Construction

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For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation).
This article is about building construction. For other types of construction, see Category:Construction.
In large construction projects, such as this skyscraper in Melbourne, cranes are essential.

Building construction is the process of preparing for and forming buildings[1] and building systems.[2] Construction starts with planning, design, and financing and continues until the structure is ready for occupancy.

Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the zoning requirements, the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability and transportation of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc.

Definitions[edit]

Building in this article is used as a noun as "...that which is built; a structure, edifice...".[3] The distinction between a building and a non-building structure is not always clear but is sometimes determined if the structure has walls or by its size or use. The Oxford English Dictionary includes that structure may be used for a large or imposing building.

Construction is a very general term meaning the art and science to form material or immaterial objects, systems or organizations,[3] and comes from Latin constructionem (from com- "together" and struere "to pile up") and Old French construction.[4] Construction is used as a verb: the act of building, and a noun: how a building was built, the nature of its structure.

Construction is often used as a synonym with building in its verb tense. As a noun, Russell Sturgis distinguished between architecture as being artistic structure, where a building is unadorned and can be "...poor...commonplace, ugly, insufficient, or otherwise of small importance; "[1] and the use of the word construction as meaning built using scientific principles in a highly skillful way.

This article is about building construction. Other construction topics are covered in many other articles.

Types of construction projects[edit]

Military residential unit construction by U.S. Navy personnel in Afghanistan

In general, there are nine types of construction:[citation needed]

  1. Residential building construction
  2. Light commercial construction
  3. Multi-family construction
  4. Health-Care construction
  5. Environmental construction
  6. Industrial construction
  7. Commercial building construction
  8. Institutional construction
  9. Heavy civil construction

Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct and maintain the project.

Building construction[edit]

Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings. The vast majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common – design, financial, estimating and legal considerations. Many projects of varying sizes reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.

The National Cement Share Company of Ethiopia's new plant in Dire Dawa.

Commercial building construction is procured privately or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, traditional, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging.

Residential construction practices, technologies, and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g. brick versus stone, versus timber). Cost of construction on a per square meter (or per square foot) basis for houses can vary dramatically based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are often more expensive to build) and the availability of skilled tradespeople. As residential construction (as well as all other types of construction) can generate a lot of waste, careful planning again is needed here.

Residential construction[edit]

The most popular method of residential construction in North America is wood-framed construction. Typical construction steps for a single-family or small multi-family house are:

New construction techniques and sustainability[edit]

As efficiency codes have come into effect in recent years, new construction technologies and methods have emerged. University Construction Management departments are on the cutting edge of the newest methods of construction intended to improve efficiency, performance and reduce construction waste.

New techniques of building construction are being researched, made possible by advances in 3D printing technology. In a form of additive building construction, similar to the additive manufacturing techniques for manufactured parts, building printing is making it possible to flexibly construct small commercial buildings and private habitations in around 20 hours, with built-in plumbing and electrical facilities, in one continuous build, using large 3D printers.[5] Working versions of 3D-printing building technology are already printing 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) of building material per hour as of January 2013, with the next-generation printers capable of 3.5 metres (11 ft) per hour, sufficient to complete a building in a week.[6] Dutch architect Janjaap Ruijssenaars's performative architecture 3D-printed building is scheduled to be built in 2014.[7]

In the current trend of sustainable construction, the recent movements of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design.[8][9] This is in contrast to modernist and short-lived globally uniform architecture, as well as opposing solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl.[10] Both trends started in the 1980s.

Construction processes[edit]

Design team[edit]

Shasta Dam under construction in June 1942

In the modern industrialized world, construction usually involves the translation of designs into reality. A formal design team may be assembled to plan the physical proceedings, and to integrate those proceedings with the other parts. The design usually consists of drawings and specifications, usually prepared by a design team including surveyors, civil engineers, cost engineers (or quantity surveyors), mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, structural engineers, fire protection engineers, planning consultants, architectural consultants, and archaeological consultants. The design team is most commonly employed by (i.e. in contract with) the property owner. Under this system, once the design is completed by the design team, a number of construction companies or construction management companies may then be asked to make a bid for the work, either based directly on the design, or on the basis of drawings and a bill of quantities provided by a quantity surveyor. Following evaluation of bids, the owner will typically award a contract to the most cost efficient bidder.

The modern trend in design is toward integration of previously separated specialties, especially among large firms. In the past, architects, interior designers, engineers, developers, construction managers, and general contractors were more likely to be entirely separate companies, even in the larger firms. Presently, a firm that is nominally an "architecture" or "construction management" firm may have experts from all related fields as employees, or to have an associated company that provides each necessary skill. Thus, each such firm may offer itself as "one-stop shopping" for a construction project, from beginning to end. This is designated as a "design build" contract where the contractor is given a performance specification and must undertake the project from design to construction, while adhering to the performance specifications.

Several project structures can assist the owner in this integration, including design-build, partnering and construction management. In general, each of these project structures allows the owner to integrate the services of architects, interior designers, engineers and constructors throughout design and construction. In response, many companies are growing beyond traditional offerings of design or construction services alone and are placing more emphasis on establishing relationships with other necessary participants through the design-build process.

The increasing complexity of construction projects creates the need for design professionals trained in all phases of the project's life-cycle and develop an appreciation of the building as an advanced technological system requiring close integration of many sub-systems and their individual components, including sustainability. Building engineering is an emerging discipline that attempts to meet this new challenge.

Financial advisors[edit]

May 23, 2006
September 14, 2007 (3 months before completion)

Construction projects can suffer from preventable financial problems. Underbids ask for too little money to complete the project. Cash flow problems exist when the present amount of funding cannot cover the current costs for labour and materials, and because they are a matter of having sufficient funds at a specific time, can arise even when the overall total is enough. Fraud is a problem in many fields, but is notoriously prevalent in the construction field[citation needed]. Financial planning for the project is intended to ensure that a solid plan with adequate safeguards and contingency plans are in place before the project is started and is required to ensure that the plan is properly executed over the life of the project.

Mortgage bankers, accountants, and cost engineers are likely participants in creating an overall plan for the financial management of the building construction project. The presence of the mortgage banker is highly likely, even in relatively small projects since the owner's equity in the property is the most obvious source of funding for a building project. Accountants act to study the expected monetary flow over the life of the project and to monitor the payouts throughout the process. Cost engineers and estimators apply expertise to relate the work and materials involved to a proper valuation. Cost overruns with government projects have occurred when the contractor was able to identify change orders or changes in the project resulting in large increases in cost, which are not subject to competition by other firms as they have already been eliminated from consideration after the initial bid.[11]

Large projects can involve highly complex financial plans and often start with a conceptual estimate performed by a building estimator. As portions of a project are completed, they may be sold, supplanting one lender or owner for another, while the logistical requirements of having the right trades and materials available for each stage of the building construction project carries forward. In many English-speaking countries, but not the United States, projects typically use quantity surveyors.

Legal aspects[edit]

Main article: Construction law
Construction along Ontario Highway 401, widening the road from six to twelve travel lanes

A construction project must fit into the legal framework governing the property. These include governmental regulations on the use of property, and obligations that are created in the process of construction.

The project must adhere to zoning and building code requirements. Constructing a project that fails to adhere to codes will not benefit the owner. Some legal requirements come from malum in se considerations, or the desire to prevent things that are indisputably bad – bridge collapses or explosions. Other legal requirements come from malum prohibitum considerations, or things that are a matter of custom or expectation, such as isolating businesses to a business district and residences to a residential district. An attorney may seek changes or exemptions in the law governing the land where the building will be built, either by arguing that a rule is inapplicable (the bridge design will not collapse), or that the custom is no longer needed (acceptance of live-work spaces has grown in the community).

A construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations, each of which must be carefully considered. A contract is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties, but it is not so simple a matter as trying to get the other side to agree to as much as possible in exchange for as little as possible. The time element in construction means that a delay costs money, and in cases of bottlenecks, the delay can be extremely expensive. Thus, the contracts must be designed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obligations set out. Contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly, whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse.

Legal advisors in the beginning of a construction project seek to identify ambiguities and other potential sources of trouble in the contract structure, and to present options for preventing problems. Throughout the process of the project, they work to avoid and resolve conflicts that arise. In each case, the lawyer facilitates an exchange of obligations that matches the reality of the project.

Interaction of expertise[edit]

Apartment complex under construction in Daegu, South Korea

Design, finance, and legal aspects overlap and interrelate. The design must be not only structurally sound and appropriate for the use and location, but must also be financially possible to build, and legal to use. The financial structure must accommodate the need for building the design provided, and must pay amounts that are legally owed. The legal structure must integrate the design into the surrounding legal framework, and enforce the financial consequences of the construction process.

Procurement[edit]

Procurement describes the merging of activities undertaken by the client to obtain a building. There are many different methods of construction procurement; however the three most common types of procurement are traditional (design-bid-build), design-build and management contracting.

There is also a growing number of new forms of procurement that involve relationship contracting where the emphasis is on a co-operative relationship between the principal and contractor and other stakeholders within a construction project. New forms include partnering such as Public-Private Partnering (PPPs) aka private finance initiatives (PFIs) and alliances such as "pure" or "project" alliances and "impure" or "strategic" alliances. The focus on co-operation is to ameliorate the many problems that arise from the often highly competitive and adversarial practices within the construction industry.

Traditional[edit]

Main article: Design–bid–build

This is the most common method of construction procurement and is well established and recognized. In this arrangement, the architect or engineer acts as the project coordinator. His or her role is to design the works, prepare the specifications and produce construction drawings, administer the contract, tender the works, and manage the works from inception to completion. There are direct contractual links between the architect's client and the main contractor. Any subcontractor will have a direct contractual relationship with the main contractor. The procedure continues until building is ready for occupancy.

Design-build[edit]

Main article: Design-build
Construction of the Phase-1 (first two towers) of the
Havelock City Project, Sri Lanka

This approach has become more common in recent years, and involves the client contracting a single entity to both provide a design and to build that design. In some cases, the design-build package can also include finding the site, arranging funding and applying for all necessary statutory consents.

The owner produces a list of requirements for a project, giving an overall view of the project's goals. Several D&B contractors present different ideas about how to accomplish these goals. The owner selects the ideas he or she likes best and hires the appropriate contractor. Often, it is not just one contractor, but a consortium of several contractors working together. Once these have been hired, they begin building the first phase of the project. As they build phase 1, they design phase 2. This is in contrast to a design-bid-build contract, where the project is completely designed by the owner, then bid on, then completed.

Kent Hansen pointed out that state departments of transportation usually use design build contracts as a way of progressing projects when states lack the resources. In such departments, design build contracts are usually employed for very large projects.[12]

Management procurement systems[edit]

In this arrangement the client plays an active role in the procurement system by entering into separate contracts with the designer (architect or engineer), the construction manager, and individual trade contractors. The client takes on the contractual role, while the construction or project manager provides the active role of managing the separate trade contracts, and ensuring that they complete all work smoothly and effectively together.

Management procurement systems are often used to speed up the procurement processes, allow the client greater flexibility in design variation throughout the contract, give the ability to appoint individual work contractors, separate contractual responsibility on each individual throughout the contract, and to provide greater client control.

Authority having jurisdiction[edit]

Construction of the Rivers Towers building in Cúcuta, Colombia

In construction, the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) is the governmental agency or sub-agency which regulates the construction process. In most cases, this is the municipality in which the building is located. However, construction performed for supra-municipal authorities are usually regulated directly by the owning authority, which becomes the AHJ.

Construction on the Federal Reserve building in Kansas City, Missouri

Before the foundation can be dug, contractors are typically required to verify and have existing utility lines marked, either by the utilities themselves or through a company specializing in such services. This lessens the likelihood of damage to the existing electrical, water, sewage, phone, and cable facilities, which could cause outages and potentially hazardous situations. During the construction of a building, the municipal building inspector inspects the building periodically to ensure that the construction adheres to the approved plans and the local building code. Once construction is complete and a final inspection has been passed, an occupancy permit may be issued.

An operating building must remain in compliance with the fire code. The fire code is enforced by the local fire department.

Changes made to a building that affect safety, including its use, expansion, structural integrity, and fire protection items, usually require approval of the AHJ for review concerning the building code.

Industry characteristics[edit]

In the United States, the industry in 2014 has around $960 billion in annual revenue according to statistics tracked by the Census Bureau, of which $680 billion is private (split evenly between residential and nonresidential) and the remainder is government.[13] As of 2005, there were about 667,000 firms employing 1 million contractors (200,000 general contractors, 38,000 heavy, and 432,000 specialty); the average contractor employed fewer than 10 employees.[14] As a whole, the industry employed an estimated 5.8 million as of April 2013, with a 13.2% unemployment rate.[15]

Careers[edit]

Helicopter view of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility (OSF) construction site
Ironworkers erecting the steel frame of a new building at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston
A truck operator at Al Gamil, the largest construction company in Djibouti.

There are many routes to the different careers within the construction industry. These three main tiers are based on educational background and training, which vary by country:

  • Unskilled and semi-skilled – General site labor with little or no construction qualifications.
  • Skilled – Tradesmen who've served apprenticeships, typically in labor unions, and on-site managers who possess extensive knowledge and experience in their craft or profession.
  • Technical and management – Personnel with the greatest educational qualifications, usually graduate degrees, trained to design, manage and instruct the construction process.

Skilled occupations include carpenters, electricians, plumbers, ironworkers, masons, and many other manual crafts, as well as those involved in project management. In the UK these require further education qualifications, often in vocational subject areas. These qualifications are either obtained directly after the completion of compulsory education or through "on the job" apprenticeship training.[16] In the UK, 8500 construction-related apprenticeships were commenced in 2007.[17]

Technical and specialized occupations require more training as a greater technical knowledge is required. These professions also hold more legal responsibility. A short list of the main careers with an outline of the educational requirements are given below:

In 2010 a salary survey revealed the differences in remuneration between different roles, sectors and locations in the construction and built environment industry.[18] The results showed that areas of particularly strong growth in the construction industry, such as the Middle East, yield higher average salaries than in the UK for example. The average earning for a professional in the construction industry in the Middle East, across all sectors, job types and levels of experience, is £42,090, compared to £26,719 in the UK.[19] This trend is not necessarily due to the fact that more affluent roles are available, however, as architects with 14 or more years experience working in the Middle East earn on average £43,389 per annum, compared to £40,000 in the UK.[19] Some construction workers in the US/Canada have made more than $100,000 annually, depending on their trade.[20]

Safety[edit]

At-risk workers without appropriate safety equipment

Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world, incurring more occupational fatalities than any other sector in both the United States and in the European Union.[21][22] In 2009, the fatal occupational injury rate among construction workers in the United States was nearly three times that for all workers.[21] Falls are one of the most common causes of fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers.[21] Proper safety equipment such as harnesses and guardrails and procedures such as securing ladders and inspecting scaffolding can curtail the risk of occupational injuries in the construction industry.[23] Other major causes of fatalities in the construction industry include electrocution, transportation accidents, and trench cave-ins.[24]

History[edit]

A picture of a building under construction in India.

The first huts and shelters were constructed by hand or with simple tools. As cities grew during the Bronze Age, a class of professional craftsmen, like bricklayers and carpenters, appeared. Occasionally, slaves were used for construction work. In the Middle Ages, these were organized into guilds. In the 19th century, steam-powered machinery appeared, and later diesel- and electric powered vehicles such as cranes, excavators and bulldozers.

Fast-track construction has been increasingly popular in the 21st century. Some estimates suggest that 40% of construction projects are now fast-track construction.[25]

Construction phases[edit]

  • Vision/fantasy/idea - a concept never intended to be built, may be an aesthetic or structural design exercise
  • Proposed - a building concept that is under review by a government
  • Approved - a building concept that will be constructed in the near future
  • Deferred - a building concept that may be constructed in the far future
  • Cancelled - a building concept that usually has lost funding or support, in some cases construction already started
  • Under-construction - a fully designed building currently being built
  • Topped-out - a fully designed building that has reached its highest point
  • Substantial Completion / Beneficial Occupancy - a point when the work is sufficiently complete so that the Owner can occupy (Items noted during inspection 'punch list' may still be corrected)
  • Complete/built - a fully designed building that has been fully built, excluding future expansions (punch list items all completed)

List of countries by the largest output in construction[edit]

List of countries with the greatest construction output in 2012
Economy
Construction output in 2012 (billions in USD)
(01)  United States
599
(02)  China
562
(03)  Japan
333
(04)  India
240
(05)  France
147
(06)  Germany
143
(07)  United Kingdom
131
(08)  Canada
131
(09)  Australia
115
(10)  Russia
111
(11)  Brazil
109
(12)  Italy
107
(13)  Spain
104
(14)  Indonesia
93
(15)  Mexico
92
(16)  South Korea
58
(17)  Turkey
35
(18)  United Arab Emirates
34
(19)  Venezuela
34
(20)  Netherlands
34
(21)  Poland
34
(22)   Switzerland
33
(23)  Saudi Arabia
32
(24)  Iran
29
(25)  Colombia
29

The twenty-five largest countries in the world by construction output (2012)[26]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sturgis, Russell. "Construction def. B. and "Building" def. A. Sturgis' illustrated dictionary of architecture and building: an unabridged reprint of the 1901-2 edition. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 1989. Print.
  2. ^ Davies, Nikolas, and Erkki Jokiniemi. "Construction" def. 1-5. Dictionary of architecture and building construction. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Architectural Press, 2008. 93. Print.
  3. ^ a b "Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009
  4. ^ "Construction". Online Etymology Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=construction accessed 3/6/2014
  5. ^ Behrohk Khoshnevis- TEDx Feb 2012 Ojai California on YouTube
  6. ^ Diaz, Jesus (2013-01-31). "This Is What the First Lunar Base Could Really Look Like". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2013-02-01. 
  7. ^ "The World’s First 3D-Printed Building Will Arrive In 2014". TechCrunch. 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  8. ^ Charter of the New Urbanism
  9. ^ "Beauty, Humanism, Continuity between Past and Future". Traditional Architecture Group. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  10. ^ Issue Brief: Smart-Growth: Building Livable Communities. American Institute of Architects. Retrieved on 2014-03-23.
  11. ^ School districts increasingly seek alternate financing : North County Times – Californian
  12. ^ Cronin, Jeff (2005). "S. Carolina Court to Decide Legality of Design-Build Bids". Construction Equipment Guide. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  13. ^ Value of Construction Put in Place at a Glance. United States Census Bureau. Also see Manufacturing & Construction Statistics for more information.
  14. ^ McIntyre M, Strischek D. (2005). Surety Bonding in Today’s Construction Market: Changing Times for Contractors, Bankers, and Sureties. The RMA Journal.
  15. ^ Industries at a Glance: Construction: NAICS 23. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  16. ^ Wood, Hannah (17 January 2012). "UK Construction Careers, Certifications/Degrees and occupations". TH Services. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  17. ^ ConstructionSkills – Apprenticeships
  18. ^ "UK website launches salary comparison tool". Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  19. ^ a b "Salary Benchmarker". Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  20. ^ "Top 10 Paying Jobs for Tradesmen". Work Boots Blog. 2011-07-08. 
  21. ^ a b c "Construction Safety and Health". Workplace Safety & Health Topics. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "Health and safety at work statistics". eurostat. European Commission. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "OSHA's Fall Prevention Campaign". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  24. ^ "The Construction Chart Book: The US Construction Industry and its Workers". CPWR, 2013. 
  25. ^ Knecht B. Fast-track construction becomes the norm. Architectural Record.
  26. ^ Figures from the United Nations' UN National Accounts Database. for the countries of the world. Retrieved 1 February 2014.