Buddhist mummies

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Buddhist mummies, also called flesh body bodhisattvas, full body sariras, or living buddhas (Sokushinbutsu) refer to the bodies of Buddhist monks and nuns that remain incorrupt, without any traces of deliberate mummification. These are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death.[1] The practise to purposely make undecomposed bodies is seen as controversial and contradictory in Buddhism believing in impermanence. Many were destroyed or lost in history.[2]

Causes[edit]

Some were naturally formed. Some Mahayana buddhist monks left instructions to be followed after their deaths, which often included having them buried sitting in a lotus posture, put into a vessel with drying agents (such as coal, wood, paper, or lime) and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years. The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold.[3] It is a common method in China. Some covered the bodies with clay or salt. According to Victor H. Mair in the Discovery Channel series The Mystery of the Tibetan Mummy, the self-mummification of a Tibetan monk, who died ca. 1475 and whose body was retrieved relatively incorrupt in the 1990s, was achieved by the sophisticated practices of meditation, coupled with prolonged starvation and slow self-suffocation using a special belt that connected the neck with his knees in a lotus position, believing that could solve scorpions problems in local population.[4] The mummies of monks (Sokushinbutsu) in Japan practised nyūjō (入定), which caused their own death by adhering to a wood eating diet made up of salt, nuts, seeds, roots, pine bark, and urushi tea. They were then buried alive in a pine-wood box full of salt connected by a tube for air and would ring a bell signaling they were alive. When the bell stopped ringing the air tube was removed.[5][6] Japan banned unburying in 1879 and assisted suicide, including religious suicide is now illegal.

My affair will become a big one, not only get known by the Xianghe county, but by the whole China and eventually by the whole world.(我的事大着呢,不但让香河县知道,还要让全中国知道,最后让全世界都知道。)

—Zhou Fengchen[7]

My original life span should have been 81 years, but I leave my fortune and life of the last 20 years to all suffering lives. After I leave this world for Sukhavati, don't burn my body, or bury it. Leave my body quietly, it would naturally achieve an incorruptible body of Buddhism. It would be a miracle of mankind and treasury of Buddhism.(本来我的寿命是81岁,我把后20年的福寿留给一切苦难的众生。我往生后,不要把我的身体火化,也不要安葬。给我一处静地,让我这个身体继续养着。自然就会成为佛门的金刚不坏之肉身舍利,也称为“紫磨真金色身”,是人类的奇迹,是佛门的珍宝。)

—Huang Yulan[8]

List[edit]

Theravada[edit]

Some names lost[9] or unknown.[10]

Mahayana[edit]

Some names lost,[34] Taoists[35][36] or Way of Former Heaven religion.

  • Shōnyo (証如)[37]
  • Zōga shōnin (増賀上人)[37]
  • Ninga (仁賀), a student of Zōga[37]
  • Gensan shōnin (源算上人)[37]
  • Komatsuji shōnin (小松寺上人)[37]
  • Ganzai (願西尼) (nun)[37]
  • Kaijin (沙門戒深)[37]
  • Senkaku (priest) (暹覚法師)[37]
  • Angin Kitsudō (案山吉道)[37]
  • Kyūen (久円), a student of Kitsudō[37]
  • Jikigyō Miroku (食行身禄)[37]
  • Nikkan (日鑑上人)[37]
  • Itō Sankō (伊藤産行), a student of Miroku[37]
  • Manzō (萬蔵)[38]
  • Shan Daokai (單道開)[37]
  • Huizhi (慧直)[39]
  • Zhiyi[37]
  • Zhikai (智鍇), a student of Zhiyi[37]
  • Zhixi (智晞), a student of Zhiyi[37]
  • Sengche (僧徹)[37]
  • Daoxiu (道休)[37]
  • Dayi Daoxin[37]
  • Daman Hongren[37]
  • Fapu (法普)[37]
  • Youxuan (幽玄)[37]
  • Suiduan (遂端)[37]
  • Hangxiao (行修)[37]
  • Wang (王羅漢)[37]
  • Laode (老德和尚)[39]
  • Baoyin (寶印)[39]
  • Chang (常羅漢)[39]
  • Chongyan (崇演)[39]
  • Chunan (楚南)[39]
  • Cunshou (存壽)[39]
  • Daxing (大行)[39]
  • Daoang (釋道昂)[39]
  • Daolin (釋道林)[39]
  • Daoyin (釋道因)[39]
  • Dexiu (德秀)[39]
  • Fachong (法充)[39]
  • Faqin (法欽)[39]
  • Guting (古庭)[39]
  • Guangyu (廣玉)[39]
  • Heluojie (訶羅謁)[39]
  • Faming (法明)[39]
  • Huanzhong (寰中)[39]
  • Hui (慧禪師)[39]
  • Huikong (慧空)[39]
  • Huishi (慧寔)[39]
  • Huiyan (慧嚴)[39]
  • Jianzhen[39]
  • Jueqing (覺慶)[39]
  • Pengpeng (沙門釋彭彭)[39]
  • Puyuan (普願)[39]
  • Ruyu (如玉)[39]
  • Shifan (師範)[39]
  • Shiyu (世瑜)[39]
  • Wenyan (文偃禪師)[39][40]
  • Qingliang Wenyi (清涼文益)[39]
  • Wuji (無迹)[39]
  • Wulou (無漏)[39]
  • Hangxiu (行修)[39]
  • Yefang (業方)[39]
  • Yi Xing[39]
  • Zhiyuan (智圓禪師)[39]
  • Zhutanyou (竺昙猷)[39]
  • Ziyu (子瑀)[39]
  • Zongyuan (宗淵)[39]
  • Niunao (拗撓)[39]
  • Baoan (寶安)[39]
  • Canghuan (藏奂)[39]
  • Daibing (代病)[39]
  • Daozhou (道舟)[39]
  • Guangyi (光儀)[39]
  • Guangji (沙門廣寄)[39]
  • Huayan (華嚴和尚)[39]
  • Huaiyu (懷玉)[39]
  • Sengbian (僧辯)[39]
  • Wenxi (文喜)[39]
  • Yuanshao (圓紹)[39]
  • Jinggan (靜感比丘尼) (nun)[3]
  • Lingjiao (靈覺比丘尼) (nun)[3]
  • Huiyin (惠隱尼) (nun)[3]
  • Yingong (銀公)[41]
  • Mosi (摩斯)[41]
  • Danru (淡如)[42]
  • Longshan (隆山祖師)[43]
  • Defeng (德風和尚)[43]
  • Shengchuan (聖傳和尚)[43]
  • Chang'en (常恩和尚)[44]
  • Falong (法龍和尚)[43]
  • Dinghui (定慧和尚)[43]
  • Huade (華德和尚)[43]
  • Bi Yuexia (碧月俠) (Taoist)[45]
  • Bi Dengxia (碧燈俠) (Taoist),[45] a peer of Bi Yuexia
  • Bi Chenxia (碧塵俠) (Taoist),[45] a peer of Bi Yuexia
  • Jisheng (濟生和尚)[42]
  • Chushan (楚山和尚)[46]
  • Zhou (周老禪師)[47]
  • Liu (劉舍人) (folk)[48]
  • Chen Jinggu (陳靖姑) (Taoist woman)[49][50]
  • Yibo (義波和尚)[51]
  • Qin (秦善人) (layman)[52]
  • Lingying (靈應祖師)[51][53][54]
  • Chen Yi (仁遠王)[55]
  • Deqin (德欽)[56]
  • Từ Đạo Hạnh (徐道幸)[57]
  • Tuệ Tĩnh (慧靜禪師)[58]
  • Wuji (無際大師) [59][60]
  • Shinsō Gyōjun (心相行順大行者)[61]
  • Kōchi (弘智法印)[61]
  • Tanzei (弾誓上人)[61]
  • Arisada (宥貞法印)[61]
  • Shungi (舜義上人)[61]
  • Shūkai (秀快上人)[61]
  • Myōshin (妙心法師)[62][63]
  • Longde (隆德禅师)[64]
  • Huihuan (慧寬法師)[65]
  • Xianliang (顯亮沙彌尼) (nun), student of Huihuan[65]
  • Benfeng (本丰长老)[66]
  • Haiyun (海雲禪師).[67]
  • Benru (本如)[68][69]
  • Zhou Fengchen (周凤臣) (laywoman)[70][71]
  • Tian Zhichao (田志超)[72]
  • Jiaofeng (焦豐居士) (layman)[73]
  • Yuantong (圓通和尚)[73]
  • Xinhui (性慧)[41]
  • Xintian (性添)[41]
  • Haicheng (海澄)[41]
  • Chanhua (禪化)[41]
  • Lijin (立謹)[41]
  • Zhiyuen (智遠)[41]
  • Faxing (法信)[41]
  • Yikong (一空)[41]
  • Yunhe (雲鶴)[41]
  • Mingyue (明月)[41]
  • Mingliang (明亮)[41]
  • Siben (思本)[74]
  • Huaide (懷德)[74]
  • Shixian (師顯)[74]
  • Zhixuan (智玄)[74]
  • Mingzhe (明哲)[74]
  • Shenyuan (神遠)[74]
  • Puqin (普欽)[74]
  • Yuankong (圓空)[74]
  • Xuanxu (玄虛道人) (Taoist)[74][75]
  • Xuanzhi (玄智道人) (Taoist), a student of Xuanxu[74]
  • Songfeng (松風道人) (Taoist)[74]
  • Songzhu (松竹道人) (Taoist)[74]
  • Haimo (海墨老和尚)[3]
  • Haiqing (释海庆)[76]
  • Wu Yunqing (吴云青) (Taoist)[77][78]
  • Changjing (昌净法师) (nun)[79]
  • Zongxu (宗旭)[80]
  • Guowu (釋果悟)[81]
  • Miguang (弥光老和尚), a student of Hsu Yun[82]
  • Dizang(Jin qiaojiao) (地藏(金喬覺))[83]
  • Haiyu (無瑕海玉)[84]
  • Daxing (大兴和尚)[85]
  • Ciming (慈明法师)[86]
  • Mingjing (明净法师)[87]
  • Puwen (普文和尚)[88]
  • Renyi (仁义比丘尼) (nun)[89]
  • Kuande (宽德和尚)[90]
  • Liaozhen (了真大師)[91][92]
  • Zongsheng (释宗胜)[93]
  • Shengchuan (聖傳禪師)[94]
  • Guoan (果安)[95]
  • Miaoshan (妙山)[96]
  • Yongsen (永森)[97]
  • Huang Yulan (黄玉兰) (laywoman)[98]
  • Renguang (仁光上人)[42]
  • Yongci (永慈)[99][100]
  • Yang Fuxin (楊福信)[101]
  • Wang Chunrong (王春荣) (laywoman)[102]
  • Lin Guanrong (林观荣) (layman)[103]
  • Yinlian (隐莲法师)[104]
  • Pu-Chao (普照法師)[105]
  • De-Hsiu (得修法師) (nun)[106]
  • K'ai-Feng (釋開豐)[107]
  • Wuming (悟明長老)[108]
  • Qingyan (清嚴)[109]
  • Yingmiao (瀛妙)[110]
  • Mrs Sung (宋老太太) (laywoman)[111]
  • Ming-chien (明潔上人)[112]
  • Xie Shide (化智上人) (folk)[113]
  • Ma Jinying (馬金瑛) (Taoist woman)[114]
  • Gao Bangniang (高榜娘) (laywoman)
  • Gao Guaniang (高瓜娘) (laywoman), sister of Gao Bangniang[115][116]
  • Miaozhi (妙智和尚)[117][118]
  • Chen Zhu (珠姑) (Zhaijiao nun) [119]
  • Zou Wubi (鄒公祖師)[41]
  • Wujinzhang (無盡藏比丘尼) (nun) [120]
  • Huineng[121][122]
  • Dantian (丹田禪師)[123]
  • Hanshan Deqing, teacher of Ouyi[124]
  • Bingong (賓公生佛)[125][126][127]
  • Yuet Kai (月溪法師)[128]
  • Chonghui (崇慧法师)[129][130]
  • Vũ Khắc Minh (武克明禪師)[131]
  • Vũ Khắc Trường (武克長禪師),[132] nephew of Vũ Khắc Minh
  • Chuyết Chuyết (拙公)[133]
  • Như Trí (如智禪師)[134]
  • Phochang (普淨法師)[135]

Vajrayana[edit]

Some names are lost[136][137]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 哪些人死后尸体不腐?
  2. ^ Faure, Bernard (1994). The rhetoric of immediacy: a cultural critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-691-02963-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e 九华山肉身之谜
  4. ^ Trekker finds Buddhist Lama mummy in a mountain hideaway in North India.
  5. ^ Hori, Ichiro (1962). "Self-Mummified Buddhas in Japan. An Aspect of the Shugen-Dô ("Mountain Asceticism") Sect". History of Religions 1 (2): 222–242. doi:10.1086/462445. JSTOR 1062053. 
  6. ^ Mathews, Chris. "Ritual Self- Mummification."
  7. ^ 周凤臣居士肉身记-神奇的香河老人
  8. ^ 视频:佛教的成果肉身菩萨
  9. ^ 華雨集第四冊07
  10. ^ 風城築夢
  11. ^ 佛說彌勒大成佛經》卷1
  12. ^ Will Thamanya Sayadaw’s Body Ever Rest in Peace?
  13. ^ Tharmanya Sayardaw / Sayardaw U Vinaya - Myanmar (Burma)
  14. ^ Thamanya Sayadaw
  15. ^ The Cult of Thamanya Sayadaw
  16. ^ a b c MrYeeshkul's Thai Guru Monks
  17. ^ 怪异!泰国的高僧驾鹤西去,但肉身不死,何故?
  18. ^ The statue of Luang Phor Sodh of Wat Pak Nam
  19. ^ Luang Phor Samrit, Wat Tamfad
  20. ^ LP Put
  21. ^ Luang Phor Parn - Rare Antique Thai Amulets and Votive Tablets
  22. ^ 文章
  23. ^ Luang Phor Pinak - Thai Amulet Place
  24. ^ 佛牌資料
  25. ^ MYTHS & LEGENDS-4
  26. ^ Luang Phor Nong
  27. ^ 龍婆碰(Luang Phor Phrom Wat Chongkae)
  28. ^ 龍波撒懷(Luang Phor Sawai Wat Preedahrahm)
  29. ^ 龍普再(Luang Pu Choy Wat Siutumpon)
  30. ^ 龍波瑪下布(Luang Phor Mahapoh Wat Klongmor)
  31. ^ 龍婆空(Tok Raja Watutamaram)
  32. ^ 請佛堂佛像專門店
  33. ^ 去世三年高僧遺體焚不化_社會新聞_泰國世界日報
  34. ^ 六、念佛婆子 瑞應奇特
  35. ^ 陕西华县发现玉泉洞坐化道士干尸 泥塑真身
  36. ^ "坐化娘娘":西安一道士坐化肉身泥塑像令专家震惊
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac 文献上の入定ミイラ
  38. ^ a b c d 失われた即身仏・ミイラ
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba 肉身和尚集
  40. ^ 三、人物傳略
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n 五龙躔景区 - -=三佳绵山=-
  42. ^ a b c 清稗類鈔(清)徐珂编-方外類(13)_网络120
  43. ^ a b c d e f 探索肉身之迷
  44. ^ 常恩和尚肉身舍利
  45. ^ a b c 八卦掌起源再探究——实非董海川所创
  46. ^ 明代临济高僧楚山绍琦与成都石经寺
  47. ^ 印光大师文钞(十)
  48. ^ 裝神弄鬼殺人而祭海神宋朝氾濫成災的淫祠和巫風_星島環球網_文史
  49. ^ 宁德《女神出世》
  50. ^ 祖廟豐采-古田臨水宮
  51. ^ a b 清代两姐妹肉身不腐泉州“肉身佛”探秘-泉州网
  52. ^ 泉州“肉身佛”探秘(图)-泉州网
  53. ^ 南安灵应寺 - 宝华寺
  54. ^ 灵应祖师
  55. ^ 泉州文史资料全文库
  56. ^ 宝林寺_广东省佛山市顺德区_中国寺庙网
  57. ^ zh:s:大越史記全書/本紀卷之三
  58. ^ Vietnamese Mummies
  59. ^ 南岳无际大师肉身”屈居东瀛风波真相
  60. ^ “东方木乃伊”何时归故里?
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mummies in Northern Japan即身仏一覧表
  62. ^ 御正体山の妙心上人
  63. ^ 即身仏の思想的背景
  64. ^ 万德禅寺将举行上隆下德禅师肉身贴金圆满仪式
  65. ^ a b 绥化市望奎县红光寺惊现肉身舍利
  66. ^ 上本下丰长老肉身舍利
  67. ^ 从白塔寺到法源寺追寻海云禅师真身之谜
  68. ^ 师爷肉身佛上本下如老和尚_石佛寺主持释了杰的空间_百度空间
  69. ^ [原创]房山上方山华严洞肉身佛(P15)
  70. ^ 香河老人专题-学佛感应
  71. ^ 十年不腐揭秘“香河老人”肉身不腐之谜(图)
  72. ^ 搜神记之八:田志超汉人成佛第一人
  73. ^ a b 绵山宗教
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l 【冯骥才】绵山彩塑记(二)
  75. ^ 千年古剎正果寺 舍利真身探秘
  76. ^ 释海庆法师成就肉身舍利
  77. ^ “160岁高僧圆寂8年真身不腐”调查
  78. ^ “160岁寿星”幕后新闻
  79. ^ 昌净法师
  80. ^ 宗旭法师肉身
  81. ^ 武汉一僧圆寂三年肉身不腐
  82. ^ 弥光老和尚法身委员会
  83. ^ 金地藏与九华山地藏文化--谢澍田
  84. ^ 第一尊比丘尼肉身菩萨(2)_走近神秘高僧_神秘中国创作组
  85. ^ 大兴和尚肉身舍利
  86. ^ 慈明法师肉身舍利
  87. ^ 明净法师圆寂六年肉身不腐
  88. ^ 导游词
  89. ^ 仁义师太肉身舍利
  90. ^ 肉身系列之八:农禅并重的宽德-游玩资讯-第一旅游网 中国旅游第一网络资讯平台 《中国旅游报》主办
  91. ^ 百年不腐 盘点世界各地真实版“睡美人
  92. ^ 安徽源浦寺肉身和尚 历经230年保存完好
  93. ^ 源浦寺首任住持圆寂3年后肉身不腐
  94. ^ 安徽铜陵发现百年僧人肉身
  95. ^ 安徽省庐江县冶父山庐江寺果安法师
  96. ^ 安徽省庐江县冶父山伏虎寺妙山法师
  97. ^ 安徽省庐江县冶父山实际禅寺永森法师
  98. ^ 弥陀大愿菩萨殊胜示现 - 弥陀大愿菩萨正法大道场
  99. ^ 永慈老法师成就肉身舍利
  100. ^ 慈公老上师简介 灵窟佛国-- 浙江省天台山慈恩寺
  101. ^ 明代僧人肉身500年不腐 皮肤湿润有弹性
  102. ^ 江西上饶发现真身塑像 去世老妪20年不腐
  103. ^ 男子将亡父制成木乃伊 7年不腐烂
  104. ^ 中国肉身菩萨隐莲法师回忆录
  105. ^ 肉身菩薩普照法師 20多年保持良好
  106. ^ 宗教名勝>民間信仰
  107. ^ 坐缸肉身菩薩 純金雕塑金身
  108. ^ 悟明长老圆寂千人见证“观音老人”成就肉身菩萨 - 香港宝莲禅寺
  109. ^ 台北新店海藏寺清严肉身菩萨
  110. ^ 台湾瀛妙法师
  111. ^ 吃齋勤禮佛60年 屏東老婦去世前即預言坐缸成肉身佛
  112. ^ 自由電子報- 廬山軒四代為肉身菩薩塑金身
  113. ^ 開山師肉身舍利 信眾說傳奇
  114. ^ 仙妈简介
  115. ^ 闽南神奇的肉身佛
  116. ^ 福州晚报
  117. ^ 福建“肉身舍利” 116岁高僧肉身敷金
  118. ^ 香港佛教556期
  119. ^ 女居士圆寂32年肉身不腐 寺庙欲为其塑金身(图)
  120. ^ 六祖法寶壇經淺釋(機緣品第七)
  121. ^ 南华寺六祖慧能真身考
  122. ^ 六祖惠能真身1200年来遭受过什么人的摧毁?
  123. ^ 中国肉身菩萨全纪录
  124. ^ 憨山大师肉身舍利
  125. ^ 正果诗旅:从“正因”抵达“正果”
  126. ^ 正果寺
  127. ^ 广东增城正果寺导游词
  128. ^ 月溪法師
  129. ^ 发表评论 - 梅州千佛塔寺
  130. ^ 佛印法师
  131. ^ 51- 75 - Quảng Đức
  132. ^ Notes on Vietnam Pagodas
  133. ^ 明清之际福建籍高僧拙公和尚的越南之行
  134. ^ Kim Cương Bất Hoại - Nhục Thân Thiền Sư Như Trí Vẫn Còn Qua 300 Năm
  135. ^ 普净法师
  136. ^ 吉祥天母千年肉身,至今发甲仍在生长
  137. ^ 供奉於色拉寺的桑耶高僧虹身法體
  138. ^ 高野山往生伝
  139. ^ a b Buddhist mummification traditions - Reuben Rutledge
  140. ^ Don Croner’s World Wide Wanders
  141. ^ 鉄門海上人
  142. ^ とみ新蔵(1966). 鉄門海上人伝(Manga)
  143. ^ "Choijin Lama museum. Place to visited in region of Mongolia. Sights of intersest". Legendtour.ru. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  144. ^ 西藏五位班禅法体合葬同一灵塔内
  145. ^ a b 罗家洞胜乐肉身佛事迹简述
  146. ^ 西藏寺廟介紹:桑丁寺
  147. ^ 桑顶寺
  148. ^ 肉身菩萨:噶举派第一世卡卢仁波切
  149. ^ 鬼王子羅問的部落格 - udn部落格
  150. ^ 最高境界是如何炼成的_雅虎文化
  151. ^ 台湾密宗第一位女性金刚不坏身-贡噶法师
  152. ^ 當代第十世貢噶仁波切
  153. ^ 雪域高僧傳-敦珠仁波切簡介
  154. ^ История о нетленном теле калмыцкого монаха Багши Дангке (Russian)

Sources[edit]

  • 内藤正敏 (1999/5/10). ミイラ信仰の研究.(京都)法蔵館. ISBN 978-4-8318-7244-9
  • 日本ミイラ研究グループ (1993). 日本・中国ミイラ信仰の研究. 平凡社. ISBN 4-582-42002-8

External links[edit]