Buffalo County, Wisconsin

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Buffalo County, Wisconsin
Map of Wisconsin highlighting Buffalo County
Location in the state of Wisconsin
Map of the United States highlighting Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location in the U.S.
Founded 1853[1]
Named for Buffalo River
Seat Alma
Largest city Mondovi
Area
 • Total 710 sq mi (1,839 km2)
 • Land 672 sq mi (1,740 km2)
 • Water 38 sq mi (98 km2), 5.3%
Population
 • (2010) 13,587
 • Density 20/sq mi (8/km²)
Congressional district 3rd
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website www.buffalocounty.com

Buffalo County is a county located in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,587.[2] Its county seat is Alma.[3]

History[edit]

Buffalo County, founded in 1853, is named for the Buffalo River, which flows from Strum to Alma, Wisconsin, where it empties into the Mississippi River. The Buffalo River obtained its name from the French voyager Father Louis Hennepin, who named it “Riviere des Boeufs” in 1680. The first permanent settlement was established in 1839, located in what is now Fountain City. This settlement was originally named Holmes' Landing after a family that traded with the Sioux and Chippewa. Buffalo County was settled primarily by Swiss, German, and Norwegian immigrants who were drawn to the area by the growing lumber industry, fertile soils, access to the Mississippi, and available land. By 1848 a second community was established called Twelve Mile Bluff, which is now known as Alma.

Agriculture developed during the 1850s on top of the ridges where there were natural prairies and oak savannas, which made working the land much easier.

Native vegetation based on NRCS soils information

With the lack of good roads, settlement remained along the Mississippi River where farmers could ship their grain on steamboats. The development of the Northern Rail from Winona, Minnesota allowed for development away from the river, and by 1890 farmers were transporting their goods predominantly by rail.

The Civil War gave a boost to the local economy with the rising demand for wheat, which was the main crop of the county. The post-war period brought a large influx of settlers, however, because of declining soil fertility, many moved west rather than adopt crop rotation and fertilization.[citation needed] With the price of wheat falling, farmers turned to dairy farming, and by the 1880s local creameries had started to appear.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles (1,800 km2), of which 672 square miles (1,740 km2) is land and 38 square miles (98 km2) (5.3%) is water.[4]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 3,864
1870 11,123 187.9%
1880 15,528 39.6%
1890 15,997 3.0%
1900 16,765 4.8%
1910 16,006 −4.5%
1920 15,615 −2.4%
1930 15,330 −1.8%
1940 16,090 5.0%
1950 14,719 −8.5%
1960 14,202 −3.5%
1970 13,743 −3.2%
1980 14,309 4.1%
1990 13,584 −5.1%
2000 13,804 1.6%
2010 13,587 −1.6%
Est. 2012 13,333 −1.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[5]
1790-1960[6] 1900-1990[7]
1990-2000[8] 2010-2012[2]
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Buffalo County

As of the census[9] of 2000, there were 13,804 people, 5,511 households, and 3,780 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile (8/km²). There were 6,098 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile (3/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.69% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, and 0.46% from two or more races. 0.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 44.3% were of German, 22.1% Norwegian and 8.8% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.9% spoke English, 1.6% Spanish and 1.1% German as their first language.

There were 5,511 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.40% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.40 males.

Communities[edit]

Buffalo County sign on WIS 54

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Towns[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Ghost towns[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  4. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  5. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  9. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°23′N 91°45′W / 44.38°N 91.75°W / 44.38; -91.75