Buddleja polystachya is a multi-branched shrub or occasionally small tree endemic to the semi-arid highlands flanking the Red Sea in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and Yemen, where it grows in secondary scrub or around forest, often along watercourses, at elevations of between 2,200 and 3,600 m its range extends southward into the highlands of Kenya and Tanzania.  The species was named by Georg Fresenius in the early part of the 19th century.
B. polystachya usually grows to < 5 m , but can occasionally reach 12 m in favourable conditions. The bark can be either red-brown or grey in colour. The bright orange flowers form dense panicles < 20 cm long; the scent ranges from sweet to acrid. The leaves are < 15 cm long and narrow, with a pointed tip, the upper surface a pale grey-green. The fruit is a small dry orange capsule.
B. polystachya is known to have been introduced to Europe in 2005 (France & Italy) but not North America. The shrub can be easily propagated from seed and cuttings. Hardiness: USDA zones 7–9. 
The fruits are eaten raw, the leaves used as animal fodder.
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