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|High||и /i/||у /u/, [o]|
|Mid||е /ɛ/||ъ /ɤ/, [ɐ][note 1]||о /ɔ/, [o]|
|Low||а /a/, [ɐ]|
Bulgarian's eight vowels may be grouped in three pairs according to their backness: front, central and back. Unstressed vowels tend to be shorter and weaker compared to their stressed counterparts, and the corresponding pairs of open and closed vowels approach each other with a tendency to merge, above all as low (open and open-mid) vowels are raised and shift towards the high (close and close-mid) ones. However, the coalescence is not always complete. The vowels are often distinguished in emphatic or deliberately distinct pronunciation, and reduction is strongest in colloquial speech. Besides that, some linguists distinguish two degrees of reduction, as they have found that a clearer distinction tends to be maintained in the syllable immediately preceding the stressed one. The complete merger of the pair /a/ – /ɤ/ is regarded as most common, while the status of /ɔ/ vs /u/ is less clear. The coalescence of /ɛ/ and /i/ is not allowed in formal speech and is regarded as a provincial (East Bulgarian) dialectal feature; instead, unstressed /ɛ/ is both raised and centralized, approaching [ɤ]. The /ɤ/ vowel itself does not exist as a phoneme in other Slavic languages, though a similar reduced vowel transcribed as [ə] does occur.
The Bulgarian language possesses only one semivowel: /j/, equivalent to the sound marked by the letter y in yes. Orthographically it is represented by the Cyrillic letter й (и with a breve) as in най /naj/ ("most"), тролей /troˈlɛj/ ("trolleybus"), except when it precedes /a/ or /u/ (and their reduced counterparts /ɐ/ and /o/), in which case the two phonemes are represented by a single letter, respectively я or ю: e.g. ютия /jotˈijɐ/ "(flat) iron" (but Йордан /jorˈdan/ "Jordan" - a male given name).
Bulgarian has a total of 36 consonant phonemes (see table below). Three additional phonemes can also be found ([xʲ], [d͡z], and [d͡zʲ]), but only in foreign proper names such as Хюстън /xʲustɤn/ ("Houston"), Дзержински /d͡zɛrʒinski/ ("Dzerzhinsky"), and Ядзя /jad͡zʲa/, the Polish name "Jadzia". They are, however, normally not considered part of the phonetic inventory of the Bulgarian language. The Bulgarian obstruent consonants are divided into 12 pairs voiced<>voiceless on the criteria of sonority. The only obstruent without a counterpart is the voiceless velar fricative /x/. The contrast 'voiced vs. voiceless' is neutralized in word-final position, where all obstruents are voiceless (as in most Slavic languages); this neutralization is, however, not reflected in the spelling.
|Plosive||hard||p b||t d||k ɡ|
|soft||pʲ bʲ||tʲ dʲ||c ɟ|
|Affricate||hard||t͡s (d͡z)||t͡ʃ d͡ʒ|
|Fricative||hard||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||x (ɣ)4|
|soft||fʲ vʲ||sʲ zʲ||(xʲ)|
^1 According to Klagstad Jr. (1958:46–48), /t tʲ d dʲ s sʲ z zʲ n/ are dental. He also analyzes /ɲ/ as palatalized dental nasal, and provides no information about the place of articulation of /t͡s t͡sʲ r rʲ l ɫ/.
^5 Not a native phoneme, but appears in borrowings from English.
Hard and palatalized consonants
The Bulgarian consonants б /b/, в /v/, г /ɡ/, д /d/, з /z/, к /k/, л /l//ɫ/, м /m/, н /n/, п /p/, р /r/, с /s/, т /t/, ф /f/, ц /t͡s/ can denote both a normal, "hard" pronunciation, as well as a "soft", palatalized one. The hard and the palatalized consonants are considered separate phonemes in Bulgarian. The consonants ж /ʒ/, ш /ʃ/, ч /t͡ʃ/ and дж /d͡ʒ/ do not have palatalized variants, which is probably connected with the fact that they have arisen historically through palatalization in Common Slavonic. These consonants may still be somewhat palatalized in some speakers' pronunciation, but as a rule this is not the case.
The softness of the palatalized consonants is always indicated in writing in Bulgarian. A consonant is palatalized if:
- it is followed by я / ʲa/, ю / ʲu/, or ьо / ʲɔ/. (Note: ь occurs only before о in Bulgarian)
(When я and ю aren't preceded by a consonant, they signal that the vowels /a/ and /u/ are preceded by the semivowel /j/. For /jɔ/, Bulgarian uses "йо", as in Ню Йорк, "New York".)
Even though palatalized consonants are phonemes in Bulgarian, they may in some cases be positionally conditioned, hence redundant. In Eastern Bulgarian dialects, consonants are always allophonically palatalized before the vowels /i/ and /ɛ/. This is not the case in Standard Bulgarian, but that form of the language does have similar allophonic alternations. Thus, к /k/, г /ɡ/ and х /x/ tend to be palatalized before /i/ and /ɛ/, and the realization of the phoneme л /l/ varies along the same principles: one of its allophones, involving a raising of the back of the tongue and a lowering of its middle part (thus similar or, according to some scholars, identical to a velarized lateral), occurs in all positions, except before the vowels /i/ and /ɛ/, where a more "clear" version with a slight raising of the middle part of the tongue occurs. The latter pre-front realization is traditionally (and incorrectly) called "soft l", even though it is not palatalized (and thus isn’t identical to the /lʲ/ signalled by the letters ьо, я and ю). In some Western Bulgarian dialects, this allophonic variation does not exist.
Furthermore, in the speech of many young people the more common and arguably velarized allophone of /l/ is often realized as a labiovelar approximant [w]. This phenomenon, colloquially known as мързеливо "л" (lazy "l") in Bulgaria, was first registered in the 1970s and isn't connected to original dialects. Similar developments, termed L-vocalization, have occurred in many languages, including Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Brazilian Portuguese and certain dialects of English such as Cockney and AAVE.
During the palatalization of most hard consonants (the bilabial, labiodental and alveolar ones), the middle part of the tongue is lifted towards the palate, resulting in the formation of a second articulatory centre whereby the specific palatal "clang" of the soft consonants is achieved. The articulation of alveolars /l/, /n/ and /r/, however, usually does not follow that rule; the palatal clang is achieved by moving the place of articulation further back towards the palate so that /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /rʲ/ are actually alveopalatal (postalvelolar) consonants. Soft /ɡ/ and /k/ (/ɡʲ/ and /kʲ/, respectively) are articulated not on the velum but on the palate and are considered palatal consonants.
Stress usually isn't signified in written text. In cases where the stress must be indicated, a grave accent is placed on the vowel of the stressed syllable.[note 2] (note – the following examples are also shown with a grave accent)
Bulgarian word stress is dynamic. Stressed syllables are louder and longer than unstressed ones. As in Russian and other East Slavic languages, Bulgarian stress is also lexical rather than fixed as in French, Latin or the West Slavic languages. It may fall on any syllable of a polysyllabic word, and its position may vary depending on the inflection and derivation, for example –
- nouns – мъ̀ж /mɤʃ/ (man), мъжъ̀т /məˈʒɤt/ (the man), мъжè /məˈʒɛ/(men), мъжèте /məˈʒɛtɛ/(the men)
- verbs – отѝвам (otìvam – I am going), отидѝ (otidì – go!)
Bulgarian stress is also distinctive: the following examples are only differentiated by stress –
- въ̀лна /ˈvɤɫnɐ/ ('wool'), вълна̀ /vəɫˈna/ ('wave')
- па̀ра (pа̀ra – steam), пара̀ (parа̀ – coin)
- когато дòйде (kogato dòyde – when he comes), когато дойдè (kogato doydè – when he came)
- взрѝвен (vzrìven – explosive), взривèн (vzrivèn – exploded) [note 3]
Stress usually isn't signified in written text, even in the above examples, if the context makes the meaning clear. However, the grave accent may be written if confusion is likely. The single case where it is imperatively used is –
- и ('and'), ѝ ('to her') [note 4]
The stress is often written in order to signify a dialectal deviation from the standard pronunciation –
- kazà mi – he told me (instead of kàza mi)
- iskà da doyde – he wanted to come (instead of ìskashe da doyde) [note 5]
The stress is sometimes placed earlier in the word than it should be for emphasis (this is considered rude) –
- èla – "come here" (instead of elà)
- kàzhi – "tell me" (instead of kazhì)
- òstavi me na mira – "leave me alone" (instead of ostavì me)
- Sometimes transcribed as /ə/.
- For practical purposes, the grave accent can be combined with letters by pasting the symbol "̀" directly after the designated letter. An alternative is to use the keyboard shortcut Alt + 0300 (if working under a Windows operating system), or to add the decimal HTML code "̀" after the targeted stressed vowel if editing HTML source code. See "Accute accent" diacritic character in Unicode, Unicode character "Cyrillic small letter i with grave" and Unicode character "Cyrillic capital letter i with grave" for the exact Unicode characters that utilize the grave accent. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Note that the last example is only spelled the same in the masculine. In the feminine, neuter and the plural, it is spelled differently – e.g. vzrìvna (explosive, fem), vzrivèna (exploded, fem), etc.
- Since many computer programs don't allow for accents on Cyrillic letters, "й" is sometimes seen instead of "ѝ", but this is merely a compromise due to technical constraints, and is not correct.
- Note that in this case the accent would be written in order to differentiate it from the present tense ìska da doyde – he wants to come.
- Joshi, R. Malatesha; Aaron, P. G. (2006), Handbook of Orthography and Literacy
- Klagstad Jr., Harold L. (1958), The Phonemic System of Colloquial Standard Bulgarian, American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages, pp. 42–54
- Scatton, Ernest A. (1984), A reference grammar of modern Bulgarian
- Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
- Жобов, Владимир (2004), Звуковете в българския език [Sounds in Bulgarian] (in Bulgarian)