thingyan, also known as the water festival, has its origins in Hindu tradition, but it is also a time when many Burmese boys celebrate shinbyu, a special rite of passage by which a boy enters the monastery for a short time as a novice monk.

Veneration[edit]

A typical home altar consists of a simple shelf on which statues of the Buddha and offerings are placed..

A Burmese Buddhist household contains an altar or shrine to the Buddha, with at least one dedicated image of the Gautama Buddha. The Buddha image is commonly placed on a "throne" called a gaw pallin (ဂေါ့ပလ္လင်, from Pali pallanka).

Before a Buddha statue is used for veneration at home, it must be formally consecrated, in a ritual called anay gaza tin (အနေကဇာတင်ခြင်း).[9] This consecration, led by a Buddhist monk, who recites aneka jāti saṃsāraṃ (translated as 'through the round of many births I roamed'), the 153rd verse of the Dhammapada (found in the 11th chapter).[10][11]

The consecration rite, which can last a few hours, is held in the morning and consists of four primary parts:[12]

  1. Offerings (candles, flowers, incense, flags) made to the Buddha
  2. Chanting of paritta (typically Mangala Sutta, Metta Sutta, Ratana Sutta, Pubbhana Sutta)
  3. Recitation of aneka jāti saṃsāraṃ
  4. Recitation of the Twelve Nidānas

The consecration rituals are believed to imbue the Buddha image with a sacred quality that can protect the home and surroundings from misfortune and symbolically embody the powers of the Buddha.[13]

Shinbyu[edit]

A traditional Buddhist altar at a monastery in Taunggyi, Shan State.

It is the most important duty of all Burmese parents to make sure their sons are admitted to the Buddhist Sangha by performing a shinbyu ceremony once they have reached the age of seven or older. A symbolic procession and ceremony of exchanging princely attire with that of an ascetic follows the example of the historical Buddha. He was born a royal prince called Siddartha Gautama, but left his palace on horse-back followed by his loyal attendant Chanda (မောင်ဆန်း), in search of the finding end to life of suffering(dukkha), after he found out that life is made up of suffering (dukkha) and the notion of self is merely an illusion (anatta or non-self) when one day he saw the 'Four Great Signs' (နမိတ်ကြီးလေးပါး) - the old, the sick, the dead, and the ascetic - in the royal gardens.

All Buddhists are required to keep the basic Five Precepts (ငါးပါးသီလ), and novices are expected to keep the Ten Precepts (ဆယ်ပါးသီလ). Parent would expect them to stay at the monastery immersed in the teachings of the Buddha as members of the Sangha for a three months or longer, at least for the duration of Thingyan. They will have another opportunity to join the Sangha at the age of 20, taking the upasampada ordination, to become a fully fledged monk, keeping the 227 precepts of the full monastic rules (Patimokkha), and perhaps remain a monk for life.

Buddhist holidays[edit]

Vesak or the full moon of Kason is celebrated by watering the Bodhi tree

Thingyan usually falls in mid-April and tops the list of public holidays in Burma. The full moon in May (Kason) is however the most sacred of all as the Buddha was born, became the Enlightened One, and entered Parinirvana (died) on the same day, celebrated by watering the Bodhi tree.[8]

Pagoda festivals (ဘုရားပွဲ Paya pwè) held throughout the country also usually fall on full moon days and most of them will be on the full moon of Tabaung (February/March) including the Shwedagon pagoda.[8] They attract not only crowds of pilgrims from near and far, often in caravans of bullock carts, but they also double as great market fairs where both local and itinerant traders set up their stalls and shops among food stalls, restaurants,and free open-air stage performances as well as theatre halls.

Buddhist lent[edit]

The three monsoon months from mid-July to mid-October coincide with the Buddhist Lent or Wa-dwin (ဝါတွင်း), a time when people are busy tilling their land and planting the paddyfields, and monks will not travel but stay at their monasteries (ဝါကပ် Wa-kup or the rains retreat). Waso robes are offered at the beginning of lent, the end of which is marked by the Thadingyut Light Festival. The harvest is now in and robes (သင်္ကန်း thingan) are again offered at the Kathina Festival usually held during October and November.[8] Uposatha or sabbath days are observed keeping the Eight Precepts by most during Thingyan and Lent, and by devout Buddhists all the year round.

Parents and elders also receive obeisance from younger members of the family at the beginning as well as the end of lent, after the tradition established by the Buddha himself. It was during lent that he ascended to the Tavatimsa Heaven in order to preach a sermon, as an act of gratitude, to his mother who had become a celestial being, and he was welcomed back to earth with a great festival of lights.[8] Teachers receive the same obeisance, a tradition started by National Schools founded in defiance of the colonial administration and continued after independence by state schools.

Wedding ceremonies - nothing to do with religion and not conducted by the Sangha - are not held during the three months of lent, a custom which has resulted in a spate of weddings after Thadingyut or Wa-kyut, awaited impatiently by couples wanting to tie the knot.

Buddhist education[edit]

Monks take an examination in Bago.

Burmese also send their children to the monastery to receive a Buddhist education, learning the Pali Canon, the life story of Gautama Buddha (ဗုဒ္ဓဝင် Buddhawin), the 550 Jataka tales (ငါးရာ့ငါးဆယ်နိပါတ်တော် Nga-ya nga-ze nipattaw) - most importantly the Ten Great Incarnations (ဇာတ်ကြီးဆယ်ဘွဲ့ Zatkyi sebwè), and the 38 Buddhist Beatitudes (သုံးဆယ့်ရှစ်ဖြာမင်္ဂလား Thonzeshi hpya mingala) as soon as they have a good grounding of the three Rs. Monks were the traditional teachers of the young and old alike until secular and missionary schools came into being during the British colonial administration. The Burmese word kyaung (ကျောင်း) for school is derived from Hpongyi kyaung (monastery).

There has been a revival of monastic schools since the 1990s with the deepening economic crisis. Children from poor families that can ill afford fees, uniforms and books have renewed the demand for a free monastic education, and ethnic minorities such as the Shan, Pa-O, Palaung, Lahu and Wa are benefitting from this revival.[14]

Monasticism[edit]

Monks at the Mahagandayon Monastery in Amarapura are ordained into the Shwegyin Nikaya, one of the more orthodox monastic orders.

Buddhist monks, who are venerated throughout Burmese society, are approximately 500,000 strong.[15] Nuns form an additional 75,000.[16] Monks belong to one of two primary monastic orders (ဂိုဏ်း gaing): Thudhamma Nikaya (88% of Buddhist monks) and the more orthodox Shwegyin Nikaya (7% of Buddhist monks).[17]

Burmese monastic orders do not differ in doctrine but in monastic practice, lineage and organization structure.[18]

Other minor monastic orders include the Dwara Nikaya in Lower Burma, and Hngettwin Nikaya in Mandalay, both of which have a few thousand member monks.[19][20] There are nine legally-recognized monastic orders in Burma today, under the 1990 Law Concerning Sangha Organizations.[21] There are also esoteric Buddhist sects that are not recognized by any authority and incorporate non-Buddhist elements like alchemy, magic and occultism.[22]

The overwhelming majority of Burmese monks wear maroon-colored robes (sometimes ochre), unlike in neighboring countries like Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka, where monks commonly wear saffron-colored robes.

Politics[edit]

The Pariyatti Sasana University in Mandalay, operated by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, is supported by the state.

Buddhism made major contributions in the development of Burmese politics. Burmese nationalism first began with the formation of the Young Men's Buddhist Associations (YMBA) - modelled on the YMCA - which started to appear all over the country at the start of the 20th century. Buddhist monks along with students had been in the forefront of the struggle for independence and later for democracy, the best known leaders in history being U Ottama and U Seinda in Rakhine State, and U Wisara who died after a protracted hunger strike in Yangon prison.[23][24] A major thoroughfare in Yangon is named after U Wisara. The League of Young Monks (ရဟန်းပြို Yahanpyo) based in Mandalay is a well known activist organisation. The Burmese word for boycott is thabeik hmauk (သပိတ်မှောက်), which literally means to turn the monk's alms bowl upside down - declining to accept alms in protest.[25]

Buddhist monks were at the forefront of the so-called Saffron Revolution in 2007, in protest of living and economic conditions in the country.

Civilian governments, after the country gained independence, patronised Buddhism, donating large sums to fund the upkeep and building of Buddhist monuments. In addition, leaders of political parties and parliamentarians, in particular U Nu, passed legislation influenced by Buddhism. He declared Buddhism the state religion which alienated minority groups, especially the Kachin. This added yet another group to the growing number of ethnic insurgencies. The present military government has been so keen to be seen as patrons of Buddhism that it has become a joke- "Burmese TV has only two colours, green and yellow" - describing the military green uniforms and monk's yellow robes or golden pagodas which dominate the screen.

Shwedagon Pagoda has been an important venue for large public meetings where both Aung San and his daughter Aung San Suu Kyi had made their famous speeches. During the second university strike in history of 1936, the students camped out on the Shwedagon terraces.

Aung San Suu Kyi returned from London to lead the National League for Democracy which was founded during the 1988 popular uprising, but was placed under house arrest in 1989; since she is a devout Buddhist and leader of the opposition, she is considered a socially engaged Buddhist.

Saffron Revolution[edit]

In September 2007, Buddhists again took to the streets in mass protest against the military government. Thousand of junta military and police forces poured into Yangon to try to control the situation, which rapidly deteriorated. A curfew was imposed and on the 25th of September troops surrounded Sule Pagoda. The protest continued to grow with regular citizens joining to support and defend the Buddhists. Overnight, junta forces invaded all the Buddhist monasteries in the country and imprisoned thousands of monks. Also, it was reported that Nobel prize winning human rights activist and Buddhist Aung San Suu Kyi was removed from her home where she languished under house arrest and moved to the infamous Insein Prison. Mass protests erupted over this and junta troops began firing on monks, civilians, and demonstrators in the largest clash since 1988, which left thousands injured and hundreds dead. Images of the brutality were aired worldwide. Leaders around the world condemned the junta's actions and many nations imposed economic sanctions on Burma in protest. President of the United States George W. Bush addressed the United Nations, stating, "Every civilized nation has a responsibility to stand up for people suffering under a brutal military regime like the one that has ruled Burma for so long." The Burmese junta responded by trying to control media coverage, curtail travel, censor news stories, and shut down access to the Internet.

In November 2008, U Gambira, a leader of the All Burma Monks' Alliance was sentenced to 68 years in prison, at least 12 years of which will be hard labor; other charges against him are still pending.[26] In early 2009, his sentence was reduced to 63 years.[27] His sentence was protested by Human Rights Watch,[28] and Amnesty International considers him a prisoner of conscience.[29] Both groups have called for his immediate release.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Aung-Thwin, Michael, Pagan (1985). The Origins of Modern Burma, (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu
  • Bischoff, Roger (1995). Buddhism in Myanmar-A Short History, Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0127-5
  • Charney, Michael W. (2006) Powerful Learning. Buddhist Literati and the Throne in Burma's Last Dynasty, 1752-1885. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan. (Description)
  • "The Constitution of the Union of Burma". DVB. 1947. Archived from the original on 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2006-07-07. 
  • Ferguson, J.P. & Mendelson, E.M. (1981) Masters of the Buddhist Occult: The Burmese Weikzas. Contributions to Asian Studies 16, pp. 62–88.
  • Hlaing, Maung Myint (August 1981). The Great Disciples of Buddha. Zeyar Hlaing Literature House. pp. 66–68.
  • Matthews, Bruce The Legacy of Tradition and Authority: Buddhism and the Nation in Myanmar, in: Ian Harris (ed.), Buddhism and Politics in Twentieth-Century Asia. Continuum, London/New York 1999, pp. 26–53.
  • Pranke, Patrick (1995), "On Becoming a Buddhist Wizard," in: Buddhism in Practice, ed. Donald Lopez, Princeton: Princeton University Press

References[edit]

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook - Burma
  2. ^ "Burma—International Religious Freedom Report 2009". U.S. Department of State. 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  3. ^ Cone & Gombrich, Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara, Oxford University Press, 1977, page xxii
  4. ^ Patrick A Pranke. Buddhism in Myanmar (Report). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. http://learners.in.th/file/asakya/BUDDISM+IN+MYANMAR.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-14.[dead link]
  5. ^ Ferguson, John P.; E. Michael Mendelson (1981). Masters of the Buddhist Occult: The Burmese Weikzas. Essays on Burma. Brill Archive. pp. 62–4. ISBN 978-90-04-06323-5. 
  6. ^ Lieberman, Victor B (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, C. 800-1830, Volume 1: Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. 
  7. ^ Charney, Michael W. (2006) Powerful Learning. Buddhist Literati and the Throne in Burma's Last Dynasty, 1752-1885. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan. http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do?id=225773
  8. ^ a b c d e "Introducing Myanmar Festivals". Yangon City Development Committee. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
  9. ^ Paw, Maung H. "Preparation for A Place of Worship At Home". p. 4. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  10. ^ Ashin Kundalabhivamsa; Nibbana.com. "Words spoken by Lord Buddha on the day of Supreme Enlightenment-". Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1997). "Jaravagga: Aging". Access to Insight. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  12. ^ Swearer, Donald K. (2004). Becoming the Buddha: the ritual of image consecration in Thailand. Princeton University Press. pp. 218–219. ISBN 978-0-691-11435-4. 
  13. ^ Schober, Juliane (2002). Sacred biography in the Buddhist traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 275–276. ISBN 978-81-208-1812-5. 
  14. ^ Htet Aung. "Save Our Schools". Irrawaddy May 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-03. [dead link]
  15. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21020964/
  16. ^ http://www.nibbana.com/rdhamma4.htm
  17. ^ http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/seasia/shwegyin.html
  18. ^ Keown, Damien; Stephen Hodge; Paola Tinti (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford UP. pp. 98, 265, 266. ISBN 0-19-860560-9. 
  19. ^ http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/seasia/dwara.html
  20. ^ http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/seasia/hngett.html
  21. ^ Gutter, Peter (2001). "Law and Religion in Burma". Legal Issues on Burma Journal (Burma Legal Council) (8): 10. 
  22. ^ Spiro, Melford (1982). Buddhism and society: a great tradition and its Burmese vicissitudes. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04672-2. 
  23. ^ Aung Zaw. "Burmese Monks in Revolt". The Irrawaddy September 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  24. ^ Aung Zaw. "The Power Behind the Robe". The Irrawaddy October 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  25. ^ "Associated Press: Monks put Myanmar junta in tight spot - Michael Casey". BurmaNet News 22 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  26. ^ "MYANMAR: Monk Receives 68 Years in Prison". Amnesty International. 3 October 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  27. ^ "The Resistance of the Monks". Human Rights Watch. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  28. ^ "Burma: End Repression of Buddhist Monks". Human Rights Watch. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011. ,
  29. ^ "Myanmar, Unlock the Prison Doors!". Amnesty International. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 

External links[edit]