Buffalo County, Wisconsin
|Buffalo County, Wisconsin|
Location in the state of Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location in the U.S.
|Named for||Buffalo River|
|• Total||710 sq mi (1,839 km2)|
|• Land||672 sq mi (1,740 km2)|
|• Water||38 sq mi (98 km2), 5.3%|
|• Density||20/sq mi (8/km²)|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013)|
Buffalo County, founded in 1853, is named for the Buffalo River, which flows from Strum to Alma, Wisconsin, where it empties into the Mississippi River. The Buffalo River obtained its name from the French voyager Father Louis Hennepin, who named it “Riviere des Boeufs” in 1680. The first permanent settlement was established in 1839, located in what is now Fountain City. This settlement was originally named Holmes' Landing after a family that traded with the Sioux and Chippewa. Buffalo County was settled primarily by Swiss, German, and Norwegian immigrants who were drawn to the area by the growing lumber industry, fertile soils, access to the Mississippi, and available land. By 1848 a second community was established called Twelve Mile Bluff, which is now known as Alma.
Agriculture developed during the 1850s on top of the ridges where there were natural prairies and oak savannahs, which made working the land much easier. Native vegetation based on NRCS soils information is:  With the lack of good roads, settlement remained along the Mississippi River where farmers could ship their grain on steamboats. The development of the Northern Rail from Winona, Minnesota allowed for development away from the river, and by 1890 farmers were transporting their goods predominantly by rail.
The Civil War gave a boost to the local economy with the rising demand for wheat, which was the main crop of the county. The post-war period brought a large influx of settlers, however, because of declining soil fertility, many moved west rather than adopt crop rotation and fertilization. With the price of wheat falling, farmers turned to dairy farming, and by the 1880s local creameries had started to appear.
- Pepin County – north
- Eau Claire County – northeast
- Trempealeau County – east
- Winona County, Minnesota – south
- Wabasha County, Minnesota – west
As of the census of 2000, there were 13,804 people, 5,511 households, and 3,780 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile (8/km²). There were 6,098 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile (3/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.69% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, and 0.46% from two or more races. 0.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.3% were of German, 22.1% Norwegian and 8.8% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.9% spoke English, 1.6% Spanish and 1.1% German as their first language.
There were 5,511 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.40% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.40 males.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Buffalo County, Wisconsin
- Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge
- Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Nelson, Steven (2011). Savanna Soils of Minnesota. Minnesota: Self. ISBN 978-0-615-50320-2.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Buffalo County
- History of Buffalo County, Wisconsin
- History of Buffalo and Pepin Counties
- Biographical History of La Crosse, Trempealeau and Buffalo Counties, Wisconsin.
||Pepin County||Eau Claire County|
|Wabasha County, Minnesota||Trempealeau County|
|Winona County, Minnesota|