Budget of NASA

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National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA logo.svg
Agency overview
Formed July 29, 1958; 56 years ago (1958-07-29)
Annual budget $18.724 billion (Fiscal Year 2011, about 0.5% of total budget at about $3 trillion)[1]

As a federal agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) receives its funding from the annual federal budget passed by the United States Congress. The following charts detail the amount of federal funding allotted to NASA each year over its past fifty-year history (1958–2009) to operate aeronautics research, unmanned and manned space exploration programs.

Annual budget, 1958-2015[edit]

NASA's budget as percentage of federal total, from 1958 to 2012

Seen in the year-by-year breakdown listed below, the total amounts (in nominal dollars) that NASA has been budgeted from 1958 to 2011 amounts to $526.18 billion—an average of $9.928 billion per year. By way of comparison, total spending over this period by the National Science Foundation was roughly one-fourth of NASA's expenditures: $101.5 billion, or $2 billion a year.[2] NASA's FY 2011 budget of $18.4 billion represented about 0.5% of the $3.4 trillion United States federal budget during that year, or about 35% of total spending on academic scientific research in the United States.[3]

According to the Office of Management and Budget and the Air Force Almanac, when measured in real terms (adjusted for inflation), the figure is $790.0 billion, or an average of $15.818 billion per year over its fifty-year history.

History of NASA's annual budget (millions of US dollars)
Calendar
Year
NASA budget
Nominal Dollars
(Millions)
% of Fed Budget[4][5] 2014 Constant Dollars
(Millions)
1958 89 0.1% 732
1959 145 0.2% 1,185
1960 401 0.5% 3,222
1961 744 0.9% 5,918
1962 1,257 1.18% 9,900
1963 2,552 2.29% 19,836
1964 4,171 3.52% 32,002
1965 5,092 4.31% 38,448
1966 5,933 4.41% 43,554
1967 5,425 3.45% 38,633
1968 4,722 2.65% 32,274
1969 4,251 2.31% 27,550
1970 3,752 1.92% 23,000
1971 3,382 1.61% 19,862
1972 3,423 1.48% 19,477
1973 3,312 1.35% 17,742
1974 3,255 1.21% 15,704
1975 3,269 0.98% 14,452
1976 3,671 0.99% 15,345
1977 4,002 0.98% 15,707
1978 4,164 0.91% 15,190
1979 4,380 0.87% 14,349
1980 4,959 0.84% 14,314
1981 5,537 0.82% 14,488
1982 6,155 0.83% 15,170
1983 6,853 0.85% 16,365
1984 7,055 0.83% 16,150
1985 7,251 0.77% 16,028
1986 7,403 0.75% 16,065
1987 7,591 0.76% 15,893
Calendar
Year
NASA budget
Nominal Dollars
(Millions)
% of Fed Budget[4][5] 2014 Constant Dollars
(Millions)
1988 9,092 0.85% 18,280
1989 11,036 0.96% 21,168
1990 12,429 0.99% 22,618
1991 13,878 1.05% 24,235
1992 13,961 1.01% 23,668
1993 14,305 1.01% 23,546
1994 13,695 0.94% 21,979
1995 13,378 0.88% 20,879
1996 13,881 0.89% 21,042
1997 14,360[citation needed] 0.90% 21,280
1998 14,194 0.86% 20,712
1999 13,636 0.80% 19,467
2000 13,428 0.75% 18,547
2001 14,095 0.76% 18,940
2002 14,405 0.72% 19,045
2003 14,610 0.68% 18,885
2004 15,152 0.66% 19,078
2005 15,602 0.63% 19,001
2006 15,125 0.57% 17,844
2007 15,861 0.58% 18,194
2008 17,833[citation needed] 0.60% 19,700
2009 [6] 17,782 0.57% 19,714
2010 18,724 0.52% 20,423
FY2011 [8] 18,448 0.51% 17,833
FY2012 [9] 17,770 0.50% 17,471
FY2013 [10] 16,865 0.49% 17,219
2014 (requested) 17,647 [10][dated info]
2015 18,010[11]
2016 (projected) 17,635 [10]
2017 (projected) 17,812 [10]
2018 (projected) 17,990 [10]
2019 (projected) 18,170 [10]

Notes for table: Sources for a part of these data: U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (needs proper citation-link, numbers here differ from NASA Pocket Statistics),
Air Force Association's Air Force Magazine 2007 Space Almanac
Secondary references: [1] [2] [3][full citation needed]

NASA employment[edit]

Reference:

1. Years 1960-1968[12][13]

2. Years 1969-1978[14]

3. Years 1979-1988[15]

4. CS, Years 1993-1995[16][17]

5. Year 2012[18]

6. CS, Year 1959-1968, 1989-1996, NASA Pocket Stats: http://history.nasa.gov/pocketstats/sect%20D/CS%20Trend.pdf

7. CS, Year 1993-2011, Workforce Information Cubes: https://wicn.nssc.nasa.gov

8. Contractors, 1969: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4102/ch5.htm

Cost of Apollo program[edit]

NASA's budget peaked in 1966, during the Apollo program

NASA's budget peaked in the period 1964-1966, during the height of construction efforts leading up to the first moon landing under Apollo program which involved more than 34,000 NASA employees and 375,000 employees of industrial and university contractors. Roughly 4% of the total federal budget was being devoted to the space program.

In March 1966, NASA officials briefing Congressional members stated the "run-out cost" of the Apollo program, aimed at achieving a manned lunar landing, would be an estimated $22.718 billion for the 13-year program, which had begun in 1959. According to Steve Garber, the NASA History website curator, the final cost of project Apollo was between $20 and $25.4 billion in 1969 dollars (approximately $136 billion in 2007 dollars).[19] The costs associated with the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rockets amounted to about $83 billion in 2005 dollars (Apollo spacecraft cost $28 billion (Command/Service Module $17 billion; Lunar Module $11 billion), Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn V costs about $46 billion in 2005 dollars).

Economic impact of NASA funding[edit]

A November 1971 study of NASA released by MRIGlobal (formerly Midwest Research Institute) of Kansas City, Missouri ("Technological Progress and Commercialization of Communications Satellites." In: "Economic Impact of Stimulated Technological Activity") concluded that "the $25 billion in 1958 dollars spent on civilian space R & D during the 1958-1969 period has returned $52 billion through 1971 -- and will continue to produce pay offs through 1987, at which time the total pay off will have been $181 billion. The discounted rate of return for this investment will have been 33 percent."

A map from NASA's web site illustrating its economic impact on the U.S. states (as of FY2003)

A 1992 commentary in the British science journal Nature reported:[20]

"The economic benefits of NASA's programs are greater than generally realized. The main beneficiaries (the American public) may not even realize the source of their good fortune. . ."

Other statistics on NASA's economic impact may be found in the 1976 Chase Econometrics Associates, Inc. reports[21] and backed by the 1989 Chapman Research report, which examined 259 non-space applications of NASA technology during an eight-year period (1976–1984) and found more than:

  • $21.6 billion in sales and benefits
  • 352,000 (mostly skilled) jobs created or saved
  • $355 million in federal corporate income taxes

According to the "Nature" commentary, these 259 applications represent ". . .only 1% of an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 Space program spin-offs."

In 2014, the American Helicopter Society criticized NASA and the government for reducing the annual rotorcraft budget from $50 million in 2000 to $23 million in 2013, impacting commercial opportunities.[22]

Public perception[edit]

According to the United States Constitution, the funding of all federal public works, including those of NASA, is determined by the Congress, and thus is subject to the will of the people, who elect the Congress. As Abraham Lincoln observed, "With public sentiment, nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed." As such, NASA depends on the good will of the American public.[23] The Apollo program (1961–72), motivated by a perceived national security threat posed by early Soviet leads in spaceflight, generated the highest budget levels that NASA has ever seen, both in real inflation-adjusted dollars and in percentage of total federal budget, sharply peaking at 4.41% in 1966 and then descending. After the US won the Space Race by achieving the goal of landing men on the Moon, the perceived threat was gone, and NASA was unable to sustain political support for its vision of an even more ambitious Space Transportation System entailing reusable Earth-to-orbit shuttles, a permanent space station, lunar bases, and a manned mission to Mars. Only a scaled-back Space Shuttle was approved, and NASA's funding leveled off at just under 1% in 1976, then shallowly declined to 0.75% in 1986. Despite a brief rally to 1.01% in 1992, it then repeated the steady decline to approximately 0.5% in 2012, the last year for which data is available.

The American public perceives the NASA budget as commanding a much larger share of the federal budget than it in fact does. A 1997 poll reported that Americans had an average estimate of 20% for NASA's share of the federal budget, far higher than the actual 0.5% to under 1% that has been maintained throughout the late '90s and first decade of the 2000s.[24] It is estimated that most Americans spent less than $9 on NASA through personal income tax in 2009.[25]

However, there has been a recent movement to communicate discrepancy between perception and reality of NASA's budget as well as lobbying to return the funding back to the 1970-1990 level. The United States Senate Science Committee met in March 2012 where astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that "Right now, NASA's annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to dream of tomorrow."[26][27] Inspired by Tyson's advocacy and remarks, the Penny4NASA campaign was initiated in 2012 by John Zeller and advocates the doubling of NASA's budget to one percent of the Federal Budget, or one "penny on the dollar."[28]

To help with public perception and to raise awareness regarding the widespread benefits of NASA-funded programs and technologies, NASA instituted the Spinoffs publication. This was a direct offshoot of the Technology Utilization Program Report, a "publication dedicated to informing the scientific community about available NASA technologies, and ongoing requests received for supporting information." according to the NASA Spinoff about page he technologies in these reports created interest in the technology transfer concept, its successes, and its use as a public awareness tool. The reports generated such keen interest by the public that NASA decided to make them into an attractive publication. Thus, the first four-color edition of Spinoff was published in 1976.[29]

Related legislation[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bill Summary of NASA Authorization Act of 2010
  2. ^ "Budget Internet Information System". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  3. ^ "Federal Spending on Academic Research Continued Downward Trend in 2007". August 25, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  4. ^ a b % of total federal expenditures from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/feb/01/nasa-budgets-us-spending-space-travel
  5. ^ a b 1999-2010 based on federal outlays from: Federal budget (United States)#Total outlays in recent budget submissions
  6. ^ 2011 Budget Overview
  7. ^ Berger, Brian (2011-04-13). "U.S. Budget Compromise Includes $18.5 Billion for NASA". Space.com. Retrieved 30 January 2012. 
  8. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/632697main_NASA_FY13_Budget_Summary-508.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/750614main_NASA_FY_2014_Budget_Estimates-508.pdf
  10. ^ a b c d e f 2015 Budget Estimates
  11. ^ Clark, Stephen (2014-12-14). "NASA gets budget hike in spending bill passed by Congress". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2014-12-15. 
  12. ^ NASA Historical Databook, 1958-1968, Volume I, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012v1, 1976, Page 10, http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4012v1.pdf
  13. ^ For general discussion on Years 1960-1968, see Chapter 3 of NASA Historical Databook, 1958-1968, Volume I, NASA Resources, NASA SP-4012v1, 1976
  14. ^ SP-4012 NASA HISTORICAL DATA BOOK: VOLUME IV, NASA RESOURCES 1969-1978, Table 3-1 (Titled: Civilian and Military In-house Personnel (at end of fiscal year)), Link: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4012/vol4/t3.1.htm
  15. ^ NASA Historical Data Books (SP-4012), Volume VI: NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs, and Resources, 1979-1988, Compiled by Judy A. Rumerman, 1999, Reference: Chapter 7: NASA Personnel, Table 7-1 (Titled: Total NASA Workforce (at end of fiscal year), Page 468 Link: http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4012/vol6/cover6.html
  16. ^ http://www.gao.gov/assets/230/223061.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GAOREPORTS-NSIAD-96-176/html/GAOREPORTS-NSIAD-96-176.htm
  18. ^ http://employeeorientation.nasa.gov/contractors/default.htm
  19. ^ http://www.zoominfo.com/p/Steve-Garber/28266667
  20. ^ Roger H. Bezdek & Robert M. Wendling (January 9, 1992). "Sharing out NASA's spoils". Nature (Nature Publishing Group) 355 (6356): 105–106. Bibcode:1992Natur.355..105B. doi:10.1038/355105a0. Retrieved 2008-03-30. The economic benefits of NASA's programmes are greater than generally recognized. The main beneficiaries may not even realize the source of their good fortune. 
  21. ^ "The Economic Impact of NASA R&D Spending: Preliminary Executive Summary.", April 1975. Also: "Relative Impact of NASA Expenditure on the Economy.", March 18, 1975
  22. ^ Hirschberg, Mike. "Investing in Tomorrow’s Civil Rotorcraft" American Helicopter Society, July-August 2014. Accessed: 7 October 2014. Archived on 7 October 2014
  23. ^ "Public Opinion of the American Space Program". NASA Headquarters. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  24. ^ Launius, Roger D. "Public opinion polls and perceptions of US human spaceflight". Division of Space History, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. 
  25. ^ "Personal Income Tax Paid To NASA In 2009 By Income Level". NASACost.com. 
  26. ^ "Past, Present, and Future of NASA - U.S. Senate Testimony". Hayden Planetarium. 7 Mar 2012. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012. 
  27. ^ "Past, Present, and Future of NASA - U.S. Senate Testimony (Video)". Hayden Planetarium. 7 Mar 2012. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012. 
  28. ^ "Why We Fight - Penny4NASA". Penny4NASA. Retrieved 30 Nov 2012. 
  29. ^ "About Spinoff". NASA. No date given. Retrieved 26 Nov 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  30. ^ National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005, PL 109-155, US Government, December 30, 2005.
  31. ^ "H.R. 4412 - Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 9 June 2014. 

External links[edit]