Bukhari (heater)

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For other uses, see Bukhari.

A bukhāri (Hindustani: बुख़ारी or بُخاری) is a traditional space heater from the northern areas of the South Asia, which is typically a wood-burning stove.[1] Bukharis consist of a wide cylindrical fire-chamber at the base in which wood, charcoal or other fuel is burned and a narrower cylinder on the top that helps in heating the room and acts as a chimney. The base of an Indian bukhari is wider than that of most western wood-burning stoves. Bukharis are found in the entire northern belt of the region, i.e. Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, North India, Nepal, Bhutan and Northeast India.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The term bukhār is a Hindustani word derived from Persian meaning heat or fever.[3] In modern Persian, the term bukhari generically refers to a heater.

Use in poultry farming[edit]

Bukharis are in widespread use by poultry farmers in North India to keep birds warm during winter nights.[4][5]

Fuel alternatives and conservation[edit]

Forest conservation imperatives have resulted in the development of alternative designs for bukharis in India, including kerosene-based versions and bukharis that are more fuel-efficient than the traditional varieties.[6][7]

Hazards[edit]

Frequently, bukhari chimneys are not long enough to vent smoke outside the house, resulting in annual deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning in the region. Public authorities and mass media in the region often exhort people not to use angithis or bukharis in closed rooms.[8] Bukharis also present a hazard for children due to their hot metallic surfaces and easy hinged access to the fuel-burning area.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joe Bindloss, Northeast India: Lonely Planet Regional Guide Series, Lonely Planet, 2009, ISBN 978-1-74179-319-2, "... coloured diamond-pane windows, a traditional bukhari (wood-burning heater) in the lounge, wood panelling and sloping ceilings ..." 
  2. ^ Lindsay Brown, Bradley Mayhew, Stan Armington, Richard W Whitecross, Bhutan, Lonely Planet, 2007, ISBN 978-1-74059-529-2, "... The traditional bukhari wood heater is a nice touch ..." 
  3. ^ John T. Platts, A Dictionary Of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English, Part 1, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7661-8350-6, "... bukhār, s.m. Fume, vapour, exhalation, steam, mist, fog; feverish heat, fever; warmth, anger, wrath ..." 
  4. ^ Indian poultry industry yearbook, S. Gupta., 1994, "... Bukhari Heater: This is a cylindrical chamber with a central funnel ..." 
  5. ^ Dr. R. K. Goel, Krishna J.V. Rao, Oak tasar culture, APH Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-81-7648-749-8, "... If the rearing is proposed to be conducted in the rearing houses, a smaller rearing room is selected for incubation and optimum temperature & humidity are maintained inside the room using bukhari or heaters ..." 
  6. ^ Tata Energy Research Institute, Energy and Resources Institute, TERI information digest on energy and environment, Volume 6, Tata Energy Research Institute, 2007, "... An energy-efficient kerosene based Bukhari ... space/room heating ..." 
  7. ^ Indian Science Congress Association, The Shaping of Indian Science: 1982-2003, Universities Press, 2003, ISBN 978-81-7371-434-4, "... Another important contribution made by the Army is that they have successfully modified the traditional "bukhari" used for heating rooms so that it will work with kerosene thus avoiding the use of wood and saving the trees ..." 
  8. ^ Speaking of Child Care: Discover the Joy of Motherhood, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2007, ISBN 978-81-207-3572-9, "... Suffocation This situation usually develops when the child is exposed to excessive carbon monoxide in a closed room with a bukhari (sort of heating arrangement in very cold places such as Kashmir and Shimla) ..." 
  9. ^ Dr. Rajesh Shukla, Child Intelligence, World Information Syndicate, ISBN 978-81-901846-1-8, "... Never leave a child near the fire or bukhari or a heater. Do not allow the child to play with matches ..."